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ALFRED HARRISON JON September 23, 1882-April 18, 1973 BY O. C. WILSON THE MOUNT WILSON OBSERVATORY was founded in 1904 by George Ellery Hale who at that time succeeded in enlisting the support of the Carnegie Institution of Washington. The completion of the 60-inch telescope in 1908 marked the be- ginning of a lengthy period of pre-eminence in stellar spectros- copy, which was further enhanced when the 100-inch telescope began operation in 1918. This era lasted roughly until mid- century when the completion of other large, more modern, telescopes and technological advances provided serious com- . . petition. During the period noted above a considerable part of the success of the Mount Wilson Observatory was, of course, due to its excellent equipment and its advantageous location. But at least an equal part must be credited to the able, enthusiastic, staff of stellar spectroscopists who were responsible for the proper use of its facilities. This group, of whom Alfred Joy was the last survivor, included Walter S. Adams, P. W. Merrill, R. F. Sanford, M. L. Humason, and G. Stromberg. In varying degrees these men contributed enormously to virtually all areas of stellar spectroscopy and, as a glance at the appended bibliog- raphy will testify, Joy was at the forefront of productivity. Alfred H. Joy was born in Greenville, Illinois, and was educated locally, obtaining the degree of Ph.B. from Green- 225

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226 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS ville College in 1903. He then moved to Oberlin and studied physics for a year, receiving an M.A. in 1904. His career then deviated considerably from that of most professional researchers since, after leaving Oberlin, he became a teacher in 1904 at the Syrian Protestant College in Beirut (now the American University of Beirut) where he remained, with the exception of one year, through 1914. The year of 1910-1911 he spent as a Thaw Fellow studying astronomy at Princeton under H. N. Russell. His interest in astronomy had been stimulated by working at the observatory at Beirut and by being a member of the Lick Observatory Eclipse Expedition to Aswan, Egypt, in 1905. Joy's enthusiasm for astronomy led him to be a volunteer summer assistant at Oxford and Cambridge in 1909, at Yerkes Observatory in 1910 and 1911, and at Potsdam Astrophysical Observatory in 1914. In this way he acquired a variety of practical experience, met many of the leading astronomers of the time, and filled in some of the gaps in his astronomical education. In 1914 Joy returned to Yerkes Observatory to spend a year as an instructor and to take part in several research programs. He had planned to return to Beirut in 1915 but, since this was rendered difficult by World War I, he accepted an offer by George E. Hale to come to the Mount Wilson Observatory as an assistant in solar researches being carried on by Hale and Charles E. St. John, and he continued this work for three years. During this period, in 1916, because of his interest in stellar distances, he became associated with Walter S. Adams in a study of spectroscopic parallaxes of stars. This was a method that had recently been worked out by Adams and A. Kohl- schutter to determine absolute magnitudes of stars by noting the relative intensities of certain absorption lines in their spectra. Thus it was not until the age of thirty-four that Joy finally began work in the field that was to occupy him for the remainder of his active life, and upon which his well-deserved reputation was to rest.

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ALFRED HARRISON J OY 227 At this time stellar spectroscopy was still in its early stages. The Henry Draper Catalogue (published 1918-1924~, which provided spectral classifications of well over 200,000 stars de- rived from objective prism spectrograms, was still in prepara- tion. But the study of stars with slit spectrographs, which would provide radial velocities and detailed information of many kinds, had been hampered by the relatively small telescopes, slow spec- trographs, and relatively slow photographic emulsions then avail- able. In fact, very little information of this kind had been obtained for stars much below fifth magnitude in apparent brightness. The installation of the large Mount Wilson re- flectors, together with improved spectrographs and photographic plates, now began to open up for exploration a vast region of fainter objects containing a great variety of fascinating stars of widely divergent properties. Joy and the other members of the spectroscopic group at Mount Wilson lost no time in taking advantage of these opportunities. The spectroscopic absolute magnitude program mentioned above, and the routine collection of stellar radial velocities (these could both be found from the same spectrograms), were group undertakings involving several staff members, including Joy, and extended over many years. But numerous other in- vestigations were carried on simultaneously, especially spectro- ~~ r scope studies ot many types of variable stars that had hitherto been mostly inaccessible. Several of the staff also participated in these investigations, though not in the same way as for the large "observatory" programs. To a considerable degree, Joy, Merrill, and Sanford divided up the general variable star field, although there was some overlap, and a number of joint papers were published. Merrill did most of the work on the long period M-type variables, while Sanford tended to specialize on those of spectral types R and N. This left an extensive list for Joy: Cepheids, novae, irregular variables, flare stars, the brighter variables in globular clusters, and those variables named for their prototypes, U Geminorum, T Tauri, RR Lyrae, W Vir-

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228 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS ginis, and RV Tauri. I do not know how this division of labor among the variable stars came about, but in practice it seemed to work very satisfactorily. In fact, the Mount Wilson spectro- scopic group was outstanding, in my opinion, for a feeling of mutual respect, good fellowship, and cooperation and for a total lack of the jealousies, frictions, and internal bickerings that blot the records of so many research organizations. To this smooth and pleasant operation {oy's own personality auto- matically made him a major contributor. Joy's extensive bibliography has already been mentioned. A great many of the items in it are brief notes recording an inter- estin:, fact concerning the spectrum of a single star or of a group of stars. Others give more or less extensive lists of stellar radial velocities or spectroscopic parallaxes. Still others relate to the derivation of the orbits of spectroscopic binaries or to lists of spectroscopic binaries newly discovered at Mount Wilson. Much of this work originated in the large observatory observing programs previously mentioned. But while this work leas in progress Joy was also busy collecting information on a wide variety of variable stars. A great many of these objects were quite faint and the collection of the necessary information con- sumed a number of years of often difficult and trying observa- tion. As a consequence, most of Joy's major papers were not published until the decade preceding his retirement and during a period of several years thereafter. In the following paragraphs I shall try to give the highlights of Joy's major contributions to astronomy; for convenience, they are arranged in order of the absolute magnitudes of the various ohiects he~innin~ with the intrinsically brightest. Or 1 ]e ~ ~ _ J ~ , ~ _ ~ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ~ . . _ ~ A ~ 1Y puollsnea several notes and papers on the spectra of novae. Perhaps the most interesting of these was the recurrent nova RS Ophiuchi, which had outbursts in 1933 and 1958. This object is noteworthy for the appearance in its spectrum of forbidden lines of very highly ionized atoms such as tFe XIV],

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ALFRED HARRISON JOY 229 [Ca X\l], [Ca XIII], and tA XIV], of which Joy measured and identified a considerable number. Over many years Joy collected spectrographic observations of nearly 160 Cepheid variables. These stars are intrinsically bright, have small individual motions, and are, therefore, well suited to studies of galactic rotation. Joy used his radial veloci- ties to derive the parameters of galactic rotation, getting good agreement at the time (1938) with other current determinations. Since then new and improved values of the parameters have been derived, although {oy's radial velocities remain of great value. They were used, unchanged, in the extensive work of R. P. Kraft and M. Schmidt (1963) in which improved knowl- edge of the absolute magnitudes of Cepheids and better photom- etry enabled these authors to make a step forward. Another group of intrinsically bright stars whose spectra show superficial similarities to those of the Cepheids are the semiregular variables of RV Tauri type, and similar objects that do not fit accurately the RV Tauri criteria. Joy made a spectroscopic study of thirty-eight of these stars. He found that they could be separated into two groups of low and high velocity, a division supported by certain spectroscopic features. Although these stars appear to have luminosities similar to those of the Cepheids, there are decided kinematic and spectroscopic differ- ences. Even today, the proper relationship of these stars to other variable or nonvariable objects does not appear to be cer- ta~n. In connection with his studies of the intrinsically bright variable stars, Joy obtained spectrograms of W Vir as early as 1925 that showed that this type of Cepheid differed in spectral behavior from the standard ones as well as having different spatial distribution in the galaxy. He found that W Fir showed hydrogen emission on the rise to maximum and that its radial velocity was larger than is usual for Cepheids. This was an anticipation of the general division of stars into populations I

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230 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS and II proposed much later by W. Baade. Pursuing this matter further, Joy obtained spectrograms of a number of variables in globular clusters. He found that these objects are virtually all W Vir-type Cepheids, or RV Tauri and semiregular variables, and that classical Cepheids and Mira stars are essentially absent from the clusters. Of particular interest was his study of Barnard's variable in M3, which proved to be similar to W Vir. Joy also made studies of a considerable number of RR Lyrae variables, determining their radial velocities and showing them to be a high velocity group, also a member of Population II. As mentioned previously, P. W. Merrill was the specialist in long period M-type variables. Joy did some important worl; in this field, however, especially on Mira itself, first in a stud, of the peculiar close, early type, companion of Mira, and, later, an extensive investigation of the spectrum of the variable, some of it done at the highest available dispersion of 2.3 A/mm. This work revealed many detailed differences between the lines of various elements during a cycle and even some differences between lines of the same multiplets. One of the most sig- nificant results was that Joy was able to identify most of the absorption features that annear in the strong hv~lro~en emission lines as due to metallic or molecular lines, thus demonstrating that the region where the hydrogen emission is produced lies below that responsible for the normal absorption line spectrum. To this point we have dealt with Joy's work on intrinsically bright variables. But there were many others, known or sur- mised to be intrinsically faint, which Joy studied with his customary intelligence and thoroughness, and for which he un- covered much hitherto unknown information. One such group is that named for its prototype T Tauri. Joy made a spectroscopic study of a number of these objects and found numerous strong emission lines of hydrogen and metals in their spectra. The hydrogen lines are several angstroms in width, vary in an irregular manner, as is also true 1 1

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ALFRED HARRISON JOY 231 of the overall brightness of the stars, and are displaced toward the violet, indicating ejection of matter. The absorption lines are characteristic of a spectral type near Gb and yield absolute magnitudes close to those of corresponding normal main se- quence stars. Joy showed also that these variables are associated with the dark absorbing clouds of the Milky Way and that some are involved in faint reflection nebulosity. More recent work by G. H. Herbig and others indicates that the T Tauri stars are probably very young and in the process of settling into a stable state on the main sequence. Joy worked also on a number of spectroscopic binaries, some of which have proved to be of outstanding interest. One of these was RW Tauri, whose components are of spectral types B9 and Ko, the latter probably a subgiant. As the eclipse of the B9 star progressed, Joy found that the hydrogen lines showed first a widely red displaced emission component, then no emission at all near the center of eclipse, and lastly a widely violet displaced emission component. These observations indicate that the B9 star is surrounded by a rapidly rotating ring of matter in which the emission lines are produced. The eclipse of this ring by the K-type star explains the spectroscopic phenomena. Two other important binaries investigated by Joy are the U Geminorum stars SS Cygni and AE Aquarii. His observations showed that the late type components are main sequence stars while their companions are peculiar hot B-type subdwarfs. The periods are short: 0.27 d for SS Cygni and 0.70 d for AE Aquarii. These systems are noteworthy for occasional outbursts of light that originate in the hot companions. Later investigation by R. P. Kraft has shown that all U Geminorum stars are short period binaries of this kind. Over many years Joy maintained a great interest in the dwarf M-type stars that populate the faint end of the main sequence. He produced a number of lists of such stars with spectral classifications and estimates of H and K emission

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232 B ~ O G R A P H ~ C A ~ M E M O ~ R S strengths. He was particularly concerned with the stars in this region that show sudden increases in brightness from time to time, the so-called flare stars. He was fortunate to obtain spectrograms of one of them, UV Ceti, during flares, and found that the hydrogen emission lines widen and strengthen, and that a strong continuum appears, which extends into the violet and tends to veil the absorption spectrum. It is believed that these flares are analogous to the well-known solar flares, and in recent years radio emission has been observed from some of these objects during flaring. Alfred {oy was secretary of the Mount Wilson Observatory from 1920 until his retirement in 1948 and thus had a number of administrative chores in addition to his research. He served as president of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific several times and as president of the American Astronomical Society in 1950-1952. For many years he edited the Astronomical Society of the Pacific leaflets, which provided both professionals and amateurs with short authoritative expositions of current astronomical research. In 1944 he was elected to the National Academy of Sciences and in 1945 was awarded an honorary Sc.D. by Greenville College. He was the recipient in 1950 of the Bruce Medal of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific in recognition of his outstanding achievements. Joy was married in 1919 to Mar~herita O. Burns and is survived by her, by two children, Richard and Edith, and by several grandchildren. ~ . ~ ~ '~ , ~ ~ ~ ~ . Alfred Joy was always a kind, considerate, and helpful col- league. He was fortunate, both as to time and place, in having a great opportunity in his chosen field, and his skill and intel- ligence enabled him to make excellent use of it. I think it is no exaggeration to say that all who knew him regarded both the man and his work with the greatest admiration and respect.

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ALFRED HARRISON JOY BIBLIOGRAPHY KEY TO ABBREVIATIONS 233 Astron. i.- Astronomical Journal Astron. Soc. Pac. Leafl. - Astronomical Society of the Pacific Leaflet Astrophys. T. Astrophysical Journal Pop. Astron. Popular Astronomy Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Publ. Am. Astron. Soc. Publications of the American Astronomical So- ciety Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific 1914 Photometric measures of BD +134692. Astronomische Nachrich- ten, 200:11. 1915 Investigation of the cluster M 37 (NGC 2099) for proper motion. Pop. Astron., 23:603. (A) With O. T. Lee. Stellar parallaxes from the Yerkes Observatory. Pop. Astron., 23:631. (A) 1916 Investigation of the cluster M 37 (NGC 2099) for proper motion. Astron. l., 29:101-8. With O. i. Lee and G. VanBiesbroeck. Stellar parallaxes. Astron. J., 30:1-2. 1917 With W. S. Adams. Luminosities and parallaxes of 500 stars. Astrophys. J., 46: 313-39. With W. S. Adams. Two stars with bright hydrogen lines. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 29:112. With W. S. Adams. Note on the spectrum of O Ceti. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 29:112. With W. S. Adams. Five spectroscopic binaries. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 29:113. With W. S. Adams. Spectra of some double stars. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 29:182. With W. S. Adams. Ten spectroscopic binaries. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 29:259.

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234 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS With W. S. Adams. Two stars with remarkable radial velocities. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 29:259. 1918 With W. S. Adams. The spectrum of Nova Monocerotis. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 30: 162. With W. S. Adams. Note on Nova Monocerotis. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 30:193. With W. S. Adams. The identification of certain bright lines in the spectrum of O Ceti. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 30: 193-94. With W. S. Adams. Spectral characteristics of Cepheid variables. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 4:129-32. With W. S. Adams. Observations of the spectrum of Nova Aquilae 1918. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 30: 251 -53. Spectrographic orbit of the Algol variable, 3.1918 Aurigae. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 30:253-54. With W. S. Adams. Spectroscopic notes. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 30:306-7. With W. S. Adams. Spectroscopic orbit and absolute dimensions of W Ursae Majoris. Pop. Astron., 26:634-35; Publ. Am. Astron. Soc., 4:5-6. With O. J. Lee. Parallaxes of 17 stars. Publications of the Yerkes Observatory, 4~1~:29-40. 1919 With W. S. Adams. Fourteen spectroscopic binaries. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 31:40-42. With G. E. Hale, F. Ellerman, and S. B. Nicholson. The magnetic polarities of sunspots. Astrophys. J., 49:153-78. With W. S. Adams. The motions in space of some stars of high radial velocity. Astrophys. l., 49:179-85; Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 5:239-41. With W. S. Adams. The orbits of three spectroscopic binaries. Astrophys. J., 49: 186-95. The spectrum of RU Camelopardalis. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 31: 180-81. With W. S. Adams. The structure of the emission bands in Nova Aquilae no. 3. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 31:182-84. With. W. S. Adams. Eighteen stars with spectra similar to those of the Cepheid variables. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 31:184-86.

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ALFRED HARRISON JOY 237 With W. S. Adams. Spectroscopic parallaxes of the B-type stars. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 35:120-23. With W. S. Adams. The radial velocities of 1013 stars. Astrophys. J., 57:149-76. With W. S. Adams. The identification of certain low-temperature lines in the spectrum of O Ceti. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 35: 168-70. With W. S. Adams. A spectroscopic method of deriving the paral- laxes of the B-type stars. Astrophys. l., 57:294-307. With H. N. Russell and W. S. Adams. A comparison of spectro- scopic and dynamical parallaxes. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 35: 189-93. With W. S. Adams. Three stellar spectroscopic notes. Pop. Astron., 31: 574; Publ. Am. Astron. Soc., 5:50. Radial velocity measurements of the spectrum of O Ceti. Pop. Astron., 31: 645-47; Publ. Am. Astron. Soc., 5: 64-66. With M. L. Humason. The spectrum of R Coronae at minimum. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 35:325-27. With W. S. Adams. Low-temperature lines in the spectra of giant M stars. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 35:328-29. 1924 Changes in the period of SW Andromedae. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 36:82-84. With W. S. Adams and R. F. Sanford. Ninety-seven stars with variable radial velocity. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 36:137-39. With W. S. Adams. Note on the spectrum of CD 5h243. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 36: 141. With W. S. Adams. The H and K lines in the spectrum of 61 Cygni. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 36:142. With W. S. Adams. The spectroscopic parallax of ~ Indi. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 36:142. With W. S. Adams and P. W. Merrill. Application of the registering microphotometer to stellar spectra. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 36: 226-27. (A) The spectrum of the close companion of O Ceti. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 36:290-92. With W. S. Adams and P. W. Merrill. Charts of stellar spectra made with the microphotometer. Pop. Astron., 32:542; Publ. Am. Astron. Soc., 5:159. (A)

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238 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1925 The spectrum and radial velocity of M~ Virginis. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 37: 156-57. (A) With W. S. Adams. The parallaxes and radial velocities of dwarf stars of K and M types. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 37: 157-58. (A) With W. S. Adams and M. L. Humason. An additional star of the W Cepheid type of spectrum. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 37: 161-62. With W. S. Adams. Additional stars with cepheid characteristics of spectrum. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 37:162. With W. S. Adams. Enhanced silicon lines in some stellar spectra. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 37:163. 1926 With W. S. Adams. A list of stars with radial velocities exceeding 50 km/sec. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 38:121-24. With W. S. Adams. Note on the spectra of stars in which A 4077 and A 4215 are exceptionally strong. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 38: 124. Selected physical properties of stars and nebulae. (a) Classification of stellar and nebular spectra; (b) Stellar temperatures, masses, and densities. In: International Critical Tables of Numerical Data, Physics, Chemistry and Technology, vol. I, pp. 384-85. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co. With W. S. Adams and M. L. Humason. Spectral types, absolute magnitudes, and spectroscopic parallaxes of 412 M-type stars. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 38:257-58. (A) On the problem of long-period stellar variation. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 38:260. (A) A spectroscopic study of Mira Ceti. Astrophys. I., 63:281-341. With W. S. Adams. The identification of certain enhanced lines in the spectra of By Cygni and c2 Cygni. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 38: 322-24. With W. S. Adams and M. L. Humason. The absolute magnitudes and parallaxes of 410 stars of type M. Astrophys. l., 64:225-42. With R. F. Sanford. The dwarf companion to Castor as a spectro- scopic binary and eclipsing variable. Astrophys. J., 64:250-57. Provisional elements and dimensions of S Antliae considered as an eclipsing binary. Astrophys. J., 64:287-94.

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ALFRED HARRISON JOY 1927 239 The Mount Wilson Observatory of the Carnegie Institution of Washington. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 39:9-19. With W. S. Adams and M. L. Humason. Absolute magnitudes and parallaxes of 412 M-type stars. Pop. Astron., 35:135-36; Publ. Am. Astron. Soc., 6:3-4. (A) With W. S. Adams. The relationship of spectral type to period among variable stars. Science, 65:453; Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 13:391-93. With W. S. Adams. High dispersion stellar spectra and some results of a study of ~ Cygni. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 13:393-96. (A) The spectrum and velocity curve of W Serpentis. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 39:234-35. With W. S. Adams. The relationship of spectral type to period among the variable stars. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 39:255-56. (A) On the period of SW Andromedae. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 39: 318-19. With W. S. Adams and M. L. Humason. Observations of faint spectra. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 39:365-69. Eclipsing stars. Astron. Soc. Pac. Leafl., no. 19. 4 pp. 1928 The stars in action. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 40: 101-16. With W. S. Adams. The spectrum of RT Serpentis. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 40:252-54. With W. S. Adams and M. L. Humason. The absolute magnitudes and parallaxes of 433 stars of type K3 to K8. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 40: 264-65. (A) Spectroscopic observations of U Sagittae during eclipse. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 40:268. (A) 1929 With P. W. Merrill. Spectroscopic observations of R Virginis. Astrophys J., 69:379-85. With W. S. Adams, R. F. Sanford, and G. Stromberg. Report on the radial velocities of 742 stars. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 41:245~6. (A)

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240 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS With W. S. Adams and M. L. Humason. The relationship of ab- solute magnitude, period, and spectral type among the Cepheid variables. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 41:252-54. (A) With W. S. Adams. Bright H and K lines in the spectra of some giant stars. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 41:311-12. With W. S. Adams. Note on bright H and K lines in the spectra of some giant stars. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 41:372. With W. S. Adams, R. F. Sanford, and G. Stromberg. The radial velocities of 741 stars. Astrophys. i., 70:207-36. 1930 A spectrographic study of U Sagittae. Astrophys. J., 71:336-50. Variation in the period of the eclipsing variable U Sagittae. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 42:254. (A) Spectrographic orbit of RS Canum Venaticorum. Astrophys. T., 72: 41-42. 1931 With B. W. Sitterly. Photometric and spectrographic orbits of TT Aurigae. Astrophys. J., 73:77-93. The spectrographic orbit of RT Lacertae. Astrophys. J., 74: 101-4. Nebular lines in the spectrum of RT Serpentis. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 43:353-54. Short-period variable stars. Astron. Soc. Pac. Leafl., no. 34. 4 pp. With W. S. Adams. Giant and dwarf stars with bright H and K lines. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 43:407-9. 1932 Address in awarding the Bruce Medal to Dr. I- S. Plaskett. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 44:5-20. Spectroscopic observations of SX Herculis. Astrophys. J., 75:127. The dispersion in the radial velocities and the galactic distribution of variable stars of intermediate and short period. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 44: 240-42. Note on the spectra of certain variable stars. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 44:385-88. 1933 Evidence for galactic rotation and space absorption from Cepheid variables. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 45:202; Publ. Am. Astron. Soc., 7:218.

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ALFRED HARRISON JOY 241 With W. S. Adams. The spectrum of RS Ophiuchi (Nova Ophiuchi no. 3~. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 45:249-52. With W. S. Adams. Coronal lines in the spectrum of RS Ophiuchi. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 45:301-2. 1934 Interstellar lines observed in spectra of stars of late type. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 46: ~ 1. The temperature of the stars. Astron. Soc. Pac. Leafl., no. 60. 4 pp. With W. S. Adams. The present spectrum of RS Ophiuchi. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 46:223-24. 1935 Giants and dwarfs. Astron. Soc. Pac. Leafl., no. 75. 4 pp. With W. S. Adams, M. L. Humason, and A. M. Brayton. Spectro- scopic absolute magnitudes and parallaxes of 4179 stars. Astrophys. J., 81: 187-291. With O. L. Dustheimer. The spectroscopic orbit of W Ursae Minoris. Astrophys. J., 81:479-81. With W. S. Adams, W. H. Christie, R. F. Sanford, and O. C. Wilson. Radial velocities from absorption lines in the spectrum of Nova Herculis. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 47:205-9. Charles Edward St. John. Pop. Astron., 43:610-17. 1936 With W. S. Adams. Comparison of spectroscopic and trigonometric parallaxes. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 48:177. (A) The rise of the giant telescope. Astron. Soc. Pac. Leafl., no. 90. 4 pp. With W. S. Adams. The spectrum of Nova Herculis 1934, April to November 1935. Astrophys. I., 84: 14-25. With W. S. Adams and T. Dunham, Jr. The spectrum of Nova Sagittarii 1936. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 48:328. 1937 With P. W. Merrill. Spectroscopic observations of V Canum Venaticorum. Astrophys. l., 85:9-13. Some early variable-star observers. Astron. Soc. Pac. Leafl., no. 99. 4 pp. Radial velocities of Cepheid variables. Astrophys. l., 86:363-436; Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 49:211-13. (A)

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242 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1938 Spectroscopic observations of Barnard's variable star in Messier 3. Publ. Am. Astron. Soc., 9:45-46. (A) Radial-velocity curve of the RR Lyrae variable W Canum Venati- corum. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 50:213. (A) With W. S. Adams. A list of stars with unpublished radial velocities greater than 75 km/sec. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 50:214. Cepheids and galactic rotation. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 50:220. (A) Recent spectral changes in T Coronae. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 50: 300-301. Radial velocities of 67 variable stars of the RR Lyrae type. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 50:302-3. 1939 Rotation effects, interstellar absorption, and certain dynamical con- stants of the galaxy determined from Cepheid variables. Astrophys. J., 89:356-76. The spectra and velocities of variables of intermediate and irregu- lar periods. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 5 1: 2 1 5-1 6. (A) With W. S. Adams. The behavior of the calcium H and K lines in the spectrum of g Geminorum. Publ. Am Astron. Soc., 9:254. (A) 1940 The motions and dimensions of our stellar system. Astron. Soc. Pac. Leafl., no. 132. 7 pp. The award of the Bruce Gold Medal to Frederick Hanley Seares. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 52:69-79. Spectroscopic observations of SS Cygni variables. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 52:324-25. Spectroscopic observations of Barnard's variables in Messier 3. Astrophys. i., 92:396-99. 1941 A survey of the spectra of variable stars having irregular light changes or periods from 50 to 180 days. Publ. Am. Astron. Soc., 10:115. Radial velocities and absolute dimensions of the eclipsing variable WW Draconis. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 53:230. (A)

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ALFRED HARRISON JOY 243 With M. L. Humason. Dwarf stars with emission lines of hydrogen and calcium. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 53:296. A spectroscopic study of the eclipsing variable WW Draconis. Astrophys. J., 94:407-11. 1942 Spectral criteria in the classification of variable stars. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 54:15-18. The nova-like variable UZ Tauri. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 54:33-35. Observations of RW Tauri at minimum light. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 54:35-37. Spectra and radial velocities of the less regular M-type variables. Astrophys. J., 96:344-70. 1943 The spectrum of UZ Tauri in 1942. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 55: 38-39. A century's progress in determining stellar distances. Astron. Soc. Pac. Leafl., no. 173. 8 pp. A new dwarf Me star near BD +304824. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 55:242. AE Aquarii: an SS Cygni variable and spectroscopic binary. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 55:283-84. With P. W. Merrill. Spectroscopic observations of T Arietis. Astrophys. J., 98:331-33. 1944 With G. VanBiesbroeck. Five new double stars among the variables of the T Tauri class. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 56:123-24. 1945 The velocity of light. Astron. Soc. Pac. Leafl., no. 195. 8 pp. Observations of T Pyxidis in 1945. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 57: 171-74. T Tauri variable stars. Astrophys. J., 102: 168-95. With P. Swings. Identification of the postmaximum lines in the spectrum of RS Ophiuchi. Astrophys. J., 102:353-56. 1946 Adriaan van Maanen, 1884-1946. Pop. Astron., 54:107-10. Spectroscopic investigations of binary stars. Astron. l., 52:31-32.

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244 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Faint emission-line stars in the Taurus region. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 58: 244-45. (A) 1947 Radial velocities and spectral types of 181 dwarf stars. Astrophys. J., 105:96-104. Refraction in astronomy. Astron. Soc. Pac. Leafl., no. 220. 8 pp. The emission lines of RW Tauri at minimum. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 59: 171-73. The absorption lines within the hydrogen emission of Mira Ceti. Astrophys. J., 106: 288-94. 1948 Emission lines in stellar spectra. Astron. l., 53:107. (A) The spectra of the brighter variables in the globular clusters. Astron. i., 53:113-14. (A) The spectrum of Nova Cygni 1948. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 60: 268-69. With S. A. Mitchell. Spectroscopic observations of 90 stars. Astrophys. J., 108: 234-36. 1949 Eight faint dwarf stars having no emission lines. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 61: 37-38. With R. E. Wilson. Stars whose spectra have bright H and K lines of calcium. Astrophys. l., 109:231-43. Glowing stellar atmospheres. Astron. Soc. Pac. Leafl., no. 243. 8 pp. With M. L. Humason. Observations of the faint dwarf star L 726-8. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 61:133-34. Spectra of the brighter variables in globular clusters. Astrophys. J., 110: 105-16. Bright-line stars among the Taurus clouds. Astrophys. J., 110:424- 37. 1950 With R. E. Wilson. The radial velocity of HD 73857. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 62:58-59. Radial velocities of 62 RR Lyrae stars. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 62: 60-61. The spectra of the late-type dwarf stars. Astron. J., 55:68. With R. E. Wilson. Radial velocities of 2111 stars. Astrophys. l., 111:221-61.

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ALFRED HARRISON JOY 245 1952 The semiregular variable stars of the RV Tauri and related classes. Astrophys. J., 115:25-41. With R. E. Wilson. Radial velocities of 360 stars. Astrophys. I., 115: 157-65. Recent radial velocity measures of Mira. Astron. l., 57:16. 1954 Variable stars of low luminosity. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 66:~-12. Spectroscopic observations of Mira Ceti, 1934-1952. Astrophys. i. Supplements, 1:39-62. Motions in the atmosphere of Mira Ceti. Transactions of the Inter- national Astronomical Union, 8:826-28. The binary system of AE Aquarii. Astron. I., 59:326. (A) Spectroscopic observations of AE Aquarii. Astrophys. J., 120:377- 83. 1955 Radial velocities of 15 RR Lyrae variables. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 67:420. 1956 Radial velocity measures of SS Cygni at minimum light. Astrophys. J., 124:317-20. Walter Sydney Adams. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 68:285-95. 1957 Flare spectra in dwarf stars. In: Non-Stable Stars, ed. by George H. Herbig, chap. 5, pp. 31-34. International Astronomical Union Symposium no. 3. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Henry Norris Russell. Griffith Observer, 21:86-89. The SS Cygni variables as spectroscopic binaries. In: Non-Stable Stars, pp. 137-40. Symposium at Byurakan. Erevan: Armenian Academy of Sciences. (In Russian) 1958 Walter Sydney Adams. In: National Academy of Sciences, Bio- graphical Memoirs, vol. 31, pp. 1-31. New York: Columbia University Press.

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246 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS A spectroscopic observation of a flare of UV Ceti. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 70:505-6. 1959 Mica Ceti. Astron. Soc. Pac. Leafl., no. 358. 8 pp. 1960 Spectra of dwarf variable stars. In: Stellar Atmospheres, ed. by Jesse L. Greenstein, chap. l8, pp. 653-75. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 1961 The emission spectrum of RS Ophiuchi in 1958. Astrophys. I., 133: 493-502. 1962 Ralph Elmer Wilson. In: National Academy of Sciences, Bio- graphical Memoirs, vol. 36, pp. 314-29. New York: Columbia University Press. Paul Willard Merrill, 1887-1961. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 74~436~: 41-43. Spectroscopic absolute magnitudes: a review. The Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada, 56:67-78. Paul Willard Merrill. Quarterly journal of the Royal Astronomical Society, 3:45-47. 1964 The beginnings of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. (Read at the dinner meeting of the Society at San Diego on June 13, 1963.) Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 76~448~:1-~. 1965 Seventy-five years of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 77~455~:81-88. 1967 Stellar flares. Astron. Soc. Pac. Leafl., no. 456. 8 pp. Frederick Hanley Seares. In: National Academy of Sciences, Bio- gra~phical Memoirs, vol. 39, pp. 416-44. New York: Columbia University Press.

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ALFRED HARRISON JOY 1968 247 Eclipsing stars. Astron. Soc. Pac. Leafl., no. 464. 8 pp. Mount Wilson solar physicist dies (Harold D. Babcock). Sky and Telescope, 35:350. 1971 M-type dwarfs observed at Mount Wilson. Astron. Soc. Pac. Leafl., no. 502. 8 pp.