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WILLIAM KING GREGORY May 19, ]876-December 29, 1970 BY EDWIN H. COLBERT IN THIS AGE of scientific specialization, many if not most men of authority attain preeminence within some relatively nar- row discipline. But William King Gregory, at the time of his death one of the oldest members of the National Academy of Sciences, was distinguished as a zoologist who had spoken influ- entially on many aspects of vertebrate evolution and structure. He was renowned as a comparative anatomist; as a leading authority on the evolution of the mammalian dentition; as a vertebrate paleontologist; as a widely respected student of the fishes, both fossil and recent; as a contributor of much knowl- edge concerning the evolution of reptiles, especially the mam- mal-like reptiles of Permo-Triassic age; as a leader in the study of fossil and recent mammals; as an expert on various mam- malian groups, especially the primates; and as a scholar with a worldwide reputation for his contributions to our concepts of the origin and evolution of man. Gregory was in addition a great teacher who trained numerous vertebrate paleontologists and zoologists. At the same time he was instrumental in pre- senting his subjects to the general public through papers and books and particularly by means of graphic museum exhibits that he conceived and supervised. In short, he was a man of diverse accomplishments. 9

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92 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS William King Gregory was a native New Yorker who spent almost all of his long life within the metropolis. He was born in Greenwich Village on May 19, 1876, the son of George Gregory, a printer, and Jane King Gregory. He grew up in lower Manhattan, during his early life living with his family in the upper and rear part of a small house, the front of which was occupied by his father's printing shop. As a small boy he attended St. Luke's Primary School, where in his words "the three R's were patiently and persistently taught by the stout and elderly Miss Van Kleek, who wore snake skin wristlets for the gout." After St. Luke's he attended a public school for a few years, but soon was shifted to Trinity School, then located at Broadway and West 45th Street (which today is a part of Times Square). At Trinity he took the "science course" in 1894-1895 to prepare himself for admission to Columbia University. Gregory began his collegiate education at the Columbia School of Mines, where he was particularly attracted by the course in general zoology, taught by Bashford Deana man who was to have great influence upon the course of his life. He soon transferred from the School of Mines to Columbia College. There he majored in zoology and vertebrate paleon- tology and received a broad training in English, Latin and Creek, French Literature, history, psychology, and philosophy. Dean was his mentor in vertebrate zoology, but very soon he came under the tutelage of Henry Fairfield Osborn, who had recently come to New York from Princeton to help found a department of zoology at Columbia and to establish a depart- ment of vertebrate paleontology at the American Museum of Natural History. In the fall of 1899, while still an undergraduate at Columbia College, Gregory became Professor Osborn's research assistant and demonstrator. This was the beginning of his lifelong asso- ciation with the American Museum of Natural History and

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WILLIAM KING GREGORY 93 Columbia University. In 1900 he received his bachelor's degree from Columbia, in 1905 his master's, and in 1910 his doctorate. Shortly after his appointment as Osborn's assistant, Gregory was married to Laura Grace Foote, a happy union that con- tinued until her death in 1937. In 1938 he married Angela Du Bois. There were no children by either marriage. To go back a bit, Bashford Dean's researches on fossil and living fishes early stimulated Gregory's interest in these verte- brates. In 1898 he was awarded a Dyckman Traveling Fellow- ship by the Columbia Department of Zoology, which enabled him to go with Dean to the Hopkins Marine Laboratory at Pacific Grove, California, to study the eggs and embryos of the hagfish (Bdellostoma) and the so-called raffish (Chimaera). This early exposure to the world of fishes led to one of his first sci- entific papers, "The relations of the anterior visceral arches to the chondrocranium," published in 1904. Gregory's close association with Osborn developed an early interest in the landliving vertebrates and marked the beginning of his truly remarkable knowledge of all of the backboned ani- mals. Indeed, his paper, "Adaptive significance of the shorten- ing of the elephant's skull," undertaken with the encourage- ment of Osborn, was published in 1903 and thus preceded his first fish paper. Also in 1903 he published a short note in Science entitled "Anent gizzards" and in 1905 a paper, also in Science, "The weight of the Brontosaurus." So at an early stage in his career Gregory had made scientific contributions dealing with the several major groups of vertebrates, except for the amphibians. And in 1911 he entered the field of amphibian structure with his paper on the limbs of the Permian labyrintho- dont, Eryops. In this paper he also took up the problem of the origin of paired limbs from fins, thus demonstrating an interest that was to continue through the rest of his lifenamely, the origins of vertebrate structures. In fact, in the preceding year he had embarked upon the field of origins with papers on the

