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JOHN RODMAN PAUL April 18,1893-May 6,1971 BY DOROTHY M. HORSTMANN AND PAUL B. BEESON JOHN PAUL was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the third child in a family of eight. His father was Henry Neill Paul, and his mother had been Margaret Crosby Butler of Yonkers, New York. The Pauls trace their ancestry to Joseph Paull of Illminster, England, who emigrated to this country in 1685, settling with William Penn's Quakers in Philadelphia. On his mother's side, John was a descendant of Theophilus Eaton, the first governor of Connecticut, and of Benjamin F. Butler, Andrew Jackson's attorney general. His maternal t,randfather was William Allen Butler, an eminent lawyer and poet. John's father was also a lawyer and a man of broad scholarly interests. He loved Shakespeare and Elizabethan drama, was Dean of the Philadelphia Shakespeare Society for many years, and published a number of Shakespeare commentaries as well as The Royal Play of Macbeth, a scholarly analysis of the origins of the play. His interests were also in natural history. In the 1880s, while at Princeton, he had taken part in expeditions to Montana for geological and paleontological explorations. His accounts of these trips fascinated John, who later counted them as a major factor in awakening his interest in science at a very early age. This interest was further encouraged when the Paul family settled in Chestnut Hill, then an open suburb of Philadelphia, 323

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324 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS with woods, streams, and fields where the Paul children could roam and bring home to their family museum minerals, butter- flies, birds eggs, and even Indian arrowheads. Summers were spent at Beach Haven on the New Jersey shore, and shells and sea specimens were also added to their collections. A love of the out-of-doors was a deep and sustaining influence throughout John Paul's life, as well as the source of many of his hobbies bird watching, archeology, wood carving, building stone walls, watercoloring, and photography, etc. It was also responsible for his being an active and articulate conservationist as early as the 1930s, long before the need for preservation of the environ- ment became a popular cause. As a child, John is said to have been reserved, rather shy, but with a strong humorous streak. He had stamina and energy but was not robust, so to improve his health he was sent to New Hampshire at age eleven, where he was tutored and spent much time out-of-doors during the winter before entering St. George's School, in Newport, Rhode Island. The six years at St. George's were important and happy ones: he was an outstanding student and won many scholastic prizes in Latin, Greek, and history. He became editor of the school magazine, manager of the foot- ball team, and coxswain of the school crew. In 1911 John entered Princeton. At first he led a relaxed and carefree life there without any particular scholarly focus until he came under the influence of Edwin Grant Conklin, professor of biology. Conklin was the kind of professor who lit fires under his students; from then on John took off scientifically and spent as much time as possible in the laboratory. Still he lived a full life at Princeton: he was very popular in his class, was an editor of the Princeton Tiger, a member of the Ivy Club, and manager of the crew and sometimes its coxswain. The decision to study medicine came about through associa- tion with Cecil Drinker, one of John's heroes at the time and subsequently Dean of the Harvard School of Public Health.

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JOHN 1tODMAN PAUL 325 The Paul and Drinker families had been neighbors and close friends during summers at Beach Haven, where Cecil had taught John to sail the Drinker's yawl. Cecil's younger brother, Philip, and John were the same age and became fast friends. Later they roomed together all through St. George's School and Princeton. During the Princeton years, Cecil, Philip, and John sailed together in the summers and it was on these pleasant cruises that Cecil persuaded John that he should go to medical school. The advice was accepted, and after graduation from Princeton in 1915, he enrolled at the Johns Hopkins Univer- sity School of Medicine. His goal, he said in later years, was "to be a medical scientist just like Cecil," rather than a prac- ticing physician, the role his family had in mind for him. He never swerved from his commitment to a career as an investi- gator. In 1917, when he was in his second year of medical school, the United States entered World War I. In June, along with thirty-one other medical students, Paul joined the Hopkins unit as an enlisted man and sailed from New York in the first U.S. convoy of World War I to head directly for France, carrying combat and other troopsthe vanguard of Pershing's army. The major part of the army transport on which he found himself was occupied by seasoned soldiers, and (as he wrote later) the medical contingent "consisting of the Johns Hopkins Hospital Unit, a hastily assembled and motley group of raw recruits, occupied a place befitting their military experiencefar astern and deep in the bowels of the ship." After eighteen long days at sea, often in submarine-infested waters, the overcrowded ships finally reached St. Nazaire, where the men received a warm wel- come from the French. The Hopkins unit went on by train to Bazoille sur Meuse, where Base Hospital #18 was set up, well back of the front line. John's assignments were as bacteriolog- ical technician and substitute ambulance driver. The bac- teriology laboratory was a valuable experience that apparently

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326 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS had considerable influence in shaping his subsequent career. His first duty was to determine the effectiveness of a new method of treating wound infections by continuous irrigation with a sodium hypochlorite solution devised by Dakin, an English chemist. The mountainous task of doing daily smears and bac- terial counts on swabs from the wounds of the many patients who had infections with gas-forming bacilli eventually proved dull work; and since the results did not prove to be helpful as indicators of the course of infection, the study was finally aban- doned. Driving an ambulance turned out to have greater re- wards, which involved a month at St. Nazaire assembling Ford ambulances (they arrived two in a box) and proudly driving the finished products back to Bazoille. After a year in France, Paul, his great friend John M. T. Finney, Jr., and others of the students at Base Hospital-#18 were persuaded that they should return to Hopkins to complete their medical education. By a fortunate stroke of fate, Paul missed the ship on which he was scheduled to returnone that was torpedoed and lostand came through on another, which sailed successfully from Brest to New York. Shortly after his arrival in Baltimore, the 1918 influenza epidemic erupted and the wards of the Johns Hopkins Hospital were filled with desperately ill patients, many of them professors and staff mem- bers. Apparently the wave of relatively mild respiratory illness that had swept France in 1917 was the forerunner of the more severe 1918 epidemic, and infection with the agent in France conferred immunity on those who had had experience with it, including John Paul. At that time he had had no clinical train- ing but in the desperate situation was put to work on the wards as a substitute intern, to care for the patients as best he could. It was a harrowing ordeal, since the mortality rate was extremely high. The helplessness of the physicians made a deep impres- sion on the young Paul. As he wrote years later: "Many were the nights I passed, making do with a few hours

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J OHN RODMAN PAUL 327 of uneasy sleep grabbed as best I could from a 20-hour day, tossing and twisting and deciding that it would have been better if the influenza patients had never come to the hospital. The lessons we learned in those days were not how to treat patients who had postinfluenza pneumonia with drugs, but rather how to save their lives by preventing exposure on the isolation wards by mixing them up with cases of tonsillitis and scarlet fever. If the patients with influenza were kept by themselves they had a far better chance of avoiding cross-infection with pathogenic bacteria, especially the hemolytic streptococcus. This was an epidemiological principle reminiscent of the days of Semmelweis and puerperal fever." ~ Although his military experience caused him to miss his third year of medical school, Paul graduated with the class of 1919. He immediately joined W. G. McCallum, professor of pathology at Hopkins on a trip to Lima, Peru, where the sum- mer was spent working on bartonellosis. The routine consisted of doing autopsies at the hospital in the mornings and exploring the city and its archeologic treasures in the afternoons. On his return to Baltimore, John joined McCallum at Hop- kins as an assistant in pathology. Two of his classmates, Arnold Rich and Leslie Webster, did the same, and the three had a lively and productive year in the laboratory. Paul's first con- tribution to medicine was made during that yeara paper on the histopathology of measles conjunctivitis. Thus his first work dealt with a virus infectiona prophetic note since he devoted most of the rest of his professional life to investigations in that held. The next two years were spent as an intern at the Pennsyl- vania Hospital in Philadelphia. In 1922 he was appointed Director of the Ayer Clinical Laboratory of the Pennsylvania ~ J. R. Paul, "A Clinician's Place in Academic Preventive Medicine: My Favorite Hobby," Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine 47(1971): 1264 (hereafter cited as "Clinician's Place").

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328 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Hospital, a post that had previously been held by Dr. Warfield T. Longcope. Activities during the six-year period at the Ayer Laboratory resulted in papers on a variety of subjects dealing with bacteriology and pathology, including the fir.c~ ones on 1 ~ ~ . rheumatic fever, a disease that was to engage much of his at- tention in the ensuing years. In fact, it was when he presented a paper on the pleural and pulmonary lesions in rheumatic fever at the clinical meetings in Atlantic City in the spring of 1928 that he was invited by Francis Blake, professor of medicine at Yale, to join his department as an assistant professor. Thus began Paul's long association with Yaleone that continued until his death forty-three years later. In the 1920s, the Yale Medical School was in the midst of a renaissance under the dynamic leadership of Dean Milton C. Winternitz. Winternitz had gathered together for the recently created full-time faculty a stellar group of young clinician- scientists, including among others Francis Blake, John P. Peters, Grover Powers, and James Trask. According to Dr. Paul, they were all "young, eager, and well trained men, imbued with the idea of making the fulltime system work." He himself fitted into this setting perfectly and within several years of his arrival in New Haven had launched into several major pieces of work that proved to be important landmarks in clinical investigation. Among these were the studies of rheumatic families, the dis- covery of the heterophile antibody (Paul-Bunnell) test for in- fectious mononucleosis, and the demonstration that the com- monest clinical expression of infection with polioviruses is not paralysis, but the "minor illness" or "abortive" form of the disease that is often so mild as to go unrecognized. The seeds of the scientific philosophy that characterized his later work at Yale, and in fact ran throughout his entire pro- fessional life, were planted early in John Paul's mindwhen he was a second-year medical student. At that time he attended a meeting of the Federation of Biological Sciences in New York

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JOHN RODMAN PAUL 329 City at which there was a lively discussion of the disastrous epidemic of poliomyelitis that had raged in New York and New England during the summer of 1916. In looking back on that occasion, he wrote: "I must have been a singularly impressionable young man at the time, and I was certainly engrossed in watching and hear- ing the words of these great men, who were engaged in recount- ing their efforts to attempt to solve the problem of epidemic poliomyelitis, applying the very weapons which we had been taught to use in our first years at medical school. Dr. Simon Flexner was in the chair; Dr. Peyton Rous was at his side as secretary; and Hideyo Noguchi, who was there as a speaker, was introduced as a man of mystery, one who could almost turn lead into pure gold, or at least turn the virus of poliomy- elitis into 'globoid bodies.' "As a rapt listener, the idea first dawned on me that the religion of the true physician was incomplete without having the concepts of prevention thoroughly ingrained in him. This was particularly true when it came to the prevention of such a colossal tragedy as the 1916 epidemic. My immature reasoning, which I never lost, was that, together with attempts to cure this pestilence, there should be attempts to control it, and this should be done by clinicians who knew the disease best. In other words, this concept should radiate from the top physicians and pediatricians." ~ Once these ideas had taken root, they were nourished by Paul's experience during the 1918 influenza epidemic and grad- ually flowered in the 1920s and 1930s as his concept of "Clinical Epidemiology" developed and took form. In his presidential address to the American Society for Clinical Investigation in 1938, he said: "The term, Clinical Investigation in Preventive Medicine, ~ Paul, "Clinician's Place," p. 1263.

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330 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS is cumbersome and so I will not use it.... It presupposes the existence of a so-called sister science, Curative Medicine.... Clinical Investigation in Epidemiology is better for the pur- poses at hand; Clinical Epidemiology is best, and really what I mean.... It is a science concerned with circumstances, whether they are 'functional' or 'organic' under which human disease is prone to develop. It is a science concerned with the ecology of human disease. It must face the question of 'why' as well as 'how'. Clinical Epidemiology differs, therefore, from the orthodox science of Epidemiology, both in its aim, and its locale, as it were. The orthodox epidemiologist must of neces- sity deal dispassionately with large groups of people. It is the multiplication of observations which give him his results. The clinical epidemiologist, on the other hand, must of necessity deal with small groups of people; people whom he knows well and groups no larger than a family, or small community. The restriction of the size of the group rests on the fact that clinical judgment cannot be applied wholesale, without the risk of its being spread too thinly to be effective.... The clinical epi- demiologist, . . . starts with a sick individual and cautiously branches out into the setting where that individual became sick, the home, the family, and the workshop. He is anxious to analyze the intimate details under which his patient became ill. He is also anxious to search for other members of the patient's family, or community group who are actually, or potentially, ill. It is his aim to thus place his patients in the pat- tern in which he belongs, rather than to regard him as a lone sick man who was suddenly popped out of a health setting; and it is also his aim to bring his judgment to bear upon the situa- tion, as well as on the patient. "Obviously there is nothing new to the family doctor about this concept of Medicine. It is the heart and soul of family practice and probably has been as long as family practice has existed. But now that the emphasis has shifted away from the

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JOHN ELODMAN PAUL 331 home and into the Hospital or Dispensary, clinical epidemiology will be practiced only if we take thought about it." ~ Dr. Paul never cared for the term "Preventive Medicine," although eventually his professorship and his section at Yale used this terminology. He regarded it as "too boastful, too suggestive that great things might be just around the corner." His belief was that the focus should be on the teaching of the underlying principles of prevention, i.e., epidemiology. In championing these concepts he was perhaps ahead of his time, but in the past decade his pioneering efforts have begun to bear fruit. The best possible support is provided by his own achieve- ments in which he combined so successfully the study of certain diseases: at the bedside, in the laboratory, and in the natural setting in which they developed. In the New Haven Hospital in 1928 rheumatic fever was a common disease. Paul took advantage of the opportunities this situation provided and turned his attention to unraveling the epidemiology of the disease. His focus was on rheumatic fever in families and the factors involved in its spread. Many of the social and environmental aspects were explored through in- timate, long-term studies over an eight-year period of all mem- bers of 122 rheumatic families and suitable control families. When he began his studies, the role of the hemolytic strepto- coccus was not yet appreciated, but based on his observations Paul concluded that respiratory infection of some kind pre- cipitated the acute attack. While not the first to suggest a relationship between the hemolytic streptococcus and rheumatic fever, it is fair to say that the book he published in 1930, The Epidemiology of Rheumatic Fetter, and particularly the second edition in 1943, set forth the evidence for a causal relationship in such a way that there was never any further question about it. it J. R. Paul, "Clinical Epidemiology," Journal of Clinical Investigation 17(1938) :539~1. t Paul, "Clinician's Place," p. 1267.

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332 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS It was in the course of serologic investigations of patients with rheumatic fever that the heterophile antibody test for in- fectious mononucleosis was discovered. This came about when, having confirmed the observation made by Davidson in 1929 that agglutinins to sheep cells are present in the sera of patients with serum sickness, Paul raised the question whether such heterophile antibodies might not also be present in rheumatic fever since there were similarities between the symptoms of the two diseases. The results with sera of rheumatic patients were negative, but quite by accident, among the control specimens from patients with serum sickness and various other acute ill- nesses, there was one with an extraordinarily high titer higher than had ever been described in serum sickness or any other clinical condition. The patient from whom the specimen came was a medical student with infectious mononucleosis. Gradually over the ensuing months several other patients with this disease were also found to have high heterophile antibody titers, while tests on some 275 controls gave consistently negative results. In 1932 Paul and Bunnell, a medical resident who col- laborated on the project, published their findings. The test, which is still sometimes referred to as the Paul-Bunnell test, re- mains today as the chief laboratory method in the diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis. The first investigations of poliomyelitis, the disease on which Paul's main work was subsequently concentrated, also began early in the 1930s. In Middletown, Connecticut, twenty- six miles from New Haven, a small epidemic occurred in 1930. Paul and his colleague lames Trask were struck by the wide range in severity of the disease. Some suspected cases not only did not have paralysis, but had little or no neck stiffness. Were these also infections with the virus of poliomyelitis? The fol- lowing year, New Haven experienced a sharp epidemic and the opportunity to answer this question by attempting to isolate the virus presented itself. Characteristically, Paul and Trask

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J OHN RODMAN PAUL 359 and W. E. Knox, p. 52. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc. 1951 Infectious mononucleosis. In: Current Therapy, ed. by H. F. Conn, pp. 23-24. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Co. Encephalitis (virus types). In: Current Therapy, ed. by H. F. Conn, pp. 511-12. Philadelphia: W. B.-Saunders Co. Observations on the history of poliomyelitis. Bull. Ayer Clin. Lab., 4:21-33. With l. 17. Riordan and L. M. Kraft Serological epidemiology: antibody patterns in North Alaskan Eskimos. journal of Im- munology, 66: 695-713. With i. T. Riordan and l. L. Melnick. Antibodies to three different a~tigenic types of poliomyelitis virus in sera from North Alaskan Eskimos. Am. J. Hyg., 54: 275-85. Recent trends in poliomyelitis research. Am. l. Med., 11:577-80. Poliomyelitis and poliomyelitis following inoculation. In: Modern Practice in Infectious Fevers, ed. by H. S. Banks, pp. 659-79. London: Butterworth & Co., Ltd. Poliomyelitis~infantile paralysis). In: Textbook of Medicine, 8th ea., by R. L. Cecil and R. F. Loeb, pp. 55-64. Philadelphia: - -r - W. B. Saunders Co. With l. L. Melnick, l. T. Riordan, V. H. Barnett, N. Goldblum, and E. Zabin. Isolation from human sera in Egypt of a virus apparently identical to West Nile Virus. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 77:661-65. 1952 Current knowledge and trends in poliomyelitis. The Merck Report, pp. 3-8. Rahway, N.J.: Merck & Company, Inc. Recent advances in poliomyelitis research. Chicago Medical Society Bulletin, 34:837-40. With l. L. Melnick, V. H. Barnett, and N. Goldblum. A survey of neutralizing antibodies to poliomyelitis virus in Cairo, Egypt. Am. l. Hyg., b5:402-13. Francis Gilman Blake, 1887-1952. Yale J. Biol. Med., 24:435-49. Poliomyelitis: mysterious, paralyzing disease. Link, pp. 6-8. Present concepts and recent advances in acute poliomyelitis. Ar- chives of Internal Merlicine, 90:271-79.

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360 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Viral hepatitis in U.S. troops in Germany. United States Armed Forces Medical journal, 3: 1457-63. With l. L. Melnick and i. T. Riordan. Comparative neutralizing antibody patterns to Lansing (Type 2) poliomyelitis virus in different populations. Am. J. Hyg., 56:232-51. Geography and antibodies. Trans. Assoc. Am. Physicians, 65:184- 90. Knowledge and trends in poliomyelitis: a summary. In: Poliomy- elitis: Papers and Discussions Presented at the Second Interna- tional Poliomyelitis Conference, pp. 376-81. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co. With W. P. Havens, Jr. Infectious hepatitis and serum hepatitis. In: Viral and Rickettsial Infections of Man, Ed ea., ed. by T. M. Rivers, pp. 359-77. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co. 1953 The neurotropic viruses. Recent advances in poliomyelitis and the virus encephalitides. Acta Medica Scandinavia, 146:56-58. Climate and antibodies. Trans. Am. Clin. Climatol. Assoc., 4: 163-68. Expert committee on hepatitis. First report. World Health Organi- zation Technical Report Series no. 62. Geneva. 1954 Immunization against poliomyelitis: its present status. Conn. State Med. J., 18:140-44. Warfield T. Longcope (1877-1953~. Pennsylvania Hospital Bulletin, 11:9-10. With J. L. Melnick and D. M. Horstmann. The Yale poliomyelitis study unit. Yale School of Medicine Alumni Bulletin, 2:2. Practical and theoretical considerations with regard to vaccination in poliomyelitis. I. Am. Med. Assoc., 156: 18-20. Epidemiology and its teaching in medical schools. Yale l. Biol. Med., 27:35-45. Historical and geographical aspects of the epidemiology of polio- myelitis. Yale J. Biol. Med., 27: 101-13. The patient and his environment. In: The Principles of Internal Medicine, 2d ea., ed. by T. R. Harrison et al., pp. 7-10. New York: Blakiston. Francis Gilman Blake, 1887-1952. In: National Academy of Sci-

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JOHN RODMAN PAUL 361 ences, Biographical Memoirs, 28:1-29. Washington, D.C.: Na- tional Academy of Sciences. 1955 Second A.A.M.C. teaching institutes. Med., 4:~-10. Newsl. Assoc. Teach. Prev. With I. L. Melnick and M. Walton. Serologic epidemiology of poliomyelitis. Am. i. Public Health, 45:429-37. Symposium on poliomyelitis. Epidemiology. Modern Medicine, 23~10~: 160-61. With D. M. Horstmann. A survey of poliomyelitis virus antibodies in French Morocco. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 4:512-24. With H. van Magnus and J. H. S. Gear. A recent definition of polio- myelitis viruses. Virology, 1:185-89. Poliomyelitis (infantile paralysis). In: Textbook of Medicine, 9th ea., ed. by R. L. Cecil and R. F. Loeb. no. 59-~g Phil~rir~lnhi~ W. B. Saunders Co. ~ ~ <~_- v ~ ~ _ - ~ ^~ ~ ~~111C4~. With l. L. Melnick. Viruses. In: Medical and Public Health Lab- oratory Methods, 6th ea., by i. S. Simmons and C. l. Gentzkow. chap. 37, pp. 836-48. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger. Epidemiology of poliomyelitis. World Health Or=nniz~tinn Mann graph Series, 26:9-29. ~ ~ it, ~ ~ , ~ _. ~ an, ~ ,, ~ ,, ~ Future prospects. In: Poliomyelitis: Papers and Discussions Pre- sented at the 3d International Poliomyelitis Conference, pp. 420-23. Philadelphia: l. B. Lippincott Co. 1956 Properties of an "ideal" poliomyelitis vaccine. Bull. N.Y. Acad. Med., 32:747-52. With C. M. MacLeod, K. F. Meyer, J. B. Shimkin, and R. E. Shope. The United States medical mission on microbiology and epide- miology to the Soviet Union. USDHEW, Public Health Service. J. Am. Med. Assoc., 162: 656-58. Indications for vaccination against poliomyelitis. i. Am. Med. Assoc., 162:1585-88. With I. L. Melnick. Poliomyelitis. In: Diagnostic Procedures for Virus and Rickettsial Disease, Cd ea., pp. 53-90. New York: American Public Health Association. With D. M. Horstmann. Etude des anticorps antipoliomyelitiques

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362 BI OGRAPHICAL MEM OIRS chez les habitants du Maroc Franc~ais. Maroc-Medical, 368: 35-36. The epidemiology of rheumatic fever. In: Diagnosis and Treat- ment of Cardiovascular Diseases, 3d ea., ed. by W. D. Stroud, pp. 985-94. Philadelphia: F. A. Davis Co. Worldwide public health progress. Conn. State Med. .T-, 20:650-51. The advancement of scientific and practical medicine. (Presidential Address) Trans. Assoc. Am. Physicians, 69:1-6. Epidemiologia de la poliomyelitis. Boletin de la Oficina Sanitaria Panamericana, 40~6~ :521-36. Infectious mononucleosis. In: Practice of Medicine, 6th ea., ed. by I. C. Meakins, pp. 339-47. St. Louis: C. V. Mosby Co. 1957 Encephalitis (virus type). In: Current Therapy, ed. by H. F. Conn, pp. 500-501. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Co. The Soviet program for medical research, 1956-1960. A brief and critical review of "The Research Plan of the Academy of Medical Sciences U.S.S.R., 1956-1960." Yale l. Biol. Med., 29:377-88. Poliomyelitis immunization in 1957. (Editorial) Ann. Intern. Med., 46: 1214-18. With D. M. Horstmann, l. L. Melnick, and l. V. Deutsch. Infection induced by oral administration of attenuated poliovirus to per- sons possessing homotypic antibody. l. Exp. Med., 106: 159-77. American medical mission to the Soviet Union. Scientific Monthly, 85: 150-56. With D. M. Horstmann, l. L. Melnick, I. C. Niederman, and l. V. Deutsch. Immunization against poliomyelitis: killed vaccine followed by induced infection with live virus. New York Acad- emy of Sciences Special Publication, vol. 5, pp. 141-47. Poliomyelitis in the tropics. Industry and Tropical Health, 3:81- 86. With D. M. Horstmann, l. C. Niederman, and l. L. Melnick. Polio- myelitis: comparison of responses of vaccinated and naturally immune humans to ingestion of attenuated poliovirus. Trans. Assoc. Am. Physicians, 70:91-101. Epidemiology of infectious hepatitis. In: Hepatitis Frontiers, pp. 183-93. Boston: Little, Brown & Co. Epidemiology of rheumatic fever. In: Diagnosis and Treatment of

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J OHN RODMAN PAUL 363 Cardiovascular Diseases, ed. by W. D. Stroud, chap. 6, pp. 141- 49. Philadelphia: F. A. Davis Co. 1958 With J. C. Niederman. The home visit as a teaching exercise: a clinical concept. journal of Medical Education, 33:29-35. Infant mortality rates and poliomyelitis: an epidemiological study. Science, 127: 1062. With W. W. McClure. Epidemic hemorrhagic fever attack rates among United Nations boons during the Korean War Am Hyg., 68: 126-39. With C. N. H. Long. John Punnett Peters, 1887-1955. In: National Academy of Sciences, Biographical Memoirs, 31: 347-75. New York: Columbia Univ. Press. Encephalitis (virus type). In: Current Therapy, ed. by H. F. Conn, pp. bb9-60. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Co. Haven Emerson, 1874-1957. Trans. Assoc. Am. Physicians, 71: 23-24. 'TV ~ ~^ , ~,^~ .~^ ~4, ~ v ~4 . ~ .,,,. J . Endemic and epidemic trends of poliomyelitis in Central and South America. Bull. WHO, 19:747-58. With W. P. Havens, in Infectious hepatitis and serum hepatitis. In: Viral and Rickettsial Infections of Man, 3d ea., ed. by T. M. Rivers and F. L. Horsfall, pp. 570-91. Philadelphia: J. B. Lip- pincott Co. Infectious mononucleosis. In: Viral and Rickettsial Infections of Man, ad ea., ed. by T. M. Rivers and F. L. Horsfall, pp. 790-98. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co. Clinical Epidemiology. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press. Vaccination against poliomyelitis. (Discussion of paper by A. M.- M. Payne) In: Poliomyelitis: Papers and Discussions Presented at the Fourth International Poliomyelitis Conference, pp. 179- 80. Philadelphia: l. B. Lippincott Co. 1959 Poliomyelitis (infantile paralysis). In: Textbook of Medicine, 10th ea., ed. by R. L. Cecil and R. F. Loeb, pp. 60-70. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Co. Commentaries on medical education and medical research in Latin America, 1958. Yale J. Biol. Med., 31 :284-93.

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364 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS The Eighteenth Charles Value Chapin Oration: Chapin and mod- ern epidemiology. R.I. Med. i., 42: 375-79. With D. M. Horstmann, l. C. Niederman, and I. T. Riordan. The trial use of Sabin's attenuated Type I poliovirus vaccine in a village in southern Arizona. Am. I. Hyg., 70:169-84. With D. M. Horstmann and J. C. Niederman. Attenuated Type I poliovirus vaccine. Its capacity to infect and to spread from "vaccinees" within an institutional population. J. Am. Med. Assoc., 170: 1-8. Perspectives in epidemiology. (Foreword to papers presented at symposium at Yale University School of Medicine) Yale .T- Biol. Med., 32:1-3. Poliomyelitis. Its epidemiology and prophylaxis. Med. Clin. North Am., 43: 1441-49. With D. M. Horstmann and I. C. Niederman. Immunity in polio- myelitis infection: observations in experimental epidemiology. In: Immunity and Virus Infection, ed. by V. A. Najjar, pp. 233- 45. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Poliomyelitis. In: American Peoples Encyclopedia. Chicago: Spencer Press, Inc. With D. M. Horstmann, l. T. Riordan, {. C. Niederman, and I. Yoshioka. The use of Sabin's attenuated Type I poliovirus vac- cine in different environments, and newer techniques for testing the virulence of recovered strains. In: Live Poliovirus Vaccines. Papers Presented and Discussions Held at the First International Conference on Live Poliovirus Vaccines, pp. 218-26. Pan Amer- ican Sanitary Bureau Scientific Publication no. 44. Washington, D.C. 1960 Poliovirus vaccines killed and live. American Journal of Nursing, 60:60-62. The case for live poliovirus vaccination. Yale I. Biol. Med., 32: 241~9. With D. M. Horstmann, J. T. Riordan, E. M. Opton, and R. H. Green. The capacity of live attenuated polioviruses to cause human infection and to spread within families. In: Live Polio- virus Vaccines. Papers Presented and Discussions Held at the Second International Conference on Live Poliovirus Vaccines,

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JOHN RODMAN PAUL 365 pp. 174-84. Pan Am. Health Organ. Sci. Publ. no. 50. Washing- ton, D.C. With D. H. Horstmann, E. P. Isacson, and i. C. Niederman. Effec- tiveness of trivalent vaccine in immunizing young children. Studies on the stability of the vaccine strains after human pas- sage. In: Live Poliovirus Vaccines. Papers Presented and Dis- cussions Held at the Second International Conference on Live Poliovirus Vaccines, pp. 113-23. Pan Am. Health Organ. Sci. Publ. no. 50. Washington, D.C. The spread of attenuated polioviruses among household contacts. In: Poliomyelitis: Papers and Discussions Presented at the Fifth International Poliomyelitis Conference (Copenhagen, Denmark, July 26-28, 1960), pp. 23-24. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co. Recent advances in research on the etiology of trachoma. Conn. Med., 24: 104-~. With A. S. Evans. Infectious mononucleosis. In: Preventive Medz- cine in World War 11, Communicable Diseases, vol. 5, chap. 13, pp. 355-61. Once of the Surgeon General. Washington, D.C. With H. T. Gardner. Viral hepatitis. In: Preventive Medicine in World War II, Communicable Diseases, vol. 5, chap. 17, pp. 411-62. Office of the Surgeon General. Washington, D.C. Poliomyelitis vaccines. (Editorial) Conn. Med., 24:177-78. 1961 Epidemiology and modern medicine. Conn. Med., 25:79. With I- C. Niederman. Infectious mononucleosis. In: Current Therapy, ed. by H. F. Conn, pp. 27-28. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Co. Status of vaccination against poliomyelitis, with particular refer- ence to oral vaccination. New England Journal of Medicine, 264:65 1-58. The story to be learned from blood samples. Its value to the epi- demiologist. I. Am. Med. Assoc., 175: 601-5. With i. T. Riordan, I. Yoshioka, and D. M. Horstmann. The de- tection of poliovirus and other enteric viruses in flies. Am. l. Hyg., 74: 123-36. With D. M. Horstmann, M. Godenne-McCrea, R. H. Green, E. M. Opton, A. I. Holtz, and J. C. Niederman. Immunization of pre-

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366 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS school children with oral poliovirus vaccine (Sabin). I. Am. Med. Assoc., 178: 693-701. Estado actual de la vacunacion contra la poliomyelitis. America Clinica, pp. 239-44. A message from the President. Newsl. Assoc. Teach. Prev. Med., 8:1-3. Poliomyelitis. In: Britannica Book of the Year, p. 564. Chicago: En- cyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. Present day opportunities for research based on known geographic variations in disease. In: Proceedings of the Conference on Genetic Polymorphisms and Geographic Variations in Disease, ed. by B. S. Blumberg, pp. 50-58. New York: Grune 8c Stratton. 1962 Measles vaccine future in developing areas of the world. American Journal of Diseases of Children, 103: 523-24. The Middletown oral poliovirus vaccine program. I. Foreword, with a review of the past experiences of the Yale Poliomyelitis Study Unit with oral poliovirus vaccines. Yale I. Biol. Med., 34:439-46. With R. l. C. Pearson, D. G. Miller, M. L. Palmieri, A.M.-M. Payne, and D. M. Horstmann. The Middletown oral poliovirus vaccine program. II. Scope planning and initial steps. Yale J. Biol. Med., 34:447-54. Considerations regarding vaccination with live attenuated polio- viruses. Bull. Ayer Clin. Lab., 4:3-8. With D. M. Horst~nann, l. T. Riordan, E. M. Opton, I. C. Nieder- man, E. P. Isacson, and R. FI. Green. An oral poliovirus vaccine trial in Costa Rica. Bull. WHO, 26: 311-29. 1963 Acceptance of the Kober Medal for 1963. Trans. Assoc. Am. Phy- sicians, 76:29-33. (Presentation of the Kober Medal for 1963 to John Rodman Paul, by P. B. Beeson, pp. 23-28) New concepts regarding viruses. Conn. Med., 27:256. Aims, purposes and methods of World Health Organization serum banks. