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HERBERT SPENCER April 8, 1868-April 14 JENNINGS , 1947 BY T. M. SONNEBORN HERBERT SPENCER JENNINGS was widely recognized and greatly respected not only as a pioneering biological investigator but also as a thinker, philosopher, and educator. He was a master of the art of setting forth simply, clearly, and vividly, in print and in public lectures, the current state of genetics and general biology and of recognizing and pointing out their implications for the general public and for specialists in various disciplines. The development of such an accomplished and extraordinarily humane man from humble origins is a wonder worth exploring. I shall attempt to do that before surveying and assessing the accomplishments of his mature years. Fortunately, much of the story can be reconstructed from diaries, letters, and other docu- ments in the "Jennings Collection" of the library of the Amer- ican Philosophical Society. These and other sources, my own twenty-two years of association with the man, and the passage of twenty-six years since his death have provided more than the usual opportunity to study the subject and put him in perspec- tive. CHILDHOOD AND YOUTH (1868-1886) The little town of Tonica, population 500, in northern Illinois, boasted three churches and no saloons during the years H. S. Jennings lived there, from his birth, April 8, 1868, to 143

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144 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS age six, and again from ages eleven to eighteen. Tonica was the center of a small farming district inhabited by people who were on the whole practical, religious, and narrow in scope. The town's high school started just when Herbert was ready for it: he was in its first graduating class, in 1886. A major, if not the only, center of adult intellectual life of fine community was the home in which Herbert was born. His father, Dr. George Nelson Jennings (M.D., Rush Medical Col- lege, Chicago, 1864) was one of the founders, in the year Herbert was born, of the local literary society, which met at the Jennings's home. Dr. Jennings was a tremendously excited participant in this society for six years, until he took his family to California in a fruitless effort to improve his station in life. The physician father had already risen far above the station into which he had been born (1833) in Litchfield County, in northwestern Connecticut. There he had lived until 1853, the faithful son of a poor housepainter, whose lack of drive and confidence held him in Connecticut while nearly all his rela- tives ventured west to Ohio or south to Georgia. Young George had labored as his father's helper and as a lone hired hand on a farm until spurred by his mother, Cindarilla Morgan, to be- come a district school teacher. During the years in Connecticut, his mother's family set his standards and molded his character. Uncle Ira, a liberal preacher and astute businessman, was George's model of the perfect gentleman and humane being; and Ira's son, Pliny, inspired him to smooth his rough, awkward country bumpkin ways and to aspire to self-improvement and advancement. Tales of the successes of relatives and friends who had gone to the fertile and prospering Midwest led George at twenty to shake off the bonds of his hard life and try his fortune in northern Illinois. Working at first on farms, clerk- ing, and teaching district school, he soon saved enough to set up his parents in Illinois and, soon after, to marry Olive Taft Jenks.

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HERBERT SPENCER JENNINGS 145 Olive came from an old Rhode Island family that had settled there in 1643 and produced Joseph Jenks, Governor of the state from 1727 to 1732. Olive's grandfather had emigrated to northern Pennsylvania in 1802, and her father and mother with their eight children pushed on in 1836 to Vermilionville, Illi- nois. Olive was born a week after their arrival. Her family was sensitive to the main issue of the dayslavery. On the way to Illinois, they had witnessed the brutal treatment of slaves in Cincinnati. Their home in Illinois became a station on the underground railway for slaves fleeing to Canada. When she was a young woman, Olive became a district school teacher; her brother joined the Union Army. Both Olive and George, who married in 1856, were intensely religious. Olive remained so throughout her life and devotedly supervised the religious education of her children. Even before leaving Connecticut, George had struggled with questions con- cerning the irrationality of some religious doctrines and of the evils perpetrated in the name of God as recounted in the Bible, but he hoped eventually to be able to recognize their "right- ness." Meanwhile, he remained a practicing member of the Congregational Church and maintained religious practices at home. In deference to him, his wife temporarily left the Baptist Church and became a Congregationalist for some years. With Olive's encouragement, George soon abandoned what to him were distasteful and unrewarding occupations, worked his way through medical school, and built up a good practice as a country doctor. Never in the least tempted to enter actively into the Civil War, he acquired the resources to collect a library and the time to indulge his love of reading and study. Soon his meditations on his readings, especially of Herbert Spencer (after whom he named his first son), Huxley, Tyndall, and Darwin (after whom he named his other son), led him to re- place formal religion with scienceespecially evolutionas his guide to a philosophy of life. Once and for all he broke off all con-

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146 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS nection with the church. To his credit and to that of his fellow townsmen, although Dr. Jennings was looked on as the village infidel, he was loved as a person and respected as a physician. While his father was at the height of his emotional and in- tellectual revolution and in the midst of his peak enthusiasm for books and the new literary society, his son, Herbert Spencer Jennings, was born and grew to the age of six. It is not difficult to imagine the great influence his father had on Herbert's early development. George Jennings's autobiography records with thinly disguised pride that the child taught himself to read before he was three, read a biology book at four, preferred books on natural history at five (but Shakespeare next), and memorized many of Macaulay's "Lays of Ancient Rome." Her- bert took his loved books to bed with him, not to read, but for company. Although clearly a bookish child, he also had many playmates, mostly drawn from the large clan of relatives living in Tonica. Into his play with them, he introduced the char- acters of the Iliad. When not playing with them, he preferred to be alone. In these early years were laid the foundations of the self-sufficiency that marked Herbert tennings's life, until he found, much later, other contemporaries of his ilk. The years from six to eleven (187~1879) developed a very different aspect of H. S. Jennings. During this period, his father sought his fortune in California. These were years of great adventure for young Herberthe helped to build a rough home in a deserted sandy plain south of Los Angeles; he became in- timately familiar with farm animals; he traveled from Sacra- mento to Upper Lake, north of San Francisco, in a covered wagon; he watched hordes of Chinese working in orchards near Sacramento; he listened to the noisy, strange funeral rites of Digger Indians near Upper Lake. These and many other experiences widened the horizons of the sensitive, observant child. He started school at eight and learned with great difficulty to write. For California, with its brown hills and lofty moun-

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HERBERT SPENCER JENNINGS 147 tains, its strange trees, and many beauties, he acquired a love that persisted throughout his life. Many years later, he wrote that his idea of the most desirable life was to go to California and stay there. For his parents, the California interlude was totally different: hardship, penury, and one failure after another in farming, business, and medicine. At the end, the Jennings family was literally penniless. Herbert and the other children were more or less aware of the poverty and failures, but they were too full of adventure and fun to be appreciably affected by it. Back in Tonica ( 1879-1886), the physician-father again quickly built up a good practice; but he had lost his ambition. He settled down to the quiet monotony of a country doctor's life, turning again to the world of books and thought, and finding great satisfaction and pride in the progress of his bril- liant son. Herbert's mother, extraordinarily devoted to her children and active in social service, took him regularly to the Baptist Church and Sunday School, much to his silent dissatis- faction. He was an excellent student at school and a studious, persistent reader at home; but he led a happy, sociable life with his "set," which consisted mostly of his cousins, entered vigor- ously into their games, and enjoyed fishing and other country pleasures. Occasionally he did an odd job to earn a bit of money. This chapter of Herbert's life closed with graduation from high school in 1886. BETWEEN HIGH SCHOOL AND UNIVERSITY (1886 - 1890) Although George Jennings made a good living, it was not good enough to permit him to send his children to a university. So Herbert had to look to making a living, hopefully to save enough to further his education. Too young and inexperienced to try to compete successfully for a teaching post near home, he welcomed the opportunity, provided by the good offices of his brother-in-law, to try for a post near Laurens, in north-

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148 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS western Iowa, a place too isolated and undesirable to attract much competition. Passing the two-day qualifying examination under rough and costly circumstances, he proceeded to his post in the spring of 1886 and remained at it until the end of the three-month term. He had only five or six pupils, one totally ineducable and the others little better. They were filthy and odorous as well. For the first two weeks, he boarded in the miserable home of his ineducable student, who dropped out at the end of that time. Then he boarded seven miles away in Laurens with his sister Lily and her husband, walking daily across the swampy, wild, deserted prairie to and from the school. For his $25 a month and effort at independence, Herbert Jennings paid heavily in frustration and homesickness. But he continued to study and read, devouring Gibbon's Decline and Fall during the noon recesses, and impressing his brother- in-lawthe poorly educated but able founder, editor, and pub- lisher of The Laurens Sunas having the greatest and most wonderful mind he had ever encountered, a profound student of everything he delved into. To others he encountered, Jen- nings seemed frail, a poor mixer, hard to approach, and unfit for life on the frontier. He himself confessed that he kept to himself and became acquainted with hardly anyone. As soon as possible, he returned to Tonica and, having no job, went back to high school for a year (1886-1887) of "post- graduate" work. As part of this work, he wrote an essay (a copy of which still exists) describing in detail his teaching ex- perience in Iowa, but most of his work was in science with a new teacher, Thomas Brunk, an M.A. in botany from Cornell. Brunk was so impressed by Jennings's mental abilities and capacity to get at the root of every question that he later called 1_ . '~ ~ . J 1 co ~ -age reacn~ng post in Texas. Sometime in 1886, Herbert's mother died. Curiously there is no mention of this in either his or his father's autobiography. In the spring of 1887, Herbert again tried teaching district

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HERBERT SPENCER JENNINGS 149 school, this time in the Trout district of Illinois, near his home. Again the experience was unsatisfactory. The people of the district had little interest in education and the students were miserable, many of them in his opinion being "degenerate or on the verge." His opinion that he was not fitted for this kind of work was confirmed; he felt that, except for the money earned, teaching did more harm than good to the development of his mind and character. Again, one term was enough. In the fall of 1887, Jennings went to the Illinois State Nor- mal School at Normal, near Bloomington. This was a good experience. During his year there he had superior teachers, especially in mathematics, history, and the classics, and he gained much from associations with fellow students in a debat- ing society and other activities. This additional training, attested to by a top-grade teacher's certificate, enabled him (1888-1889) to get a post as teacher in one of the best district schools in the area, the Quaker District of Putnam County. This third attempt was completely different from his first two. The families in the district were intelligent and ambitious for their children. The children were able and included most of the top students in the county competition. Herbert made many lasting friends in Putnam County, but his work was hard and heavy. He taught everything from primer to Latin and geometry, holding twenty-seven classes a day, includ- ing sessions during recesses and noon hour, for fewer than twenty-seven students. This schedule wore him down. So he seized an unexpected, unimaginable opportunity. His former high school teacher, Thomas Brunk, had become Pro- fessor of Botany and Horticulture at Texas A. & M. College, at College Station. In 1889 he recruited Herbert as Assistant Pro- fessor at what must have seemed a fantastic salary$600 for the academic year, twice as high a salary as he had ever before commanded. Absurd though it seemed to hold a college post without ever having been to college, young Herbert acted then

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150 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS as he always would: he grasped the opportunity and made the most of it. His duties were to help in the elementary botany class in compositae, grasses, and other forage plants, stressing their economic value for Texas ("the most disagreeable, re- pelling part"), and to supervise the making of gardens by stu- dents. His time was "almost entirely occupied in making indexes, lists, maps, etc., of orchards and gardens, writing letters and orders, and all kinds of miscellaneous work." Nevertheless, he managed to attend classes on horticulture, fungi, plant diseases, and plant histology and to study inorganic chemistry on his own. He also collected fungi and published his first scientific paper on the parasitic fungi of the region, in which he reported some new species. Until near the end of the year, Jennings was unaware that Brunk was the instigator and leader of a raging academic battle that split the faculty into two bitterly opposed factions. The technical absurdity of Herbert's position as Assistant Professor, although he had never attended college, and the failure of Brunk to have given the post to another man (to whom it was alleged to have been promised) were among the targets of the anti-Brunk faction. In the end, the President, the Director of the Experiment Station, the Business Manager? Brunk, Jen- nings, and many others were required to resign or not be re- hired. His year at A. & M. was humorously and vividly described in {ennings's last (1946) publication, "Stirring Days at A and M." During the year, Jennings was on the whole content with his lot and suffered but little from the homesickness that had dominated his first period away from home when he was in Iowa. He kept up a voluminous correspondence with his family and friends, telling much about his work and thoughts and feelings. His plan to study Greek could not be carried out for lack of time, and he regretted slighting the "higher" subjects that were more to his taste: literature, philosophy, the Bible

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HERBERT SPENCER JENNINGS . 151 (in which Ecclesiastes was his favorite book), and the ancient classics of Greece and Rome. Although he had become inter- ested in botany (not in horticulture), {ennings wrote, neverthe- less, "I would be glad to drop this all any timebe most joyful and light-hearted over itand return again to studies which are more to my taste, more naturally. I half think I will do this yet, sometime, when I have earned enough to support me for a while. If I could think that my abilities would warrant it, that I could ever take a good place in those linessuch a place even as it seems as if I may be able to take in the scientific lineI certainly should do it. But it certainly would be throwing away a chance such as few men have, and I might regret it in all my life. It is a hard problem and one poverty and failure I have a great many wrestlings over." Not until a year later would the final decision be taken, a result largely of economic opportunity, but never would [ennings's conflict of interest between science and the humanities be fully resolved. LEH~JAHRE (1890-1897): MICHI GAN, HARVARD, JENA, AND NAPLES Back in Tonica during the summer of 1890, Jennings read and studied in preparation for entrance into college, hoping that some day it might become possible. His father's help made it possible that fall. Herbert passed the entrance examination for the University of Michigan, receiving a year's credit toward graduation. "I was rather strongly set against scientific study and toward study of a philological nature. I had much trouble to choose my work, and could not decide definitely . . . so I made a sort of compromise and made up my mind to see a little further before decision.... At the end of the first semester my interest had become greatly taken up with scientific worknow for the first time properly carried on in my experience.... I decided to continue with it, although my interest in language

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152 BlOGRAPHlCAL MEMOIRS studies was unabated and I hated to give them up.... My interest in scientific studies continued to increase to the end of the year so that they overshadowed everything else." It was the biology course given by Jacob Reighard, then an Assistant Professor but to be promoted to Professor the next year, that excited Jennings most. John Dewey's Introduction to Philosophy also had great impact on him. "Professor Dewey's attacks on Herbert Spencer's Philosophy and on Materialism showed that they had no monopoly on rigid logical thinking and partially at least set one free from my heretofore compelled adherence to such doctrines, a change which though the process was painful, as all upheavals of established principles must be, was very welcome. I was left again in the condition of suspense of judgment; the great questions were entirely reopened." After this first year at Michigan, Jennings's financial re- sources were exhausted. Very tired, he went home to Tonica for the summer to recoup his energy, playing croquet and not unmindful of feminine charms, especially those of Lulu Plant, who was then being courted by his brother George Darwin. Nearly half a century later, Lulu and Herbert were to marry. As the summer drifted by, Jennings's plans for the next year failed to crystallize. He and his father lacked the resources necessary for another year at Michigan. Then, shortly before the start of the fall 1891 term, he received an offer of an assist- antship in zoology. Reighard had sensed Jennings's ability and promise. His offer of an assistantship was thought by Jennings to be the turning point in his career; he returned to Michigan clearly destined to become a biologist. He threw everything he had into his job, which proved to be very demanding. He collected the organisms needed for the class, ordered the supplies, taught the laboratory work, went over the papers and notebooks, kept the business records, and served in general as a factotum. Reighard not only set very high standards for the students, but also expected a great deal *

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HERBERT SPENCER JENNINGS 213 Physical imitations of the activities of Amoeba. Am. Nat., 38~453~: 625~2. The behavior of Paramecium. Additional features and general re- lations. J. Comp. Neurol. Psychol., 14~6~:441-510. Contributions tic the MA, ~f ALA ~~ r 1__. ~ . _ LO ally bLUUy Q1 one oenavlor ot lower organisms. Carnegie institution of Washington Publication no. 16. 1905 li'A:~:~1 ~~ 1 . . =ulrorlal. Concerning the genetic relations of tvne.s of action T Comp. Neurol. Psychol., 15~2~: 132-37. -art J The movements and reactions of Amo~hn Rinl^=ic~h~c! 7~'ql~lq+. 25:92-95. The basis for taxis and certain other terms in the behavior of Infusoria. I. Comp. Neurol. Psychol., 15~2~: 138~3. Papers on reactions to electricity in unicellular organisms. i. Comp. Neurol. Psychol., 15~6~:528-34. Modifiability in behavior. I. Behavior of sea anemone. J. Exp. Zool., 2~4~:447-72. The method of regulation in behavior and in other fields. I. Exp. Zool., 2~4~:473-93. ~ ~~$ crawls 1906 Modifiability in behavior. II. Factors determining direction and character of movement in the earthworm. J. Exp. Zool., 3~3~: 435-55. Behavior of the Lower Organisms. Columbia University Biological Series, no. 10. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc. xiv + 366 pp. Reprinted, Columbia Univ. Press, 1923; Indiana Univ. Press (Preface by Donald Jensen), 1963. Translated into German by E. Mangold, 1910, Berlin; Tambried, Leipzig, 578 pp. 1907 Behavior of the starfish hysterias Forreri, de Loriol. University of California Publications in Zoology, 4~2~: 53-1 85. Formation of habits in the starfish. Johns Hopkins Univ. Circ., new series, no. 3, whole number 195, pp. 16-18. Review. Organische Zweckmassigheit, Entwicklung and T7ererbung Ton Standfunkt der Physiologie, by Paul Jensen. Science, 25: 665-66.

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214 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1908 Animal behavior. Recent work on the behavior of higher animals. Am. Nat., 42:207-16, 355-60. Animal behavior. Mind in animals. Am. Nat., 42:754-60. Heredity, variation and evolution in Protozoa. I. The fate of new structural characters in Paramecium, in connection with the problem of the inheritance of acquired characters in unicellular organisms. J. Exp. Zool., 5~4~:577-632. Heredity, variation and evolution in Protozoa. II. Heredity and variation of size and form in Paramecium with studies of growth, environmental action, and selection. Proc. Am. Philos. Soc., 47~190~: 393-546. The interpretation of the behavior of lower organisms. Science, 27~696~:698-710. Progress in the study of the behavior of the lower organisms during the past year. Psychol. Bull., 5~6~: 1 79-90. 1909 Heredity and variation in the simplest organisms. Am. Nat., 43: 321-37. The work of l. van Uexkull on the physiology of movements and behavior. l. Comp. Neural. Psychol., 19:313-36. Review. The Birth of Intelligence, by Georges Bohn. Am. Nat., 43: 619-33. Review. The Problem of Age, Growth and Death, by Charles S. Minot; also Heredity, by J. Arthur Thompson. Psychol. Bull., 6~4~: 140-43. 1910 With George T. Hargitt. Characteristics of the diverse races of Paramecium. J. Morphol., 21 (4) :495-561. Diverse ideals and divergent conclusions in the study of behavior in lower organisms. Am. J. Psychol., 21~3~: 349-70. Experimental evidence on the effectiveness of selection. Am. Nat., 44: 136-45. The tropisms. Comptes rendus du VIeme Congres international de Psychologie, Geneve, 1909, pp. 307-24. What conditions induce conjugation in Paramecium? T. Exp. Zool., 9:279-300.

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HERBERT SPENCER JENNINGS 215 1911 Assortative mating, variability and inheritance of size, in the con- jugation of Paramecium. J. Exp. Zool., 11~1~:1-134. Pure lines in the study of genetics in lower organisms. Am. Nat., 45:79-89. Computing correlation in cases where symmetrical tables are com- monly used. Am. Nat., 45:123-28. Computation of the coefficient of correlation. Am. Nat., 45:413. "Genotype" and "pure line." Science, 34:841~2. Heredity and personality. Science, 34:902-10. Vitalism and experimental investigation. Science, 33: 927-32. 1912 Age, death and conjugation in the light of work on lower organisms. Popular Science Monthly, 80: 563-77. Driesch's vitalism and experimental indeterminism. Science, 36: 434-35. Nuclear growth during early development. Am. Nat., 46:366-68. Production of pure homozygotic organisms from heterozY~otes bY self-fertilization. Am. Nat., 46:487-91. 1913 , c, a, The effect of conjugation in Paramecium. i. Exp. Zool., 14:279-391. With K. S. Lashley. Biparental inheritance and the question of sexuality in Paramecium. l. Exp. Zool., 14:393-466. With K. S. Lashley. Biparental inheritance of size in Paramecium. J. Exp. Zool., 15:193-99. Causes and determiners in radically experimental analysis. Am. Nat., 47:349-60. Doctrines held as vitalism. Am. Nat., 47:385~17. 1914 Life and matter from the standpoint of radically experimental analysis. Johns Hopkins Univ. Circ., new series, 1 0~270~: 1 1 62-80. Development and inheritance in relation to the constitution of the germ. Johns Hopkins Univ. Circ., new series, 10~270~: 1181-1232. Formulae for the results of inbreeding. Am. Nat., 48:693-96. Review. Moderne Wissenschaft und die Illusionen Professor Bergsons, by Hugh S. R. Elliot, mit einer Vorrede van E. Ray.

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216 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Archiv fur Hydrobiologie und Planktonkunde, 9:648-~; also in I. Philos. Psychol. Sci. Methods, 10:353-58. Tables for computing the results of the distribution of chromosomes and inheritance of Mendelian factors, in biparental reproduc- tion. Johns Hopkins Univ. Circ., new series, 10~270~:1233-37. 1916 The numerical results of diverse systems of breeding. Genetics. 1:53-89. Heredity, variation and the results of selection in the uniparental reproduction of Di~ugia corona. Genetics, 1:407-534. The numerical results of diverse systems of breeding. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 2:45-50. The work of the Department of Zoology. Johns Hopkins Alumni Mag., 444~:294-303. 1917 Modifying factors and multiple allelomorphs in relation to the results of selection. Am. Nat., 51:301-6. The numerical results of diverse systems of breeding, with respect to two pairs of characters, linked or independent, with special relation to the effects of linkage. Genetics, 2:97-154. Observed changes in hereditary characters in relation to evolution. Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences, 7~10~:281-301. 1918 The biology of children in relation to education. In: Suggestions of Modern Science Concerning Education, pp. 1-50. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc. Republished in 1946 by the National Committee for Mental Hygiene. Disproof of a certain type of theories of crossing-over between chromosomes. Am. Nat., 52:247-61. The wheel animalcules (Rotatoria). In: Fresh Water Biology, by H. B. Ward and G. C. Whipple, pp. 553-620. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Mechanism and vitalism. Philos. Rev., 27:577-96. 1919 Organic evolution. In: American Year Book for 1918, pp. 672-81. New York: Daniel Appleton 8: Co.

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H E R B E R T S P E N C E R J E N N I N G S 217 Experimental determinism and human conduct. l. Philos. Psychol. Sci. Methods, 16:180-83. 1920 Organic evolution. In: American Year Book for 1919, pp. 666-70. New York: Daniel Appleton & Co. Life and Death; Heredity and Evolution in Unicellular Organisms. Boston: Richard G. Badger, Gorham Press, 233 pp. Translated into French by M. Francois-Perey. Felix Alcan, Publ. 267 pp. (1927) 1921 Review. The Unity of the Organism, or the Organismal Conception of Life, by W. E. Ritter. Philosophical Review, 30:616-24. 1922 On the advantages of growing old. Johns Hopkins Alumni Mag., 10~4~:241-51. Variation in uniparental reproduction. Am. Nat., 56:5-15. 1923 Crossing-over and the theory that the genes are arranged in the chromosomes in serial order. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 9:141~7. Inheritance in unicellular organisms. Proc. 2d Int. Congr. Eugenics. Eugenics, Genetics and the Family, 1:59-64. The numerical relations in the crossing-over of the genes, with a critical examination of the theory that the genes are arranged in a linear series. Genetics, 8:393~57. The consequences of different degrees of interference in the crossing- over of the hereditary genes. Anat. Rec., 24:404. (A) Some consequences of different extents of interference in the cross- ing-over of the genes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 9: 147-49. Undesirable aliens. Survey, 51:309-12, 364. 1924 Heredity and environment. Sci. Mon., 19:225-38. An illuminating method of handling data. Science, 59:39. Proportions of detectives from the northwest and from the southeast of Europe. Science, 59:256-57. The relative numbers of European-born detectives from the chief

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218 B I O G R A P H I C A L M E M O I R S sources of European immigration and the effect of a change in the basis of admission from the census of 1910 to that of 1890. Hearing before the Committee on Immigration and Naturaliza- tion, House of Representatives, 68th Congress, first session, Jan. 1924, pp. 512-18. Acquired characters; reply to Redfield. Science, 59:278. 1925 Review. Inheritance of Effects of Environmental Conditions, by Paul Kammerer. Survey, 53:607-8. Introduction to Seba Eldridge's The Organization of Life. New York: T. Y. Crowell Company. 470 pp. Prometheus or Biology and the Advancement of Man. New York: E. P. Dutton & Co., Inc. vii + 86 pp. Also published, along with others in this series, by Kegan, Paul, Trench, Traubner and Co., London (1933~. Translated into Spanish (1926) in Revista de Occidente, 4:75-118. Translated into Chinese (1929~. 1926 Organic evolution. In: American Year Book for 1925, pp. 915-18. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc. Biology and experimentation. Science, 64:97-105. The inheritance of acquired characters. Forum, 36:702-11. 1927 The biological basis of the family. Surv. Graphic, 12:272-76. Also published in Family Life Today, ed. by Margaret E. Rich. Boston: Houghton Mifflin & Co. (1928~; Proceedings of the bth Annual Maryland State Conference of Social Workers; and in Children's Magazine (December). Diverse doctrines of evolution, their relation to the practice of science and life. Science, 65~1672~:19-2~. Reprinted with cor- rections, as Some Implications of Emergent Evolution. Hanover, N.H.: Sociological Press. 12 on. v ~ 1 Organic evolution. In: American Year Book for 1926, pp. 902-4. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc. Review. Social Life in the Animal World, by F. Alverdes. New York Herald Tribune, vol. 4, p. 26, Nov. 7.

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HERBERT SPENCER JENNINGS 219 Review. Animal Mind, by Francis Pitt. New York Herald Tribune, vol. 4, p. 26, Nov. 7. Review. Bipolar Theory of Living Processes, by G. W. Crile. Na- tion, pp. 374-77, Oct. 13. Public health progress and race progress are they incompatible? Transactions of the 23d Annual Meeting of the National Tu- berculosis Association, pp. 1-11. Also published in Science, 66: 45-50, and journal of Heredity, 18:271-76. 1928 Can we see evolution occurring? In: Creation by Evolution, ed. by Frances Mason, pp. 24-33. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc. Marriagea trial? a failure? a conquest? McCall's Magazine, b5:18, 86, 89. With Ruth Stocking Lynch. Age, mortality, fertility, and individual diversities in the rotifer Proales sordida, Gosse. I. Effect of age of the parent on characteristics of the offspring. J. Exp. Zool., 50: 345-407. With Ruth Stocking Lynch. Age, mortality, fertility, and individual diversities in the rotifer Proales sordida, Gosse. II. Life-history in relation to mortality and fecundity. J. Exp. Zool., 51:339-81. What can we hope from eugenics? Plain Talk, 2:399-407. 1929 Genetics of the Protozoa. Bibliographia Genetica, 5:105-330. 1930 Biological aspects of charity. In: Intelligent Philanthropy, ed. by E. Faris et al., pp. 270-98. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press. The Biological Basis of Human Nature. New York: W. W. Norton & Co., Inc. xviii + 384 pp. Translated into Spanish, Russian, and Italian. Heredity and mutation in relation to environment. Collecting Net, 5:81-87. 1931 The cell in relation to its environment. Journal of the Maryland Academy of Sciences, 11~1~:25-32. How heredity affects personality. Parent's Magazine, 6~4~: 1 7, 65-67. Nature and nurture. Surv. Graphic, 19(1 >:7-11, 70-71.

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220 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1932 Genetics of the Protozoa, in relation to some of the greater problems of genetics. Japanese journal of Genetics, 8~2-3~:66-84. Heredity and environment in pediatrics. In: Practice of Pediatrics, by i. Brennemann, vol. 1, pp. 1-28. Hagerstown, Md.: W. F. Prior Co., Inc. Reprinted in 1937, 1942. With D. Raffel, Ruth S. Lynch, and T. M. Sonneborn. The diverse biotypes produced by conjugation within a clone of Paramecium aurelia. J. Exp. Zool., 62~2):363-408. 1933 Originality in the development of life. Yale Review, 22~3~:559-72. Thomas Hunt Morgan, Nobel Laureate. Sci. Mon., 37:566-67. The Universe and Life. New Haven: Yale Univ. Press. 94 pp. 1934 General biology and genetics. In: The Problem of Mental Disorder, ed. by M. Bentley and E. V. Cowdry for the National Research Council, pp. 216-26. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co. 1935 Genetics. New York: W. W. Norton & Co., Inc. xiii + 366 pp. ( OCR for page 142
HERBERT SPENCER JENNINGS 221 1938 Sex reaction types and their interrelations in Paramecium bursaria. I. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 24: 112-17. Sex reaction types and their interrelations in Paramecium bursaria. ~ 1 -- II. Clones collected from natural habitats. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 2a~:117-20. 1939 Genetics of Paramecium bursaria. I. Mating types and groups, their interrelation and distribution; mating behavior and self sterility. Genetics, 24:202-33. Mating types and their interactions in ciliate Infusoria. Introduc- tion. Am. Nat., 73:385-89. Also in Biol. Symp., 1:117-21 (1940~. Mating types and their interactions in ciliate Infusoria. Paramecium bursaria. Am. Nat., 73:414-31. Also in Biol. Symp., 1: 146-63 (1940~. Senescence and death in Protozoa and invertebrates. Chap. ~ in: Problems of Aging; Biological and Medical Aspects, ed. by E. V. Cowdry, pp. 32-52. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins Co. 2d ea., 1942. 1940 Cytology of ciliate Protozoa, in particular, the chromosomes and their behavior at conjugation in Paramecium bursaria and in other species of Paramecium; also the chromosomes in the Opalinidae. In: American Philosophical Society Year Book, pp. 246-49. Philadelphia: The Society. Chromosomes and cytoplasm in Protozoa. In: The Cell and Proto- plasm, ed. by F. R. Moulton, pp. 44-55. Publication no. 14, American Association for the Advancement of Science. The beginnings of social behavior in unicellular organisms. Science, 92:539-46. Also in I,eidy Memorial Lecture, University of Pennsylvania Bicentennial Conference, pp. 1-17 (1941~. 1941 Genetics of Paramecium bursaria. II. Self-differentiation and self- fertilization of clones. Proc. Am. Philos. Sac., 85: 25~8. Hereditary status of the rhizopods. Symposium on Cytology, Genetics and Evolution, pp. 67-79, University of Pennsylvania Bicenten- nial Conference. Philadelphia: Univ. of Pennsylvania Press.

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222 BI OGRAPHICAL MEM OIRS Inheritance in Protozoa. In: Protozoa in Biological Research., ed. by G. N. Calkins and F. M. Summers, pp. 710-71. New York: Columbia Univ. Press. The laws of heredity and our present knowledge of human heredity on the material side. Chap. 1 in: Scientific Aspects of the Race Problem, pp. 1-73. New York: Longmans, Green & Company, Inc. Some aspects of the biological bases of human nature. In: The Univer- sity and the Future of America, pp. 89-107. Stanford: Stanford Univ. Press. The transition from the individual to the social level. Science, 94~2446~:447-53. Also in Levels of Integration in Biological and Social Systems, ed. by Robert Redfield, Biol. Symp., 8:105-20. Lancaster, Pa.: Jacques Cattell Press. 1942 Genetics of Paramecium bursaria. III. Inheritance of mating type, in crosses and clonal self-fertilization. Genetics, 27: 193-211. 1943 Raymond Pearl. 1879-1940. In: National Academy of Sciences, Biographical Memoirs, 22:295-347. 1944 Changes in the surrounding medium produced by free-living cells. In: Colloid Chemistry, ed. by Jerome Alexander, vol. 5, pp. 1162-74. New York: Reinhold Publishing Corporation. With Pauline Opitz. Genetics of Paramecium bursaria. IV. A fourth variety from Russia. Lethal crosses with an American variety. Genetics, 29:576-83. Paramecium bursaria: life history. I. Immaturity, maturity and age. Biol. Bull., 86~3~:131-45. Paramecium bursaria: life history. II. Age and death of clones in relation to the results of conjugation. J. Exp. Zool., 96:17-52. Paramecium bursaria: life history. III. Repeated conjugation in the same stock at different ages, with and without inbreeding, in relation to mortality at conjugation. J. Exp. Zool., 96:243-73. Paramecium bursaria: life history. IV. Relation of inbreeding to mortality of ex-conjugant clones. J. Exp. Zool., 97:165-97.

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HERBERT SPENCER JENNINGS 223 1945 Social life and interrelationships in certain Protozoa. Sociometry, 8~1~:9-20. Paramecium bursaria: life history. V. Some relations of external conditions, past or present, to aging and to mortality of ex- conjugants, with summary of conclusions on age and death. J. Exp. Zool., 99: 15-31. 1946 Stirring days at A. and M. Southwest Review, 31:341~4. .