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CLARENCE HENRY GRAHAM January 6, 1906-July 25, 197 BY LORRIN A. RIGGS CLARENCE H. GRAHAM was an experimental psychologist whose principal contributions to science lie in the areas of vision and visual perception. Psychophysical and electrophysiological experiments on retinal interaction effects occupied his attention in the 1930's at Clark University. In the 1940's at Brown Uni- versity he explored animal and human vision by a variety of behavioral techniques and made significant contributions to military problems of visual surveillance and selection of per- sonnel during the Second World War. The remainder of his career, at Columbia University, was devoted mainly to studies of form, depth and motion perception, and the discrimination of color. Before giving a more detailed account of Graham's life and accomplishments, let me attempt the difficult task of picturing him as an individual. It was in the early days at Clark and at Brown that I knew him best. I can see him now, hands locked behind his head, feet crossed aloft at the right-hand corner of nits Desk, analyzing the report Just hanuecl him by one of his students. "Absurd," he would murmur, but his eyes would be twinkling, and, as likely as not, "poor damned bastard," would be the next remark. Then he would take up a red pencil and cross out large sections of the manuscript, rewriting and re- ~ . ~ ~ ~ . ~ . ~ ~ ~ ~ . ~ 71

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72 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS rewriting it until it assumed an almost totally new, but im- measurably better-organized form. With an interest that was wide-ranging and keen, Clarence Graham delighted in observing humanity's foibles, but never without a hint of warm compassion. Each of the men and women, seventy in all, who wrote a doctoral dissertation under his direction can testify to his abhorrence of sloppy thinking and his intolerance of failure to live up to the intellectual ca- pacity one was judged to possess. In Graham's own work, in fact, the standards he held out for himself were so high that he found it difficult to tolerate any error at all. Like all perfec- tionists, he suffered agonies of remorse over any slip, no matter how trivial, that found its way into his lectures or published articles. Perhaps it was a stern New England upbringing that imposed these strictures upon his behavior, yet allowed him to be among the most generous and considerate of masters in his relationships with a student. From his birth in 1906 until his doctorate in 1930 Graham remained in Worcester, Massachusetts. His parents had emi- grated from County Donegal in Ireland, and his father was a skilled metal worker in a Worcester factory. Clarence was the oldest of four children. He entered public school at the age of five and graduated from high school at seventeen. As a school- boy he put in long hours, not only in study but also in part-time employment to supplement the family's income and prepare for his own higher education. In an autobiographical sketch he recalled that, during the summer following his graduation from high school, he worked a forty-eight-hour week at a steel wire mill, earning forty cents an hour. Thus was developed the pat- tern of hard work that lasted him the rest of his life, a pattern that left him no time for idleness and little even for the tradi- tional forms of recreation. Clark University in Worcester was primarily a graduate school, but in 1923 it accepted Graham as one of a small num- ber of undergraduates to qualify for admission. So strong was

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CLARENCE HENRY GRAHAM 73 his intellectual curiosity that he started immediately to explore many areas of the humanities and sciences. Finally, after nearly three years of college life, he selected psychology as his major subject. This choice he attributes mainly to the fact that a member of the faculty, John Paul Nafe, took a personal interest in the small band of students who were interested in the labora- tory side of psychology at that time. Nafe, whose work was mainly in the cutaneous senses, had what Graham called a magical ability to communicate to others his fascination with the phenomena of perception. This, too, stayed with Graham the rest of his life. Undergraduate and graduate education overlapped one another at Clark, and the entire faculty of psychology consisted of four men who shared in the teaching at all levels. Graham soon found himself drawn into the graduate program of re- search, and his formal enrollment in the graduate program followed immediately the attainment of his undergraduate degree. Walter Hunter was the strongest figure of the group, a benevolent dictator who was to be Graham's chief mentor, not only in these years at Clark but also, later on, at Brown. Hunter, at the height of his own research career, early saw in Graham the signs of intellectual talent that would one day take him far beyond the borders of Worcester, Massachusetts. At the graduate level Graham again explored several pos- sible lines of work before settling down to a final choice. Within the first year experiments on visual perception claimed his main interest and were summarized in his earliest publication (1929~. In the subsequent two vears of graduate work. Graham became ~ J ' Hi.c.c~t3.ched with the c~hiectivitv and essentially qualitative na- ture of most work in visual perception. In this he was no doubt influenced most strongly bv Walter Hunter. who had recently _ ~ ~ v ~ ~ ,, _ ~ . , ~ A, , written a paper entitled, "The Subject's Report." The main thrust of that paper was to reject "introspection" as a method by which a subject analyzes his own sensory pro- cesses. Hunter turned the emphasis onto the recording, by the

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74 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS experimenter, of the language responses of his subject. Gra- ham, indeed, went even further than Hunter in insisting on a behaviorist interpretation of what a subject reports about what he perceives. The whole process is seen as one of setting un the _ ~ -be- ~ 11 _ _ 1 ' 1 , 1 ~ . ~ ~ 1 -us under wn~cn one subject Is to give a verbal response, preferably a response that is itself restricted to one of a limited number of alternatives. The task of the experimenter is then simply that of taking an objective record of the responses that the subject makes. Thus is the subjectivity of visual perception brought under the objective control of scientific research. This sort of thinking led Graham to use one of the standard psycho- physical methods, in which the subject is forced to say "Yes" or "no" with respect to his perception of very weak stimuli, in determining binocular summation in the fovea at threshold (1930~. Furthermore, the nature of that problem was such that physiological explanations were required. Thus Graham wn.s 1 _ 11 , , 1 ~ . - , , , lea to the realization that postdoctoral training in neurophysi- ology would greatly benefit his career in vision and visual perception. The year 1930, at the beginning of the period of economic depression, was undoubtedly a most difficult one for finding a postdoctoral research or teaching position, and Graham was fortunate to obtain a one-year appointment in psychology at Temple University in Philadelphia. A five-course teaching load did not discourage him from exploring other opportunities in the Philadelphia area, and soon he made contact with the new laboratory of the Johnson Foundation for Medical Physics. This group, at the University of Pennsylvania, had been estab- lished by Detlev Bronk, and two future Nobel laureates were beginning their work there. Ragnar Granit was the one who immediately welcomed Graham as a collaborator in research, and Keffer Hartline later took Graham to Woods Hole for the summer. During that summer, indeed, they accomplished their historic dissection of the optic nerve of Limulus in order to

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CLARENCE HENRY GRAHAM 75 make the earliest records of single-unit activity in the visual system (Hartline and Graham, 1932~. Graham won a National Research Council fellowship for the continuation of this work with Hartline in 1931-1932 at the Johnson Foundation. Dur- ing that year Graham also found time to take a course with Jacobs on the quantitative treatment of experimental data in general physiology. This completed the formal training of Clarence Graham for his lifework of teaching and research in vision, with emphasis on quantification and physiological inter- pretation of the data. Three universities were to share in Graham's academic productivity: Clark, 1932-1936; Brown, 1936-1945; and Co- lumbia, 1945-1971. At each in succession he established an experimental facility for vision research, gathered around him a group of graduate and postdoctoral students, and built up the curriculum in the areas of his special competence. At Clark Graham began a series of psychophysical studies on the spatial interaction that takes place when two or more adjacent areas of the retina are stimulated by light. This pro- gram, together with related neurophysiological studies by E. D. Adrian, Granit, and others, he summarized ably in a chapter contributed to the new (1934) Handbook of General Experi- rnental Psychology, edited by his colleague, Carl Murchison. Several of his earliest graduate students got their start in re- search by participating in various parametric experiments that still stand as definitive for human observers under various con- ditions of light and dark adaptation. Likewise at Clark, he enlisted my aid in the pursuit of some electrophysiological experiments along the lines of those he had started with Granit and Hartline. An old string galva- nometer, borrowed from Hudson Hoagland, was used in early studies of the electroretinogram (ERG) in the rat, pigeon, and frog. For these studies homemade direct-current amplifiers, wick electrodes, animal holders, and shielding equipment were

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76 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS assembled at minimum cost in a small toolshop used by all the graduate students. A feature of the ERG experiments on the white rat was to strap the animal to a miniature table and place a cotton wick electrode in contact with the cornea of the eye. Graham was extremely anxious to get ERG records of high quality, and this made it necessary to immobilize the animal by tightening the restraining straps. Graham was caught squarely between his anxiety to get records of high quality and his sympathy for the animal. Throughout the experiment he would repeatedly tighten the straps around the rat's head, meanwhile chanting, "Poor damned animal; poor damned animal!" One more enterprise begun at Clark was Graham's course in the quantitative treatment of experimental data. This semi- nar gave his graduate students an insight into such mathemati- cal manipulations as numerical transforms, curve fitting, and the testing of hypotheses to account for the results of an experi- ment. Over the next forty years this kind of course was con- tinued, not only by Graham but by his followers in many other universities. Courses having a similar aim were those of Jacobs in physiology, Daniels in chemistry, and smoothing in physics. But the Graham course for the first time brought experimental psychology into line with other sciences with respect to the processing of data for effective publication in journals and books. When Hunter was called to the chairmanship at Brown in 1936, he took Graham with him to represent sensory and physio- logical psychology in a department that had already achieved a considerable status in experimental psychology under the pre- ceding head, Leonard Carmichael. Together with Schlosberg, Hunt, and Kemp they taught large numbers of undergraduates and gradually expanded the graduate program of seminars and research. The old frame dwelling at 89 Waterman Street had to provide offices for all the department, so that the research in

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CLARENCE HENRY GRAHAM 77 vision had to be conducted in small basement rooms that in- cluded a former furnace room and several adjoining coal bins. The judicious use of partitions and hallways made of this base- ment a suite of cubicles in which both animal and human research in vision could be set up. The five years at Brown preceding the Second World War Graham has called "some of the happiest of my life." Those joining the staff included Donald Lindsley, Lorrin Rims, and Carl Pfaffmann. Graduate students brought Into the Graham orbit of research included Fred Mote, Robert Gagne, Neil Bart- lett, Conrad Mueller, and William Verplanck. Other than teaching. there were few constraints on this aroup's avid pursuit ~ ~O ~ ~ ~ ~ of experiments. At odd hours, too, classroom space could be . ~ . ~ ~ ~ used tor poker games, plng-pong, and musical ourpourl~lgs. World War II brought another phase of Graham's career, that of organizing large teams of research personnel for specific projects related to the war effort. A major portion of this work centered around the visual aspects of gunfire control, especially in the tracking of aircraft targets. Two other team efforts were for the selection of specialized military personnel, and the screening of recruits with problems of emotional instability. The supervision of these projects was at Brown, but they were conducted also at a dozen other locations throughout the coun- try, and about one hundred and fifty persons participated in them. Among those from the Brown psychology group were Bartlett, Berry, Gagne, J. McV. Hunt, Mote, Mueller, Riggs, Solomon, Stellar, and Verplanck. In recognition of his key role in setting up these programs, Graham was awarded the Presi- dential Certificate of Merit in 1948. At the conclusion of the war in 1945, Graham was called to his final academic appointment, that of successor to Robert S. Woodworth at Columbia. Thus, at the age of thirty-nine, he ascended to greatly enlarged facilities and opportunities by comparison with those he had left at Clark and then at Brown.

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78 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Now he found himself directing as many as eight or ten Ph.D. theses, while at the same time teaching the advanced course for graduate students in experimental psychology and sharing with Selig Hecht a graduate seminar in vision. In 1947 Hecht died, and Graham fell heir to much of his specialized equipment. In addition, Hecht's former collaborator, Yun Hsia, came to work with Graham on problems of color vision. Hsia had been a student in psychology with R. S. Woodworth. Together he and Graham conducted many extensive studies of normal color vision and a number of explorations of color-blind visual func- tions. Perhaps the most significant of the Graham and Hsia studies was that of a woman with normal color vision in one eye and dichromatic vision in the other. Of particular interest was the fact that this subject saw only two hues in her dichro- matic eye; wavelengths shorter than 502 nm were seen as a blue that matched 470 nm as seen by the normal eye, while wave- lengths longer than 502 nm were seen as yellow, matching a wavelength of 570 nm as seen by the normal eye. The 502-nm wavelength could therefore be regarded as a neutral point of the spectrum, appearing white to the subject and separating the two basic receptor systems that were present in her dichromatic eye. A large number of graduate students owe the beginning of their research careers to Graham in his years at Columbia. Among them may be mentioned Munehira Akita, Howard Baker, Shakantala Balaraman, Aleeza Beare, Eda Berger, John L. Brown, John Coulson, Leonard Diamond, John Foley, Barbara Gillam, Elaine Hammer, David Henderson, Robert Herrick, Gerald Howett, Joyce Kerr, Herschel Leibowitz, Alfred Lit, V. V. Lloyd, George Long, Barbara Mates, Leonard Matin, Conrad Mueller, Celeste McCullough, Joel Pokorny, loan Pol- lock, Philburn Ratoosh, Vivianne Smith, Harry Sperling, Flor- ence Veniar, Gary Yonemura, and Richard Zegers. Graham's marriage to Dr. Hammer took place in 1949, and she devoted herself to his welfare until his death in 1971.

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CLARENCE HENRY GRAHAM 79 During the Columbia years Graham edited, and wrote a considerable part of a book, Vision and Visual Perception (1965), with co-authors J. L. Brown, N. R. Bartlett, Y. Hsia, C. G. Mueller, and L. A. Riggs. This volume summarized the field in a definitive fashion for students and research workers. Also during these years Graham spent an academic sabbatical leave as scientific liaison officer with the Office of Naval Re- search in London, 1952-1953. This was an important post in providing contacts between European laboratories and those of the United States in experimental psychology. During a visit to Japan in August and September of 1952, he conducted an intensive seminar for faculty members from several of the lead- ing Japanese universities, to acquaint them with research going on in the United States in vision and visual perception. A direct result of this enterprise was the visits to the United States of a number of the participants and their students, some of whom completed their graduate or postdoctoral education in this country. Indeed, it is true that Graham introduced such topics as visual contrast and figural aftereffects into Japanese experimental psychology. During the last four years of his life, Graham suffered sev- eral physical setbacks, including a heart attack, pneumonia, and a broken hip. With care and encouragement from his wife, he kept up his writing and maintained contact with his laboratory. Even under these trying conditions he continued to be generous of his time and interest in his graduate students. But the uphill fight was lost in the summer of 1971, and he died on July 25. A memorial service was held on August 6 at which many of his former students, friends, and associates paid tribute to his memory. Among the honors accorded him during his lifetime are the following: Howard Crosby Warren Medal, Society of Experi- mental Psychologists, 1941; election to the National Academy of Sciences, 1946; Presidential Certificate of Merit, 1948; Hon- orary Sc.D. Degree from Brown University, 1958; Certificate of

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80 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Appreciation, Office of Naval Research, 1961; Tillyer Medal, Optical Society of America, 1963; Distinguished Scientific Con- tribution Award, American Psychological Association, 1966. The book Vision and Visual Perception will unquestionably stand for a long time to come as a monument to its editor and principal author, Clarence Graham. Aside from its factual material, uniquely present in this one volume at the time of its publication, in 1965, the book exemplifies three of the main themes of Graham's own life. First, and most important, is the theme of objectivity. Un- doubtedly, the objective orientation of the book owes itself to the behaviorist tradition in American psychology, a tradition with which Graham was closely identified through his early association with Walter Hunter and his later contacts with B. F. Skinner. His introductory chapter, "Some Basic Terms and Methods," goes to great lengths (some would say too great lengths) in expounding the behaviorist views on such visual sensations as hue, brightness, and saturation. Of hue, for ex- ample, Graham says, "The term is to be understood as either a label for or as an inferred effect . . . in the following stimulus- response sequence: (a) instructions to a subject who has had a past history with the vocabulary represented in the instructions, (b) the presentation of radiant energy to the subject, and (c) the subject's responses." In a later chapter, Graham quotes Skinner, with respect to the names that are attached to hues, as follows: "If the person says 'green' to light of wavelength 530 me, such a response obtains social approval; it is the 'correct response.' " The point of all this is to approach the entire subject of color vision with the aim of avoiding the ambiguities that might creep in if anything so personal and subjective as color naming were to be used as a major source of information. Instead, Graham emphasized that truly scientific studies of color vision must fulfill the criteria of objectivity. That is, the stimulus situation must be carefully specified and controlled, and the responses of the subject must be carefully tabulated by the

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CLARENCE HENRY GRAHAM 81 experimenter. Among the stimulus conditions are not only the primary ones, such as the wavelength, luminance, and other dimensions of the light, but also the instructions to the subject and the various environmental and physical conditions under which the experiment is carried out. The instructions should typically limit the subject to two possible responses, such as "match" or "mismatch" in the case of color judgments and "seen" or "not seen" in determining a threshold. Standard psychophysical procedures may then be used to estimate the critical value of the stimulus at which the judgment shifts from one category to the other; this value yields a quantitative defini- tion of the subject's sensory discrimination. Certainly, it is true that objectivity was an important consideration in the selection of material to be included or excluded in the coverage of the Graham book, particularly with respect to certain fields of . . . visual perception. A second point of major emphasis in Graham's thinking was the physiological basis for vision and visual perception. In this regard he differed strongly with Skinner and other psychologists of behaviorist backgrounds. Perhaps it was his lifelong associa- tion with neurophysiologists, beginning with Granit and Hart- line, that led him to the conviction that hypotheses about vision should be mainly physiological. In any event, he included in the coverage of the 1965 book specific chapters on the structure, electrophysiology, and photochemistry of vision. Furthermore, a majority of the specific topics in vision and visual perception are handled in such a way as to emphasize the probable physio- logical bases for the findings. The third characteristic of Graham's approach to vision, also clearly exemplified in the book, is his attention to the quantitative analysis of data. There are many instances of his care in fitting curves to data, testing theoretical models against experimental results, and illustrating by graphical displays the essential features of research information. Those of us who were privileged to write doctoral disserta-

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82 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS tions under Graham's direction remember his meticulous editing of manuscript, checking and rechecking of data, and laborious reworking of tables and graphs to maximize useful information from our experimental findings. From their ex- posure to this kind of scientific experience, the more than sev- enty graduate students at Clark, at Brown, and at Columbia who completed their work for the Ph.D. degree under his direction learned that hard work and generosity were part of the game, but compromise, never. By the wider community of scholars Graham will be remembered for his high scientific standards and for his dedication to the fields of vision and visual perception.

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CLAREN CE HENRY GRAHAM BIBLIOGRAPHY KEY TO ABBREVIA TIONS Am. J. Physiol. American Journal of Physiology Am. J. Psychol. American Journal of Psychology J. Cell Comp. Physiol.Journal of Cellular and Comparative Physiology J. Exp. Psychol. Journal of Experimental Psychology J. Gen. Physiol. Journal of General Physiology J. Gen. Psychol.Journal of General Psychology J. Opt. Soc. Am. Journal of the Optical Society of America J. Psychol.Journal of Psychology Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Psychol. Rev. Psychological Review Vision Res. _ Vision Research lg29 83 Area, color and brightness difference in a reversible configuration. J. Gen. Psychol., 2:470-83. With l. P. Nafe. 1930 Human intensity discrimination with the Wat- son-Yerkes apparatus. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 37: 220- 31. An investigation of binocular summation. I. The fovea. J. Gen. Psychol., 3: 494-510. 1931 With W. S. Hunter. Thresholds of illumination for the visual dis- crimination of movement and for the discrimination of discrete- ness. I. Gen. Psychol., 5:178-90. An investigation of binocular summation. Gen. Psychol., 5:311-28. With R. Granit. Comparative studies on the peripheral and cen- tral retina. VI. Inhibition, summation, and synchronization of impulses in the retina. Am. i. Physiol., 89:664-73. II. The periphery. J. 1932 With N. Goldman. Intensity and Lumber of cones in foveal stimu- lation. Am. J. Psychol., 44: 275-88. With H. K. Hartline. Nerve impulses from single receptors in the eye of Limulus. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, 29:613-15.

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84 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS With H. K. Hartline. Nerve impulses from single receptors in the eye. J. Cell. Comp. Physiol., 1: 277-95. The relation of nerve response and retinal potential to number of sense cells illuminated in an eye lacking lateral connections. J. Cell. Comp. Physiol., 2:295-310. 1934 Psychophysics and behavior. V. . 1slon. J. Gen. Psychol., 10:299-310. III. Some neural correlations. In: A Handbook of Gen- eral Experimental Psychology, ed. by C. Murchison, pp. 829-79. Worcester, Massachusetts, Clark University Press. 1935 With L. A. Riggs. The visibility curve of the white rat as deter- mined by the electrical retinal response to lights of different wave lengths. J. Gen. Psychol., 12: 279-95. With H. K. Hartline. The response of single visual sense cells to O J. Gen. Physiol., 18:917-31. ~ Area and intensity-time relation in the periph- eral retina. Am. i. Physiol., 13: 299-305. With E. H. Kemp and L. A. Riggs. An analysis of the electrical retinal responses of a color-discriminating eye to lights of differ- ent wave lengths. lights of different wave lengths. With R. Marzaria. I. Gen. Psychol., 13: 275-96. 1937 With R. H. Brown and I. R. Smith. Brightness discrimination for varying durations of the just discriminable increment. Psycho- logical Record, 1:229-33. With C. Cook. Visual acuity as a function of intensity and expo- sure-time. Am. l. Psychol., 49:65~61. Edith J. Levine. The latency of visual after-effects as a function of the intensity of illumination on an adjacent retinal region. Am. J. Psychol., 49:661-65. 1938 With E. H. Kemp. Brightness discrimination as a function of the duration of the increment in intensity. J. Gen. Physiol., ~ 1: 635-50. 1939 With R. H. Broken and F. A. NIote, in The relation of size of

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CLARENCE HENRY GRAHAM 85 stimulus and intensity in the human eye. I. Intensity thresh- olds for white light. I. Exp. Psychol., 24:555-73. With N. R. Bartlett. The relation of size of stimulus and intensity in the human eye. II. Intensity thresholds for red and violet light. J. Exp. Psychol., 24:574-87. 1940 With R. M. Gagne. The acquisition, extinction, and spontaneous recovery of a conditioned operant response. I. Exp. Psychol., 26:251-80. With R. M. Gagne. The effect of an "emotional state" on the . . . . ~ . . . . . . 1nltlal stages ot acquisition In a cone ltlonec ~ operant response. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 26:297-300. With N. R. Bartlett. The relation of size of stimulus and intensity in the human eye. III. The influence of area on foveal inten- sity discrimination. l. Exp. Psychol., 27:149-59. With L. A. Riggs. Some aspects of light adaptation in a single photoreceptor unit. i. Cell. Comp. Physiol., 16: 15-23. 1943 With R. N. Berry and W. S. Verplanck. The reversal of discrimi- nation in a simple running habit. J. Exp. Psychol., 32:325-34. Visual space perception. Federation Proceedings, Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, 2:115-29. 1945 With L. A. Riggs. Effects due to variations in light intensity on the excitability cycle of the single visual sense cell. l. Cell. Comp. Physiol., 26:1-13. 1947 With L. A. Riggs, C. G. Mueller, and F. A. Mote. Photographic measurements of atmospheric boil. J. Opt. Soc. Am., 37:415- 20. 1948 With K. E. Baker, M. Hecht, and V. V. Lloyd. Factors influencing thresholds for monocular movement parallax. i. Exp. Psychol., 38: 305-23.

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86 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS With L. A. Riggs, F. A. Mote, and C. G. Mueller. Two devices for evaluating stereoscopic reticle-patterns. Am. J. Psychol., 6 1: 545-52. 1949 With E. R. Hammer, R. D. Mueller, and F. A. Mote. Stereoscopic settings with reticles providing multiple reference ranges: the perception of spatially repeating patterns. J. Psychol., 27: 209-16. 1950 With F. A. Nleniar. The influence of size of test-field surround on visual intensity discrimination. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 36:17-25. Behavior, perception and the psychophysical methods. Psychol. Rev., 57: 108-20. 1951 Visual perception. In: Handbook of Experimental Psychology, ed. by S. S. Stevens, pp. 867-920. New York, John Wiley & Sons. With P. Ratoosh. Areal effects in foveal brightness discrimination. J. Exp. Psychol., 42:367-75. 1952 With Y. Hsia. human eye. Spectral sensitivity of the cones in the dark adapted Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 38:80-85. Behavior and the psychophysical methods: an analysis of some re- cent experiments. Psychol. Rev., 59: 62-70. 1953 With J. L. Brown, H. Leibowitz, and H. B. Ranken. Luminance thresholds for the resolution of visual detail during dark adapta- tion. J. Opt. Soc. Am., 43:197-202. Some observations on psychology in Japan. Transactions of the New York Academy of Sciences, 16:83-87. 1954 With K. Sato. Psychology in.Japan. Psychol. Rev., 51:443-64. With Y. Hsia. Luminosity curves for normal and dichromatic sub- jects including a case of unilateral color-blindness. Science, 120:780.

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CLARENCE HENRY GRAHAM 1955 87 With Y. Hsia, and E. Berger. Luminosity functions for normal and dichromatic subjects including a case of unilateral color-blind- ness. i. Opt. Soc. Am., 45:407. 1957 With Y. Hsia. 315-18. Luminosity losses in dichromats. Optician, 134: Form perception and sensory processes. In: Form Discrimination as Related to Military Problems, ed. by I. W. Wulfeck and i. H. Taylor, pp. 25-27. Washington, D. C., National Research Council. 1958 With Y. Hsia. Spectral luminosity curves for protanopic, deuter- anopic and normal subjects. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 43: 1011-19. Sensation and perception in an objective psychology. Psychol. Rev., 65: 65-76. Walter Samuel Hunter, 1889-1954. In: Biographical Memoirs, National Academy of Sciences, 1:127-55. New York, Columbia University Press. With Y. Hsia. The spectral luminosity curves for a dichromatic eye and a normal eye in the same person. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 44:46-49. Color defect and color theory: studies on normal and color-blind persons including a unilaterally dichromatic subject. Science, 127:675-82. With Y. Hsia. The discriminations of a normal and color-blind eye in the same person. Proceedings of the American Philo- sophical Society, 102: 168-73. With E. Berger and Y. Hsia. Some visual functions of a unilaterally color-blind person. I. Critical fusion frequency at various spec- tral regions. J. Opt. Soc. Am., 48 61~22. With E. Berger and Y. Hsia. Some visual functions of a unilater- ally color-blind person. II. Binocular brightness matches at various spectral regions. l. Opt. Soc. Am., 48:622-27. With Y. Hsia. Color-blindness and color theory. A.M.A. Archives of Ophthalmology, 60(Part 2~:792-99.

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88 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1959 With Y. Hsia. Studies of color-blindness: a unilaterally dichro- matic subject. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 45:96-99. Color theory. In: Psychology: A Study of a Science. Vol. 1. Sen- sory, Perceptual and Physiological Formulations, ed. by S. Koch, pp. 145-288. New York, McGraw-Hill Book Co. 1960 With Y. Hsia. 417. A short survey of some leading psychological laboratories in Japan. Columbia University. 36 pp. Luminosity losses in deuteranopes. Science, 131: 1961 With H. G. Sperling, Y. Hsia, and A. H. Coulson. The determina- tion of some visual functions of a unilaterally color-blind sub- ject: methods and results. i. Psychol., 51:3-32. With Y. Hsia. Some visual functions of a unilaterally dichromatic subject. In: Visual Problems of Color (Symposium held at the National Physical Laboratory on September 23-25, 1957), vol. 1, pp. 283-97. New York, Chemical Publishing Company, Inc. lg62 With S. Balaraman and Y. Hsia. The wave length discrimination of some color-blind persons. l. Gen. Psychol., 66:185-201. With P. Ratoosh. Notes on some interrelations of sensory psy- chology, perception and behavior. In: Psychology: ~ Study of a Science, ed. by S. Koch, vol. 4, pp. 483-514. Graw-Hill Book Co. 1963 New York, Mc- Simple discriminatory functions: review, summary and discussion. J. Opt. Soc. Am., 53: 161-65. On some aspects of real and apparent visual movement. I. Opt. Soc. Am., 53: 1015-25. 1964 With M. Akita, and Y. Hsia. Maintaining an absolute hue in the presence of different background colors. Vision Res., 4:539-56.

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C L A R E N C E H E N R Y G R A H A M 1965 89 With N. R. Bartlet';, [. L. Brown, Y. Hsia, C. G. Mueller, and L. A. Riggs. Vision and Visual Perception. New York, John Wiley & Sons. 637 pp. 1966 With M. Akita. Maintaining an absolute test hue in the presence of different background colors and luminance ratios. Vision Res., 6:315-23. With I. M. Siegel, H. Ripps, and Y. Hsia. Analysis of photopic and scotopic function in an incomplete achromat. I. Opt. Soc. Am., 56:699-704. Robert Sessions Woodworth, 1869-1962. Biographical Memoirs, National Academy of Sciences, 39:541-72. New York, Colum- bia University Press. 1967 With Y. Hsia, and F. F. Stephan. Visual discrimination of a subject with acquired unilateral tritanopia. Vision Res., 7:469-79. With B. Mates, and R. Shlaer. Two apparatus arrangements for the study of real movement. Psychologia, 10:210-12. 1968 Depth and movement. American Psychologist, 23:18-26. With l. Pokorny, and R. N. Lanson. The effect of wavelength on foveal grating acuity. i. Opt. Soc. Am., 58: 1404-14. Edith R. Shlaer. Two apparatus assemblies for the study of real movement. Behavior Research Methods and Instrumentation, 1:18-20. 1969 With Y. Hsia. Saturation and the foveal achromatic threshold. J. Opt. Soc. Am., 59:993-97. 1970 With B. Mates. The effect of rectangle length on velocity thresh- olds for real movement. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 65:516-20. With B. l. Gillam. Occurrence of theoretically correct responses during rotation of the Ames window. Perception and Psycho- physics, 8: 257-60.