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94 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS origin of mammals, especially as revealed by the homologies of the mammalian auditory ossicles. With the time-consuming demands imposed by Gregory's work as an assistant to Professor Osborn (and any assistant to Osborn necessarily had a pretty full schedule), combined with his own researches, which already were beginning to produce original published contributions, and with the prosecution of advanced undergraduate and graduate studies in pursuit of the several degrees he was eventually to obtain, it would seem that there would have been little time for other activities. Yet dur- ing these busy early years at Columbia and at the American Museum the young Gregory managed to serve as the editor of the American Museum Journal, a newly established publication designed to bring the work of the museum to the attention of an interested public. Thus Gregory was the first editor of a periodical that in time evolved into the internationally re- nowned journal Natural History. These multitudinous, parallel activities of his early adult years established a pattern that was to prevail throughout Gregory's life. He was always to be engaged in varied simul- taneous duties and projects. This is illustrated not only by his studies and publications, but also by the posts that he held. He began, of course, as Osborn's assistant, doing much of the detailed research upon which Osborn based his publications, editing these publications in detail (in addition to his editorship of the American Museum Journal) and serving as demonstrator and frequently as lecturer to the students in Osborn's Columbia courses. Such activities were formalized at the museum in 1911 when he was appointed to the Scientific Staff and at Columbia in 1916 when he was made a member of the faculty. At the university he rose through the professorial ranks to become a full professor and eventually Da Costa Professor in the Depart- ment of Zoology. At the museum he likewise rose through the curatorial ranks to become a full curator, in his later years

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WILLIAM KING GREGORY 95 serving simultaneously in three departments: vertebrate paleon- tology, comparative anatomy (a department of which he was the founder), and ichthyology. For many years he was also con- currently Chairman of the departments of comparative anatomy and of ichthyology. Perhaps the department of comparative anatomy at the museum was Gregory's prime professional love. For some three decades he carried on an active program there with the able assistance of Henry C. Raven and, in later years, of Miles Conrad and George Pinkley. Two other fixtures in this depart- ment were Helen Ziska, a delightful scientific artist of German origin, and Mrs. C. P. Meadowcroft, his ever-efficient secretary. Such was the organization within which he worked. Some account may now be given of the scientific problems that en- gaged his attention from about the turn of the century until after the Second World War. Gregory was above all else a comparative vertebrate anato- mist, working with both fossil and recent materials. His par- ticular ability in this field has been nicely stated in a letter from A. S. Romer. "Gregory was essentially an artist by disposition (as was Goodrich of Oxford) and this gave him an invaluable feeling for form, for morphology. Now that I look back on it, he was in my youth the only man in North America who had a knowledge of the basic structure of the skull in lower verte- brates." Gregory's research studies were frequently of large scope and often of marked significance. He was a pioneer in the study of fossil vertebrates from the viewpoint of functional anatomya reflection of his conviction that, for example, bones and muscles in extinct as well as in recent vertebrates should be related to each other. As early as 1915 he published a paper in collabora- tion with L. A. Adams on the relation between the temporal fossae of the skull and the jaw muscles. In the early 1920s he gave a special course in comparative myology attended by four

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96 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS of his students, A. S. Romer, C. L. Camp, G. K. Noble, and James Chapin, all of whom were to become distinguished schol- ars in their respective fields. Among the results of this course were the papers by Romer on musculature in various reptiles, including crocodilians and dinosaurs. As has been mentioned, Dr. Gregory was interested in originsfor example, the origin of tetrapod limbs from the paired fins of fishes. interested in evolutionary sequences as shown by anatomical developments through various grades of vertebrate develop- ment. Thus he became much involved in the progression from early Paleozoic fishes, through the first landliving tetrapods, the labyrinthodont amphibians, and then through the reptiles, to birds on the one hand and to mammals on the other. This was to culminate during his later years in numerous papers on the progression from fish to man, epitomized in his book of 1929, Our Face from Fish to l\Ian, and in his two-volume work, Evo- lution Emerging, published in 1951. Gregory's work in comparative anatomy went beyond mere description and comparison; he established principles and made generalizations. One of his concepts involved the principle of what he called "habitue" and "heritage" characters, displayed during the evolution of animals. Briefly, he recognized that any particular animal, or any specific phylogenetic line, reveals a complex association of anatomical featuresthe basic "heritage" characters derived from a long ancestry, combined with the specialized "habitue" characters, as adaptations in response to the many environmental factors to which the organism or its evolutionary line may have been exposed. Thus any particular form, a bat, for example, shows a combination of ancestral and sometimes quite primitive characters (in the bat a basic insec- tivore pattern of teeth) and advanced and sometimes quite sophisticated specializations (in the bat the adaptation of the forelimbs as wings and the other complex specializations for flight, such as the marvelous echolocation apparatus). He was also

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WILLIAM KING GREGORY 97 An outgrowth and extension of this concept was Gregory's palimpsest theory," proposed in 1947 at the end of his long scientific career. In essence, this was another name for his heritage and habitue concept. In Gregory's words "the habitue tends to overlay and obscure more remote heritage features, somewhat as the later writing on a palimpsest hides the partly erased image of the earlier writing." Simpson has pointed out quite rightly that this same principle has in recent years gained prominence and wide acceptance under the name of "mosaic evolution"with no credit given to Gregory. Another of Gregory's proposed principles was that of "poly- isomerism" and "anisomerism." He had observed that primi- tive animals commonly display manY duplicate. similar struc- ~ 1 ' tures, which he called polyisomeres. During the course of evo- lutionary development these parts commonly are reduced in number and differentiated in form, thus becoming anisomeres. This phenomenon he called "Williston's law"hardly a law, but rather an evolutionary trend. Gregory's contributions on the origins of vertebrate struc- tures, on the transformation and adaptation of anatomical char- acters for new functions during evolution from one taxonomic grade to another, on evolutionary sequence among the verte- brates, on the functional anatomy in fossil forms, and on other problems involving the comparative anatomy of the backboned animals, extinct and recent, were not limited to his published scientific contributions. He passed his knowledge on to his students, as we shall see, and he passed it on to the public. His efforts to make the exciting story of vertebrate evolution, with its many ramifications, comprehensible to the layman were con- centrated especially in various exhibits displayed in the halls of the American Museum of Natural History. Two exhibit halls deserve particular mention in this con- nection. One was the Hall of Fishes, which was developed during the middle years of the 1920s under Gregory's direction.

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98 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Here one could see the fishes of the world in all of their variety and complexity, as demonstrated especially by the overwhelm- ing array of teleost or bony fishes. This hall, for so many years of inestimable value to the general public and to students, was to a large degree an expression of Gregory's many years devoted to the anatomy and phylogeny of the fishes. The other exhibit was set forth in a special Hall of Comparative Anatomy where the parallel sequences from fish to manso long the theme of Gregory's studiescould be followed. The exhibits in this hall comprehended not only the bones, for which much evidence could be displayed from fossil forms, but also the other anatomi- cal systems: muscles, the nervous system, the digestive tract, and so on. And the embryological evidence was also displayed, especially in a handsome panel showing the progress from egg to adult in the various classes of vertebrates. Needless to say, Gregory was ably assisted in the planning and execution of this hall, as he was in so many of his efforts in the field of compara- tive anatomy, by Harry Raven. We have seen that Gregory's contact with students began in the early years of the century, when he assisted Professor Osborn in the classroom and in the laboratory. After Osborn had re- tired from active teaching, Gregory assumed complete responsi- bility for teaching vertebrate evolution at the graduate level at Columbia University. Actually, the courses were conducted at the American Museum of Natural History, because that was where the materials were available. The collections at the dis- posal of the students were superb, and the man who lectured on these collections had a superb knowledge of the vertebrates. It is no wonder, therefore, that Gregory trained a large contingent of able vertebrate paleontologists and zoologists, including many of the leaders in these fields in North America and in various foreign countries as well. Numerous distinguished paleontologists and zoologists today have fond memories of the large room at the American Museum where they attended lec-

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WILLIAM KING GREGORY 99 tures and participated in seminars and of various niches on the fifth floor of that institution where they worked on their theses. An impressive expression of the esteem in which Dr. Gregory was held by those who had studied under him was seen in 1946, on the occasion of his seventieth birthday, when at a dinner attended by many of his former students he was presented with an oil portrait of himself painted by Charles Chapman. A photograph of this portrait is reproduced as the frontispiece of ~ . . tills memoir. Of course, Dr. Gregory's power to attract able students was the inevitable result of his broad researches in vertebrate pale- ontology and zoology. But, as has been mentioned, he made many contributions within each class of vertebrates and indeed within lesser taxa as well. As early as 1907 he published a paper of some length, "The Orders of Teleostomous Fishes," which with subsequent con- tributions established him as one of the leading authorities on teleost relationships. As a result of his long work on the bony fishes there appeared in 1933 his monograph, Fish Skulls: A Study in the Evolution of Natural Mechanisms, published in the Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. He continued his studies on the teleosts through many succeeding years, especially with the collaboration of G. Miles Conrad, his colleague in the department of comparative anatomy at the museum. Gregory was however interested in other fishes besides the teleosts, especially the fossil crossopterygians, from which the first amphibians arose. Of course, he had an interest in the early labyrinthodont amphibians, especially the Permian genus Eryops, which dem- onstrates so nicely labyrinthodont structure. His work on the so-called lower tetrapods was more particularly centered upon the reptiles and, of these, on the mammal-like reptiles or therap- sids. This reflected his constant preoccupation with the se- quence from fish through mammals and with the transforma-

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100 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS tions that took place in the passage from one vertebrate class to another. Some of the therapsids, so prominent in the fossil faunas of South Africa, obviously were antecedent to early mam- mals, and these mammalian predecessors always fascinated him. He did much work on the transformations that were involved in the evolution of the mammalian middle-ear bones from the reptilian stapes plus the quadrate and articular bones that formed the reptilian jaw articulation. And he studied numer- ous transformations in form and proportions within the se- quence from therapsid skull bones to mammalian skull bones. Naturally, his encyclopedic knowledge of the dentition in the tetrapods was utilized in these studies of the origin of mammals from reptilian ancestors. In all of this he stressed the role of functional anatomy; thus he published on the musculature of mammal-like reptiles and early mammals, in part in collabora- tion with Charles Camp. It should be said that Gregory's interest in therapsid reptiles was not confined to the forms directly ancestral to the mammals; he published a monographic study of the skeleton of Moschops, one of the large, massive, herbivorous therapsids known as tapinocephalians, so prominent in the lower levels of the Karroo beds of South Africa. Beyond this he published papers on other groups of reptiles, notably on some of the dinosaurs. His thesis for the doctorate, "The Orders of Mammals," a monograph of more than five hundred pages, published as a Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, estab- lished him as a foremost authority on mammalian relationships, an eminence he occupied for the rest of his active life. With such a thorough background in mammalian evolution it was only natural that Gregory should address himself in detail to various groups of mammals. His long-term involvement with the primates, from primitive fossil femurs to man, has been mentioned. Since he was repeatedly investigating the problem of origins, he did a considerable amount of work on those most

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WILLIAM KING GREGORY 123 Congr. Int. Sci. Anthropol. Ethnol., pp. 102-4. London, In- stitut Royal d'Anthropologie. With F. Lamonte. The world of fishes: guide to the fish collections of The American Museum of Natural History. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. Guide Leafl. Ser., no. 81. 90 pp. With M. Roigneau. Introd action to human anatomy: guide to section I of the hall of natural history of man. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. Guide Leafl. Ser., no. 86. 82 pp. Man's place among the primates. C.-R. Premiere Sess. Congr. Int. Sci. Anthropol. Ethnol., pp. 69-70. London, Institut Royal d'Anthropologie. (A) The origin, rise, and decline of Homo sapiens. Sci. Mon., 39: 481-96. The comparative aspect of dentition. C.-R. Premiere Sess. Congr. Int. Sci. Anthropol. Ethnol., pp. 103-4. London, Institut Royal d'Anthropologie. (A) Polyisomerism and anisomerism in cranial and dental evolution among vertebrates. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 20:1-9. On the significance of the supra-symphysial depression and groove in the shovel-tusked mastodons. I. Mammal., 15:4-12. Some new models illustrating the evolution of the human dentition. Int. l. Orthod. Dent. Child., 20:1077-81. A half century of trituberculy. The Cope-Osborn theory of dental evolution, with a revised summary of molar evolution from fish to man. Proc. Am. Philos. Soc., 73: 169-317. With W. Granger. An apparently new family of amblypod mam- mals from Mongolia. Am. Mus. Novit., no. 720, 8 pp. With H. C. Raven. Notes on the anatomy and relationships of the ocean sunfish (Mola mola). Copeia, 1934, 145-51. Evolution of Face from Fish to Man. Russian translation by N. A. Bobrinskii and M. L. Levine. 156pp. Whence came the "dragons of Komodo"? 68-90. Sea serpents. Nat. Hist., 34: 327-31. The Loch Ness "monster." Nat. Hist., 34:674-76. Some new models illustrating the evolution of the human dentition. Int. i. Orthod. Dent. Child., 20:1077-81. Polyisomerism and anthropogeny. Hum. Biol., 6:632-36. Moscow-Leningrad, Biomedgiz. Bull. N.Y. Zool. Soc., 37:

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124 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Eulogy on the late Dr. Davidson Black. In publications of the Gal- ton Society, American Museum of Natural History, Apr. 16, 1934. Reprinted in: Eugen. News, 19: 128-29. 1935 In quest of gorillas. I. On our way to gorilla-land. Sci. Mon., 41: 384-95. In quest of gorillas. II. Tanganyika snapshots. Sci. Mon., 41: 505-29. Further observations on the pectoral girdle and fin of Sauripterus taylori Hall, a crossopterygian fish from the Upper Devonian of Pennsylvania, with special reference to the origin of the penta- dactylate extremities of Tetrapoda. Proc. Am. Philos. Soc., 75: 673-90. On the evolution of the skulls of vertebrates with special reference to heritable changes in proportional diameters (anisomerism). Part I. The skulls of the most primitive known fossil chordates (Ostracoderms). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 21:1-8; Science, 80:548- 49(A); Palaeontol. Zentralbl., 1 0: 49(A). Building a super-giant rhinoceros. Nat. Hist., 35:340-43. The origin of the human face: a study in paleomorphology and evolution. Dent. Cosmos, 77:344~9. With W. Granger. A revised restoration of the skeleton of Baluchi- therium, gigantic fossil rhinoceros of Central Asia. Am. Mus. Novit., no. 787, 3 pp. Introduction to: Wallace's Line and the distribution of Indo- Australian mammals, by Henry C. Raven. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist.,68:179-81. Remarks on the origins of the ratites and penguins, with discussion by R. C. Murphy. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.Y., nos. 45~6, 18 pp. (A) Nature's sea serpent. Nat. Hist., 35:431-37. The pelvis from fish to man: a study in paleomorphology. Am. Nat., 69:193-210. The study of human evolution: a plea for a more synthetic approach. Bulletin of the School of Medicine, University of Maryland, 20: 31-33. Winged sharks. Bull. N.Y. Zool. Soc., 38: 129-33. With M. Roigneau and others. "Williston's law" relating to the evolution of skull bones in the vertebrates. Am. l. Phys. Anthropol., 20: 123-52.

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WILLIAM KING GREGORY 125 Reduplication in evolution. Q. Rev. Biol., 10:272-90. The roles of undeviating evolution and transformation in the origin of man. Am. Nat., 69: 385~04. Comparative anatomy notes. Nat. Hist., 36: 362-63. Nature's upstart: Homo sapiens. Teaching Biologist, b:22-25, 30, 31. Reprinted in part in: Columbia Alumni News, 27: 3, 16. Reprinted in: Evolution, 4:3~, 6. Answers to E. Schaller's questions on evolution. Time, 2: 12-13. (Obituaries of) Henry Fairfield Osborn (1857-1935~. Science, 82: 452-54; Nat. Hist., 36:370-73; Sci. Mon., 41:566-69. 1936 In quest of gorillas. Mon., 42:47-61. In quest of gorillas. Mon., 42: 111-28. In quest of gorillas. Mon., 42: 258-79. In quest of gorillas. 42:325-38. In quest of gorillas. VII. The Lualaba Showboat. 403-20. In quest of gorillas. 517-31. In quest of gorillas. IX. Congo Queer 'Uns. Sci. Mon., 43:23-32. In quest of gorillas. X. Cameroon folks. Sci. Mon., 43: 130~7. In quest of gorillas. XI. Gorilla children. Sci. Mon., 43:211-23. Postscript. In quest of gorillas. XIII. Gorillas, men and sleeping sickness. Sci. Mon., 43:522-40. Foreword. In: Apes, Ivory and Jade, by Kirk Meadowcroft, pp. vii-ix. New York, Richard R. Smith. Habitus factors in the skeleton of fossil and recent mammals. Proc. Am. Philos. Soc., 76:429-44; Science News Letter, 29:285. Dr. Merriam's contributions to the development of vertebrate pale- ontology on the Pacific Coast. Sci. Mon., 42:377-80. With G. M. Conrad. Pictorial phylogenies of deep sea Isospondyli and Iniomi. Copeia, 1936, 21-36. With G. M. Conrad. The evolution of the pediculate fishes. Am. Nat., 70: 193-208. III. Kivu, land of Olympian clouds. S. C1. IV. Joyous days in the Kivu Country. Sci. V. Elusive giants of the mountains. Sci. VI. Farewell to the Great Lakes. Sci. Mon., Sci. Mon., 42: VIII. Drums in the forest. Sci. Mon., 42:

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126 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS The museum of things versus the museum of ideas. Science, 83: 585-88. (Obituary of) Henry Fairfield Osborn (1857-1935). Proc. Am. Philos. Soc., 76:395~08. Reprinted in: Tributes Paid at Me- morial Meetings, Nat. Hist., 37(Suppl.):5-7. With G. M. Conrad. The structure and development of the com- plex symphysial hinge-joint in the mandible of Hydrocyon lineatus Bleeker, a characin fish. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, pp. 975-84. With M. Hellman and G. E. Lewis. Preliminary report on fossil anthropoid teeth from India collected by the Yale-Cambridge India expedition of 1 935. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol., 2 1 (Suppl.~: 8. The transformation of organic designs: a review of the origin and deployment of the earlier vertebrates. Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, 11 :311~4. On the phylogenetic relationships of the giant panda (Ailuropodaj to other arctoid Carnivora. Am. Mus. Novit., no. 878, 29 pp. With W. Grander. Further notes on the gigantic ev~inrr rhin`~rr~rmc _ _ _ ~ _ o ~ ~ A. ~ ^ A ^ ~ _ _ ^ JO V ~ T) _ 7 ~ . 7 r . ~ baluchatheraum' from the Oligocene of Mongolia. Publication of the Asiatic Expeditions of The American Museum of Natural History, contrite. no. 135; Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 72:1-73; Biol. Abstr., 1 1: 1 894(A). On Doctor Pinkley's brain research. Nat. Hist., 38:361. On the meaning and limits of irreversibility of evolution. Am. Nat., 70:517-28; Biol. Abstr., 11:1644 -45(A); Palaeontol. Zen- tralbl., 11: 68-69(A). Air conditioning in nature. Nat. Hist., 38:382-84. 1937 With H. C. Raven. In Quest of Gorillas. New Bedford The Darwin Press. xvi + 241 pp. With M. Hellman. The evidence of the dentition on the origin of man. In: Early Man, ed. by G. G. NIacCurdy, pp. 243-56. Philadelphia, J. B. Lippincott Co.; Pan-Am. Geol.. 68:71-72(AN. Revised by W. K. Gregory and H. C. Raven. Introduction to hu- man anatomy: guide to section I of the hall of natural history of man, by W. K. Gregory and M. Roigneau. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. Guide Leafl. Ser., no. 86, 2d ed. 76 pp. The bridge-that-walks. Nat. Hist., 39: 33~8. (Obituary o: Grafton Elliot Smith (1871-1936~. Science, 85:66-68.

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WILLIAM KING GREGORY 127 Reprinted in part under title "Tribute to a Scientist" in New York Times, ~an. 6, 1937. Supra-specific variation in nature and in classification. IV. A few examples from mammalian paleontology. Am. Nat., 71:268-76. With G. M. Conrad. The comparative osteology of the swordfish (Xiphias) and the sailfish (IstiophorusJ. Am. Mus. Novit., no. 952, 25 pp. David Watson. Copeia, 1937, p. 197. 1938 By H. F. Osborn, revised to 1938 by W. K. Gregory and G. Pinkley. The hall of the age of man. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. Guide Leafl. Ser., no. 52, 7th ed. 57 pp. In praise of natural history. Evolution, 4:9. With M. Hellman and G. E. Lewis. Fossil anthropoids of the Yale-Cambridge India expedition of 1935. Carnegie Institu- tion of Washington, Publication no. 495. 27 pp. Man's place among the primates. Palaeobiology, 6:208-13. With W. Granger. A new titanothere genus from the Upper Eocene of Mongolia and North America. Addendum to: Fossil mammals from Burma in The American Museum of Natural History, by Edwin H. Colbert. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 74: 435-36. Henry Fairfield Osborn, 1857-1935. In: National Academy of Sci- ences, Biographical Memoirs, 19: 53-119. New York, Columbia University Press. With M. Hellman. Evidence of the Australopithecine man-apes on the origin of man. With G. M. Conrad. logica, 23:319-60. Science, 88:615-16. The phylogeny of the characin fishes. Zoo- 1939 With H. Rockwell and F. G. Evans. Structure of the vertebral column in Eusthenopteron foordi Whiteaves. journal of Pale- ontology, 13: 126-29. With M. Hellman. The South African fossil man-apes and ordain of the human dentition. ciation, 26: 558-64. ' ~ Journal of the American Dental Asso- With M. Hellman. On the evolution and major classification of the civets (Viverridae) and allied fossil and recent Carnivora: a

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128 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS phylogenetic study of the skull and dentition. Proc. Am. Philos. Soc., 81:309-92; Palaeontol. Zentralbl., 15:314(A). With E. H. Colbert. On certain principles of evolution illustrated in the mammalian orders Perissodactyla and Artiodactyla. Academy of Sciences, URSS, Memorial Volume to A. N. Sewert- zoff ~ 1 866-1 936), 1: 97-1 1 6. Russian translation, 1 1 7-1 36. The extinct anthropoid apes and the origin of the human dentition. Mankind, 2~7~:223. With M. Hellman. Fossil man-apes of South Africa. Nature, 143:25-26. With M. Hellman. The dentition of the extinct South African man- ape A ustralopithecus (PIesianthropus) transvaalensis Broom. A comparative and phylogenetic study. Annals of the Transvaal Museum, 19:339-73; E1 Palacio, 47:120(A). The bearing of Dr. Broom's and Dr. Dart's discoveries on the origin of man. Annual Proceedings. Associated and Technical Socie- ties of South Africa, pp. 25-57. Biographical sketch of William Diller Matthew, 1871-1930. In: Climate and Evolution, by W. D. Matthew, 2d ea., pp. vii-xii. New York, New York Academy of Sciences. An evolutionist goes shell hunting. Nat. Hist., 44:203-12. The Carnegie Institution of Washington and Dr. Merriam. Sci- ence, 90:466-68. With G. M. Conrad. Body-forms of the black marlin (Makaira nigricans marlina) and striped marlin (Makaira mitsukurii) of New Zealand and Australia. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 76: 443-56. 1940 Relations of preaxial and postaxial borders in paired appendages of rhipidist fishes and their bearing on origin of tetrapod limbs. Bull. Geol. Soc. Am., 51:1971. (A) New reconstruction of skeleton of Eusthenopteron and its bearing on evolution of the paired fins. Bull. Geol. Soc. Am., 51: 1971. (A) An expedition to study big-game fish. Sci. Mon., 5:189-90. An evolutionist looks at the Maoris. Nat. Hist., 45:133-45. With M. Hellman. The upper dental arch of Plesianthropus transoaalensis Broom, and its relations to other parts of the skull. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol., 26:211-28; ibid., 27(Suppl.~: 14(A); Palaeontol. Zentralbl., 16:125(A).

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WILLIAM KING GREGORY With G. M. Conrad. Hist., 45: 288-96. With G. M. Conrad. The sea-god's patchwork. Nat. Hist., 46: 42-51. Fashion designs in the world of shells. 129 World-wide hunt for the marlin. Nat. 1941 Nat. Hist., 46: 160-70. Evolution of dental occlusion from fish to man. In: Development of Occlusion, by W. K. Gregory, B. H. Broadbent and M. Hell- man, pp. 1-30. Philadelphia, University of Philadelphia Press. (Obituary of) Gladwyn Kingsley Noble. (Sept. 20, 1 894-Dec. 9, 1940). Science, 93: 10-1 1. With H. C. Raven. A new restoration of the skeleton of the Devonian lobe-finned fish, Eusthenopteron foordi NYhiteaves, with remarks on its relationships. Trans. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 3: 146-53. With H. C. Raven. On the probable mode of transformation of rhipidistian paddle into tetrapod limb. Trans. N.Y. Acad. Sci.' 3: 153-58. Family tree of the vertebrates grandfather [ski and his descendants. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. Guide Leafl. Ser., no. 106. Reprinted in: Nat. Hist., 48:155-65. With H. C. Raven. Studies on the origin and early evolution of paired fins and limbs. Part I. Paired fins and girdles in ostra- coderms, placoderms, and other primitive fishes. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 42:275-91. With H. C. Raven. Studies on the origin and early evolution of paired fins and limbs. Part II. A new restoration of the skele- ton of Eusthenopteron (Pisces Crossopterygii, Devonian, Quebec) with remarks on the origin of the Tetrapod stem. Ann. N.Y. Acad Sci., 42:293-312. With H. C. Raven. Studies on the origin and early evolution of paired fins and limbs. Part III. On the transformation of pec- toral and pelvic paddles of Eusthenopteron type into pentadac- tylate limbs. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 42:313-27. With H. C. Raven. Studies on the origin and early evolution of paired fins and limbs. Part IV. A new theory of the origin of the pelvis of tetrapods. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 42:329-60. 1942 (Biography of) Gladwyn Kingsley Noble (1894-1940). In: Am.

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130 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Philos. Soc. Yearb., 1941, up. 393-97. Philadelphia, American Philosophical Society. Revised by W. K. Gregory and H. C. Raven. Introduction to hu- man anatomy: guide to section I, hall of the natural history of man, by W. K. Gregory and M. Roigneau. Ann. Mus. Nat. Hist. Guide Leafl. Ser., no. 86, ad ed. 77 pp. With l. R. Angell. Unveiling of the bust of Henry Fairfield Osborn at the American Museum of Natural History. Science, 95: 470-72. Unveiling of the bust of Henry Fairfield Osborn and opening of the North American Hall of Mammals at the American Museum of Natural History. Nature, 150:573-75. 1943 The world-wide fraternity of the game fishermen. Int. Game Fish Assoc. Yearb., 1943, pp. 9-11. The big game fish in science. Int. Game Fish Assoc. Yearb., 1943, pp. 13-15. With W. Granger. A revision of the Mongolian titanotheres. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 80:349-89. The earliest known fossil stages in the evolution of the oral cavity and jaws. American journal of Orthodontics and Oral Surgery, 29:253-76. Presentation of the Daniel Giraud Elliot medal for 1935 with ac- companying Honorarium of $200, to Edwin H. Colbert. Sci- ence, 97:433-34. Environment and locomotion in mammals. Nat. Hist., 51:222-27, 244. With G. M. Conrad. The osteology of Luvarus imperialist, a scom- broid fish: a study in adaptive evolution. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 81:225-83. Is evolution through cooperation enough? Nat. Hist., 52:97. 1944 By H. F. Osborn, revised to 1943 by W. K. Gregory and G. Pinkley. The hall of the age of man. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. Sci. Guide, no. 52, 8th ed. 48 pp. Australia the story of a continent. Nat. Hist., 53: 360-70, 374, 384.

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WILLIAM KING GREGORY (Obituary of) Sir Arthur Smith Woodward. Vertebr. Paleontol., 13:11-12. 131 News Bull. Soc. 1945 With F. Weidenreich and l. E. Hill. (Obituary of) Henry Cushier Raven, 1889-1944. Anat. Rec., 92:315-16. With M. Hellman. Revised reconstruction of the skull of Plesian- thro pus transvaalensis Broom. Am. l. Phys. Anthropol., 3: 267-275. 1946 Award of the Daniel Giraud Elliot Medal (for 1941, to Dr. Theo- dosius Dobzhansky>. Am. Nat., 80:27-29. With H. C. Raven. Adaptive branching of the kangaroo family in relation to habitat. Am. Mus. Novit., no. 1309, 33 pp. Pareiasaurs versus placodonts as near ancestors to the turtles. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 86:275-326. Some critical phylogenetic steps leading to the flight of birds. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.Y., nos. 54-57, pp. 1-15. "Cat's-eyes" explained. Nat. Hist., 55:310-12. The roles of motile larvae and fixed adults in the origin of the vertebrates. Q. Rev. Biol., 21:348-64. 1947 The monotremes and the palimpsest theory. Hist., 88:1-52. ~ , Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. With F. LaMonte. The world of fishes. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. Guide Leafl. Ser., no. 122, pp. 1-96. Minute on the life and scientific labors of Amadeus William Grabau (1870-1946~. The Grabau Memorial Volume. Bull. Geol. Soc. China, Nanking, 27:31-34. 1948 Milo Hellman's studies on the evolution of the teeth, jaws, and face. Am. J. Orthod., 34: 53-60. The evolution of some orthodontic systems in nature. Am. {. Orthod., 34:215-34. Frank Michler Chapman (1864-1945~. National Academy of Sci- ences, Biographical Memoirs, 25:111~5. New York, Columbia University Press.

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132 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS (Obituary of) Milo Hellman (1872-1947): An appraisal of his unify- ing influence in anthropology, odontology and orthodontia. Am. l. Phys. Anthropol., 6: 133-42. \\lilliam Letchworth Bryant (1871-1947). In: Am. Philos. Soc. Yearb., 1947, pp. 238-40. Philadelphia, American Philosophical Society. John Eric Hill (1907-1947). Proceedings of the American Association of Anatomists, 61 st Session. Anat. Rec., 101 :420. The significance of the Broom collection of South African fossil vertebrates in the American Museum of Natural History, New York. In: Robert Broom Commemorative Volume. Special Publication, Royal Society of South Africa, pp. 17-27. Cape Down, Royal Society of South Africa. 1949 The bearing of the Australopithecinae upon the problem of man's place in nature. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol., 7:485-512. Franz Weidenreich, 1873-1948. Am. Anthropol., 51:85-90; News Bull. Soc. Vertebr. Paleontol., no. 25, pp.28-29. The humerus from fish to man. Am. Mus. Novit., no. 1400, 54 pp. The bearing of the Australopithecinae upon the problems of man's place in nature. In: Ideas on Human Evolution, ed. by William Howells, pp. 105-27. Cambridge, Harvard University Press. 1950 Henry Cushier Raven (1889-1944~. In: The Anatomy of the Go- rilla, by H. C. Raven and others, pp. 1-9. New York, Columbia University Press. Parallel and diverging skeletal evolution in vertebrates and arthro- pods. Evolution, 4: 164-71. 1951 Evolution Emerging. A Survey of Changing Patterns from Prime- val Life to Man. New York, Macmillan Inc. Vol. 1, xxvi + 736 pp.; vol. 2, viii + 1013 pp. 1952 Some critical stages in the evolution of the human back. Am. l. Phys. Anthropol., 10:250. (A)

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WILLIAM KING GREGORY 1955 Pierre Teilhard de Chardin, 1881-1955. Paleontol., no. 44, p. 39. 1958 133 News Bull. Soc. Vertebr. On interacting casual networks converging towards observed results in evolution. In: Studies on Fossil Vertebrates, ed. by T. S. Westoll, pp. 59-70. London, The Athlone Press. 1959 Fish Skulls: A Study of the Evolution of Natural Mechanisms. Laurel, Florida, Eric Lundberg. i-viii, 75~81. 1963 Our Face from Fish to Man. Reprint of 1929 ed. New York, Haf- ner Publishing Co., Inc. xl + 295 pp. 1965 Our Face from Fish to Man. Reprint of 1929 ed. New York, Capricorn Books. xl + 295 pp. -r-