Click for next page ( 293


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 292

OCR for page 292
EUGENE LINDSAY OPIE July 5, 1873-March 12, 1971 BY ESMOND R. LONG EUGENE LINDSAY OPIE, pathologist, distinguished for pioneer and basic studies in many fields of medicine, died in his ninety-eighth year after more than seventy years of research and service in his chosen held. As a medical student at The Johns Hopkins University in the 1890s, he made an important discovery that alone would have made him eminent; namely the close relation of abnormality of the islands or Langerhans of the pancreas to diabetes mellitus. This relationship was his prin- cipal subject of investigation for ten more years. He later went on to studies that had wide influence in malaria, tuberculosis, the fundamentals of immunology, the general principles of in- flammation, medical education and leukemia and cancer. In the late years of his lifehis last research paper was published in 1970he was concerned with factors maintaining the proper water balance in animal tissues. He was almost blind at that time, but retained an astonishing memory of factors that might apply, and a keen sense of touch that gave him knowledge of what he could not see. In the last weeks of his life, marred as they were by blindness and serious loss of hearing, he continued to listen with pleasure to technical discussions by his visitors, even when he had passed the point of understanding them. Impressive as these details are, they still provide but an incomplete list of Opie's services to human health and welfare. 293

OCR for page 292
294 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS He held many important administrative positions, which he filled with faithful devotion to detail. He served his country, not only through his influence in teaching and research, but actually in the military activities of two warsthe Spanish- American War and World War I. The Spanish-American War merits more than passing in- terest because Opie's role in it was indicative of his character and receptive mind. In 1898, with William G. MacCallum, an associate at the Johns Hopkins Medical School who also became a distinguished pathologist, he volunteered for medical service. Opie and MacCallum accompanied seriously ill and wounded patients from military institutions in the South to hospitals for continued care in the North. Typhoid fever and malaria were rampant in these camps, and the two young Hopkins interns learned much that they used later in understanding the ravages of these diseases. This is an appropriate place to mention another pioneer investigation in which Opie and MacCallum were engaged as medical students. The eminent pathologist William H. Welch had turned Opie's attention to diabetes. Another Hopkins luminary, internist William Sidney Thayer, drew both men into important studies of lasting value on malaria. In correlated but independent researches, Opie and MacCallum worked out, in meticulous detail, the life cycles of the hematozoon parasite of bird malaria in the sparrows and blackbirds of Baltimore andin MacCallum's casein Ontario, Canada. These studies, despite the youth of the investigators, were never considered immature. At the end of their lives, the reports were still con- sidered among the authors' best. Opie was born in Staunton, Virginia, on July 5, 1873. His parents were native Virginians of distinguished ancestry. His father was a surgeon who became one of the founders of the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Maryland (later the Medical College of the University of Maryland). Son Eugene,

OCR for page 292
EUGENE LINDSAY OPIE 295 who had determined even in childhood to become a physician, matriculated in the school of which his father was dean shortly after he had been graduated with the A.B. degree from The Johns Hopkins University, in 1893. After a year at the medical school of the University of Marylandalready steeped in Johns Hopkins traditionsOpie decided to return to the new medical school at that university. He joined the first class to graduate, completing the medical course in 1897. The unusually active part he took in medical research in his student days is indicated above. Opie was never robust, nor given to strenuous exercise. An anecdote of his Hopkins school days is worth telling. A con- temporary at Hopkins, Lawrason Brown, who became one of America's most noted phthisiologists, took Opie in hand to en- sure a pleasanter life for him in the midst of a grinding cur- riculum. Brown was husky and strong and a leader in sports; Opie was seemingly frail and left out. Brown made the older and bigger boys include Opie in their groups and give him a chance in baseball and other sports. Ironically, after leading immensely useful lives, Brown died of advanced pulmonary tuberculosis at sixty-six, but Opie lived on despite the many infirmities of old age until ninety-seven. Opie remained at Hopkins for seven years after his gradua- tion in medicine, as fellow, assistant, and instructor in bac- teriology under the department head, the celebrated William H. Welch, who had started the younger man on his way to eminence. During the Hopkins years, Opie made a thorough study of lesions of the pancreas. This led, first, to a new outlook on diabetes and eventually to an understanding of the role of the pancreas in furnishing an internally secreted hormone regu- lating carbohydrate metabolism in the body. Other investiga- tions brought out the effect of gallstones impacted at the point of union of the bile and pancreatic ductsdiverting bile to the pancreas and causing the grave lesion hemorrhagic pan-

OCR for page 292
296 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS creatitis. This study integrated gross and microscopic study, and produced successful experiments reproducing the disease in animals. These investigations were formative in developing the lasting skill of Opie as an experimental pathologist. In 1904 Opie developed a relationship that lasted all his life, with the newly created Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research (now the Rockefeller University). The Rockefeller Institute was then largely dependent for its leaders on the Johns Hopkins Medical School. The Rockefeller Institute and the Henry Phipps Institute in Philadelphia, as Opie later wrote, ensured the privilege of pursuing research under condi- tions that permitted the results of one study to suggest the next, year after year, with few unwelcome interruptions. One of the most favorable influences at the Rockefeller Institute was daily close association with a score of dedicated investigators who helped make up the backbone of America's early laboratory medical research. Opie's Rockefeller years, from 1904 to 1910, were marked by illuminating studies on proteolytic enzymes and their relation to immunological processes. One of the principal printed sources on Opie's life and work in his forty most active years of research and teaching was his own article, "Peripatetic Education of a Pathologist" (in Med ical Clinics of North A merica, July 1957, pp. 935-952~. Opie always regretted that he did not have a chance to study under the great German leaders in pathology in his formative years, whose printed works he read assiduously. He did travel frequently in later years, and made personal contact with these men and their successors, but he never profited, as he had wished, by their elementary instruction. In his early years, Opie was himself already a leader in the mainstream of medical re- search and teaching and too much in demand in the developing medical schools in his own country to take the necessary time off. In 1910 he accepted appointment as professor of pathology at the School of Medicine at Washington University in St.

OCR for page 292
EUGENE LINDSAY OPIE 297 Louis, then being reorganized in the light of a now famous report by Abraham Flexner. This report, on medical education in America, was based on a survey by Flexner, sponsored by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. One of its first effects was the selection of a few medical schools, not very well off at the time, for development as superior institu- tions for medical teaching and research. These schools were to be developed along the lines followed by the great schools of continental Europe and The Johns Hopkins University in the United States. Pathology was one of the most basic of several fundamental sciences of medicine, and was accorded a high place in the proposed revolution in medical schools. Opie was a promising candidate for a role in the forthcoming develop- ment of a superior department of pathology. In "Peripatetic Education of a Pathologist," he noted a widespread tendency of medical schools to choose pathologists as deans. The medical school of Washington University proved no exception, and Opie soon found himself in that responsible, but not altogether desirable, position. He had been in the top rank as a full mem- ber of the Rockefeller Institute; now he found himself a full professor of pathology in an institution favored for expansion, and its dean as well. The development plan called for integra- tion of the medical school with a hospitalin this case the Barnes Hospital in a medical center for the promotion of realistic clinical teaching. Opie was instrumental in effecting this union; at the same time, he turned out a wealth of research on many topics. In this period, ne Developed hits influential program of studies on tuberculosis, noting the immunologic relations of primary in- fection in childhood to the character of the well-known chronic tuberculosis, or phthisis, in adults. A series of publications, commencing in 1914 and never totally dropped, crystallized his concepts. In simplified form, these held that the pulmonary tuberculosis of adult type is not the continuation of tubercu- losis of childhood, but rather a new exogenous infection ac- ~ . . . . ..

OCR for page 292
298 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS quired in adolescence or adult lifea view that contrasted sharply with that held by many other noted students of the disease. A corollary of Opie's thesis was that the first infection modified the anatomical character of the tuberculosis acquired from contact in later life. Additional studies in the immu- nologicai field, particularly on enzymes, leukocytic and other phagocytic cells, and antigens and antibodies, related immu- nological sequences to the pathology of inflammation. These studies were continued on a wider scale at the Henry Phipps Institute in subsequent years. During Opie's tenure at Washington University (1910- 1923), he served as a medical corps officer in World War I, in grades from captain to colonel in the Hospital Unit formed at Washington University and in special commissions for the study of infectious disease in the Army. Out of his military experi- ence came important studies on pneumonia, influenza, trench fever, and tuberculosis. In 1923 Opie left Washington University to accept appoint- ment as professor of pathology, director of the department of pathology, and director of the laboratories of the Henry Phipps Institute at the University of Pennsylvania. His initial program of research there is best described in his own words taken from "The Peripatetic Education of a Pathologist": "At the Rockefeller Institute I had studied the enzymes concerned with tubercle formation and observed the beneficial effect of injected leukocytes upon the course of experimental tuberculous pleurisy. In the pathological laboratory of Washing- ton University and during my service in the Army I had come to realize how accurately the lesions of tuberculosis are defined by X-ray films of the affected organs after their removal at autopsy.... At the Henry Phipps Institute of the University of Pennsylvania opportunity was offered to continue, under very favorable conditions, study of the spread of tuberculosis and to obtain insight into the pathogenesis and transmission of the disease observed in patients and their families. It was pos-

OCR for page 292
EUGENE LINDSAY OPIE 299 sible to organize the outpatient department of the Institute so that its routine operation by clinical staff, X-ray department, visiting nurses and laboratory gave accurate and continuous information about the spread of the disease through several generations in whole families, white and colored, living in the district around the institute.... The revealing chest films and ingenious procedures introduced by Maurice McPhedran, my associate in these studies, had an important part in establishing the value of X-ray diagnosis. The frequent occurrence of recog- nizable pulmonary lesions unaccompanied by symptoms became evident for the first time, and the emergence of active disease from those latent, that is asymptomatic lesions, was repeatedly observed.... These studies were guided by parallel investiga- tion of the pathological anatomy, immunology and pathogenesis of the disease.... The relative importance of heredity, nutri- tion and transmission of infection was actively discussed. Studies at the Phipps Institute emphasized the dominant importance of the latter. Transmission of the disease by intimate family contact to both children and adults was clearly shown and marital transmission definitely established. Tuberculosis was found to occur in large part as long-drawn-out family or house- hold epidemics in which it was transmitted from one generation to the next." Opie's studies in Philadelphia were by no means limited to the clinical and visiting nurse services at the Phipps Institute itself. By arrangement with the Philadelphia school system, he carried out careful surveys of similar character on thousands of schoolchildren. At the University of Pennsylvania, he con- ducted investigations of the same character in medical students, whose work with patients in the autopsy room, and at the Philadelphia General Hospital, inevitably involved far more than average exposure to tuberculosis. But this was not enough to satisfy Opie in his examination of every facet of his developing concepts. The relative suscepti- hility of the white and colored races was always an important

OCR for page 292
300 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS consideration. He and his Phipps staff collaborated with the International Health Division of the Rockefeller Foundation in a study of the dissemination, transmission and character of tuberculosis in the predominantly black population of Jamaica. For ten years Opie visited the island every year. He found the disease more rapidly progressive in the black population of Jamaica than in either the whites or blacks of Philadelphia. This was particularly true among previously rural families who had moved from the less crowded countryside of Jamaica to the massive contagion of the towns and cities. In all of Opie's studies, the tuberculin test as an indication of the onset of infection was invaluable. The starting dates of childhood infection, in particular, could be determined pre- cisely, and by family X-ray examination the source of the new infection could generally be identified promptly, and protective measures instituted immediately. Long after he left the Phipps Institute, Opie continued with this pattern of study on tuberculosis. In 1939, while on leave of absence from his position at Cornell University (see p. 301), he served as visiting professor of pathology at the Peiping Union Medical College. There he compared the anatomical character of first infection and superinfection in Chinese adults. The crowded urban and less crowded rural environments gave him an unrivalled opportunity to pursue his studies. In effect, these confirmed his previous views on the contagion of the disease. His paper in collaboration with McPhedran on "The Con- tagion of Tuberculosis" in 1926 had already set forth in detail many of the factors concerned in exposure and infection, in- cluding their quantitative and time relations, first infection as compared with reinfection and such considerations as age, sex, and race. There was still controversy regarding the two con- trasting theories of the origin of the common ulcerative pul- monary tuberculosis of adults, i.e., the long-held concept of exogenous spread from old and latent childhood infections and

OCR for page 292
EUGENE LINDSAY OPIE 301 Opie's concept of new, heavy and continuous infection from another person. In the lone, run, the latter has prevailed in public health practice. Concurrently with his studies of tuberculosis at the Phipps Institute, Opie engaged in two other lines of highly productive research: investigations of the phenomena of immunity and leukemia. The work of Opie and his associate at the Institute, Jacob Furth, cleared up many of the mysteries of the phe- nomenon of anaphylaxis and the allied Arthus phenomenon. With other associatesStuart Mudd, Joseph Hughes and Daly ~ ~ . . . . . . . Vendne related Immunological [actors to surface proper- ties of bacteria and mammalian cells, determined the role of dead tubercle bacilli as an immunizing factor in promoting phagocytosis, and described the fixation of inflammatory ir- ritants at the site of inflammation. Opie's studies in these several fields, carried out in the 1 920s, remain of practical working value today. During Opie's tenure at the Phipps Institute, a generous anonymous donor provided substantial funds for an experi- mental study of leukemia in animals. A program of laboratory investigation outlined by Opie was assigned to his associate, Jacob Furth. Larvae laboratory space was provided, where pro- ductive studies related the leukemias in special strains of labora- tory mice and chickens to heredity and the action of viruses. Opie continued these studies on a larger scale when he left the Phipps Institute in 1931 to assume the position of professor of pathology at the medical college of Cornell University and pathologist of the New York Hospital. The financial Grant that ~ ~ ~ . ~ ~ . A, .. . . .. nick Seen provided In rn~aue~pn~a was transferred to Cornell, and Furth's studies with Opie were expanded on a large scale to include isolation in relatively pure form of leukemia virus and various factors in the induction of leukemia. Opie's ten years at Cornell (1931-1941) were marked by notable contributions to the principles of medical education.

OCR for page 292
302 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Not that this was a new field for him; he had, as noted before, taken an influential part in the modernization of medical teaching as professor and dean at Washington University. At Cornell he was intimately associated with the development of the College of Medicine and the New York Hospital as a medical center, and was indeed an important member of the hospital's Medical Board. One of his biographers, John Kidd, testified to the value of Opie's immense erudition, wisdom, rich experience, long perspective, and uncommon good sense in solving the multiple problems met by the Board. During this period influential immunological studies were also conducted, particularly with Jules Freund, on sensitization and antibody formation, tuberculosis in a variety of aspects, leukemia, and inflammation. Opie's work was not so much a return to these studies as a continuation of researches that had never been dropped. In 1941, at the statutory retirement age of sixty-eight, Opie left the New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center to move a few hundred yards away and continue research as "guest investi- gator" at the Rockefeller University, where he had been one of the original staff, thirty-seven years earlier. Retirement was a technicality. He was indeed relieved of administrative duties and the multiple harassments and demands on his time that are inevitable in an academic position of daily responsibilities. He could not stop scientific research, however. It had been a part of his life since boyhood and Opie regarded it as enjoyment rather than a series of tasks to be completed. In his own words, "It is a fortunate circumstance that most of those who follow academic careers derive so much satisfaction from the doing of their work that they are unwilling to give it up." He could also reflect quietly on the changing outlook on old age. He recalled, with his gentle and ever present sense of humor, a time when he quizzed a medical student on the time of life when a certain abnormality was likely to occur. "In the later period of life," the student replied, "between forty and fifty years of age."

OCR for page 292
EUGENE LINDSAY OPIE 1917 311 Progressive muscular ossification (progressive ossifying myositis); a progressive anomaly of osteogenesis. i. Med. Res., 36:267-75. With Nathaniel Allison. Hypertrophic chondrodystrophy in infancy and adolescence; a progressive anomaly of osteogenesis. l. Med. Res., 36:277-94. The focal pulmonary tuberculosis of children and adults. .T. Exp. Med., 25: 855-76. The relation of apical tuberculosis of adults to the focal tuberculosis of children. l. Exp. Med., 26:263-77. 1919 With Allen W. Freeman, Francis G. Blake, lames C. Small, and Thomas M. Rivers. Pneumonia at Camp Funston. Report to the Surgeon-General. l. Am. Med. Assoc., 72:108-16. With others. Trench Fever, ed. by Richard P. Strong. Report of Commission of Medical Research Committee of American Red Cross. London: Oxford University Press. 446 pp. With Allen W. Freeman, Francis G. Blake, fames C. Small, and Thomas M. Rivers. Pneumonia following influenza (at Camp Pike, Ark.~. l. Am. Med. Assoc., 72:556-65. 1920 With Hans Andersen. First infection with tuberculosis by way of the lungs. Am. Rev. Tuberc., 4: 629-39. First infection with tuberculosis by way of the intestinal tract. Am. Rev. Tuberc., 4:641-48. 1921 The effect of smoke on health. In: Proceedings of the Smoke Preven- tion Association, Fifteenth Annual Convention, St. Louis, pp. 16-19. 1922 Epidemic Respiratory Disease. St. Louis: C:. V. Mosby Co. 402 pp. Phthisiogenesis and latent tuberculous infection. Am. Rev. Tuberc., 6: 525-46. Intracellular digestion; the enzymes and anti-enzymes concerned. Physiological Reviews, 2:552-85.

OCR for page 292
312 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1923 The relation of antigen to antibody (precipitin) in vitro. J. Im- munol., 8: 19-34. The relation of antigen to antibody (precipitin) in the circulating blood. J. Immunol., 8:~-74. 1924 Inflammatory reaction of the immune animal to antigen (Arthus phenomenon) and its relation to antibodies. l. Immunol., 9: 231-45. Desensitization to local action of antigen (Arthus phenomenon). l. Immunol., 9:247-53. Acute inflammation caused by antibody in an animal previously treated with antigen; the relation of antigen to antibody in the Arthus phenomenon. I. Immunol., 9:255-57. Pathogenesis of the specific inflammatory reaction of immunized animals (Arthus phenomenon); the relation of focal "sensitiza- tion" to immunity. l. Immunol., 9:259-68. The fate of antigen (protein) in an animal immunized against it. J. Exp. Med., 39:659-75. Widespread tuberculous infection of healthy individuals and its significance. Bulletin of the New York Tuberculosis Association, b:1-7. Pathological evidence of first infection in association with active pulmonary tuberculosis. Am. Rev. Tuberc., 10: 249-64. Active and latent tuberculosis in the Negro race. Am. Rev. Tuberc., 10:265-74. 1925 Antibodies and resistance in tuberculosis. Assoc., 21st Annual Meeting, pp. 362-71. Specific inflammatory reactions accompanying (London), pp. 1-7. Pathologic physiology of liver in relation to fection. J. Am. Med. Assoc., 85:1533-37. Trans. Natl. Tuberc. immunity. Tubercle intoxication and in- 1926 With F. Maurice McPhedran. The contagion of tuberculosis. Am. Rev. Tuberc., 14: 347-418.

OCR for page 292
EUGENE LINDSAY OPIE 313 With i. Furth. Anaphylactic shock caused by antibody in animals sensitized by antigen reversed passive anaphylaxis. J. Exp. Med., 43:469-82. With F. Maurice McPhedran. Spread of tuberculosis within families. I. Am. Med. Assoc., 87: 1549-51. 1927 Infection with tuberculosis in children and in adults, and the re- lation of one to the other. (Mary Scott Newbold Lecture) Transactions of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia, pp. 1-24. With J. D. Aronson. Tubercle bacilli in latent tuberculous lesions and in lung tissue without tuberculous lesions. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med., 4: 1-21. With Joseph D. Aronson. Human and bovine tubercle bacilli in latent tuberculous lesions. Trans. Natl. Tuberc. Assoc., 23d Annual Meeting, pp. 265-67. Tuberculosis of lungs and bronchial lymph nodes. l. Am. Med. Assoc., 89:1293-96. Latent tuberculosis in children. Am. Rev. Tuberc., 16:468-78. Pathology of the tuberculosis of childhood and its bearing on clinical work. British Medical journal (Dec. 17), pp. 1-15. 1928 Experimental study of the leucemias and lymphomata. Medicine, 7:31-63. The pathologic anatomy of influenza, based chiefly on American and British sources. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med., 5:285-303. Finding tuberculosis for the good of the public health. American journal of Roentgenology and Radium Therapy, 19:284-86. 1929 Epidemiology and control of tuberculosis. (Address of the President) Am. Rev. Tuberc., 20: 141~9. With H. R. M. Landis, F. Maurice McPhedran, and H. W. Hether- ington. Tuberculosis in public-school children. Am. Rev. Tuberc., 20:413-20. With H. W. Hetherington, F. Maurice McPhedran, and H. R. M. Landis. A survey to determine the prevalence of tuberculous infection in school children. Am. Rev. Tuberc., 20:421-510.

OCR for page 292
314 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Inflammation and immunity. I- Immunol., 17:329-42. 1930 The pathogenesis and transmission of tuberculosis. (Harvey Lec- tures, 1928-1929) Am. J. Med. Sci., 179: 104-19. With E. i. Isaacs. Tuberculosis in Jamaica. Am. .T- Hyg., 12:1-61. The significance of advanced tuberculous infection of school chil- dren. i. Am. iMed. Assoc., 95: 1151-58. The epidemiology of tuberculosis of Negroes. Am. Rev. Tube~rc., 22:603-12. Anatomical characteristics of tuberculosis in Jamaica. Am. Rev. Tuberc., 22:613-25. 1931 With H. W. Hetherington, F. Maurice McPhedran, and H. R. M. Landis. Tuberculosis in medical and college students. Arch. Intern. Med., 48: 734-63. With H. W. Hetherington, F. Maurice McPhedran, and H. R. M. Landis. Tuberculosis in medical students. Transactions of the Association of American Physicians, 46:237-41. 1932 The epidemiology of tuberculosis in relation to the pathological anatomy and pathogenesis of the disease. Libman Anniversary Volumes, 3:901-15. New York: International Press. Cellular reactions of tuberculosis and their relation to immunity and sensitization. Arch. Pathol., 14:706-21. With F. Maurice McPhedran. Exogenous tuberculous infection of adults; marital tuberculosis. Arch. Intern. Med., 50:945-51. 1933 Recognition and control of tuberculosis of childhood. American Journal of Public Health, 23:305-15. With F. Maurice McPhedran. Clinical significance of latent pul- monary tuberculosis. Arch. Intern. Med., 52:137-46.

OCR for page 292
EUGENE LINDSAY OPIE 1934 315 With H. W. Hetherington, F. M. McPhedran, and H. R. M. Landis. A further study of tuberculosis in public-school children. Am. Rev. Tuberc., 29: 142-68. 1935 With H. W. Hetherington, F. M. McPhedran, and H. R. M. Landis. Further study of tuberculosis among medical and other univer- sity students; occurrence and development of lesions during the medical course. Arch. Intern. Med., 55:709-34. With F. M. McPhedran. The organization of an out-patient tuber- culosis clinic for epidemiological investigation. Am. J. Hyg., 22:539-64. With F. M. McPhedran. The spread of tuberculosis in families. Am. J. Hyg., 22:565-643. With F. M. McPhedran and Persis Putnam. The fate of persons in contact with tuberculosis; the exogenous infection of children and adults. Am. J. Hyg., 22:644-82. Present concepts of tuberculous infection and disease; their prin- ciples and application. Am. Rev. Tuberc., 32:617-30. William Henry Welch. I. Tech. Methods, 14:v-viii. 1936 - With F. M. McPhedran. The spread of tuberculosis in Negro families. Am. J. Hyg., 23:493-514. With F. M. McPhedran and Persis Putnam. The fate of Negro per- sons in contact with tuberculosis. Am. l. Hyg., 23:515-29. With F. M. McPhedran and Persis Putnam. The relative frequency of clinically manifest tuberculosis, open tuberculosis, asympto- matic lesions and deaths in white and Negro persons. Am. T. Hyg., 23:530-38. The significance of allergy in disease. Medicine, 15:489-509. 1937 With Jules Freund. An experimental study of protective inocula- tion with heat killed tubercle bacilli. I. Exp. Med., 66:761-88.

OCR for page 292
316 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1938 With Jules Freund. Sensitization and antibody formation with in- creased resistance to tuberculous infection induced by heat killed tubercle bacilli. l. Exp. Med., 68:273-98. 1939 With E. W. Flahiff and H. H. Smith. Protective inoculation against human tuberculosis with heat killed tubercle bacilli. Am. J. Hyg., 29: 155-64. Tuberculosis of first infection and of reinfection; their frequency in Chinese people of Peking. Chin. Med. J., 56: 197-215. Tuberculosis of first infection in adults from rural districts of China. Chin. Med. l., 56:216-44. The biology of the tubercle bacillus. Peking Natural History Bulletin (1939-1940), 14:1-3. 1941 With E. Joyce Saward and Persis Putnam. The spread of tubercu- losis in Negro families of Jamaica, B. W. I. Am. J. Hyg. Monogr. Ser.no.16,pp.1-53. With Persis Putnam and E. Joyce Saward. The fate of Negro persons of a tropical country, Jamaica, B. W. I., after contact with tuberculosis. Am. J. Hyg. Monogr. Ser. no. 16, pp. 57-95. The use of x-rays in the post-mortem examination of lungs with reference to tuberculosis. Symposium on the use of x-rays in pathologic investigation and in museum displays. J. Tech. Methods, 21: 1-4. 1942 With Samuel H. Picks. Proteolytic digestion of red and white blood corpuscles in the spleen. Am. I. Pathol., 18~2~:333-41. 1943 The experimental production of leukemia and its significance in relation to the human disease. Proceedings of the Institute of Medicine of Chicago, 14~13~: 382-92. With Eyup H. Canat. Inflammation in embryonic life. I. Changes produced by particulate matter and by a chemical agent. Am. l. Pathol., 19~3~: 371-83.

OCR for page 292
EUGENE LINDSAY OPIE 317 With Eyup H. Canat. Inflammation in embryonic life. II. Infection of chick embryos with avian tubercle bacilli. Am. I. Pathol., 19~3~:385-94. 1944 The influence of diet on the production of tumors of the liver by butter yellow. J. Exp. Med., 80~3~:219-30. The pathogenesis of tumors of the liver produced by butter yellow. J. Exp. Med., 80~3~:231~6. 1946 Mobilization of basophile substance (ribonucleic acid) in the cyto- plasm of liver cells with the production of tumors by butter yellow. J. Exp. Med., 84~1~:91-106. With G. I. Lavin. Localization of ribonucleic acid in the cytoplasm of liver cells. J. Exp. Med., 84~1~:107-12. Obituary. Simon Flexner, M.D. 1863-1946. Arch. Pathol., 42: 234~. 1947 The influence of diet on the production of hepatic tumors induced by p-dimethylaminobenzene. In: Approaches to Tumor Cherno- therapy' ed. by Forest Ray Moulton, pp. 128-38. AAAS Sym- posium Publication no. 26. Washington: American Association for the Advancement of Science. Normal structure and degenerative changes of the cytoplasm of liver cells and of tumor cells derived from them. i. Exp. Med., 85(4):339-46. Cytochondria of normal cells, of tumor cells, and of cells with various injuries. i. Exp. Med., 86~1~:45-54. 1948 An osmotic system within the cytoplasm of cells. l. Exp. Med., 87~5~:425~4. 1949 The movement of water in tissues removed from the body and its relation to movement of water during life. l. Exp. Med., 89~2~: 185-208.

OCR for page 292
318 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS The movement of water in tumor tissues removed from the body. J. Exp. Med., 89~2~:209-22. Osler as a pathologist. Bulletin of the History of Medicine, 23~4~: 321-26. 1950 The effect of injury by toxic agents upon osmotic pressure main- tained by cells of liver and of kidney. J. Exp. Med., 9 1 (3~: 285-94. With Mary B. Rothbard. The movement of water in interstitial tissue and in muscle removed from the body. Arch. Pathol., 50:800-812. 1951 Cancer. In: Nelson Loose-Leaf Medicine, pp. 161-82. New York: Thomas Nelson & Sons. 1953 With Mary B. Rothbard. Osmotic homeostasis maintained by mam- malian liver, kidney, and other tissues. T. Exp. Med., 97~4~: 483-97. With Mary B. Rothbard. Water exchange of collagenous tissues and of gelatin. i. Exp. Med., 97~4~: 499-503. 1954 Osmotic activity of liver cells and melting point of liver. J. Exp. Med., 99(1):29-41. Osmotic activity of tissues during fetal and post-natal growth. T. Exp. Med., 100(4):405-16. Osmotic activity in relation to the movement of water under normal and pathological conditions. (Harvey Lectures, Series I, 1954- 1955) New York: Academic Press, Inc. 1955 Pathogenesis, cellular pathology and the nomenclature of disease illustrated by the hepatic necrosis, lipidosis and cirrhosis that are caused by protein diet deficiency. (The Twenty-first Middle- ton Goldsmith Lecture) Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 31:279.

OCR for page 292
EUGENE LINDSAY OPIE 1956 319 Changes in the osmotic activity of liver and of kidney tissue caused by passage of sodium chloride, urea, and some other substances into cells. J. Exp. Med., 103~3~:351-62. Changes caused by injurious agents in the permeability of surviving cells of liver and of kidney. l. Exp. Med., 104~6~:897-919. 1957 The peripatetic education of a pathologist. In: The Medical Clinics of North America, pp. 935-~. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Co. Charles Russell Bardeen. In: Addresses Delivered in Honor of Charles R. Bardeen, pp. 6-17. Madison: Univ. of Wisconsin Press. 1958 Osmotic pressure of liver cells. In: Symposium on Liver Function, pp. 141-52. Publication no 4. Washington: American Institute of Biological Sciences. 1959 Isotonicity of liver and of kidney tissue in solutions of electrolytes. J. Exp. Med., 110~1~: 103-11. 1960 The relation of urea to the movement of water in liver tissue. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 46~4~:477-83. With l. D. Broome. The movement of electrolytes and of water in surviving tissue of the liver. I. Exp. Med., 112~3~:491-98. 1961 The relation of oxygen supply to water movement and to urea for- mation in surviving liver tissue. l. Exp. Med., 113:339-~. The effect of varied oxygen supply and of food intake on water movement in surviving liver tissue. l. Exp. Med., 113: 353-57. 1962 On the relation of necrosis and inflammation to denaturation of proteins. l. Exp. Med., 115:597-608.

OCR for page 292
320 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1963 On the relation of inflammation to the chemical constitution of injurious agents. On the pharmacology of inflammation. J. Exp. Med., 117:425-48. 1964 Inflammation in serous cavities. Arch. Pathol., 78:1-10. 1965 The relation of inflammation to the molecular structure of carbon compounds soluble in the fluids of the body. l. Exp. Med., 121: 487-502. 1966 The normal and pathological movement of water in tissues and its relation to the colligative properties of solutions and to inflam- mation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., 56:426-39. 1968 Relation of visual illusions to memory Diseases of the Nervous System, 29:552-56. 1970 The theory of retrojection of bile into the pancreas. Review of Surgery, 27:1-7. With Clara J. Lynch, M.D., and Marika Tershakovec. Sclerosis of the mesenteric arteries of rats. Its relation to longevity and inheritance. Arch. Pathol., 89:306-13. Adoption of standards of the best medical schools of Western Europe by those of the United States. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, 13: 309-42.

OCR for page 292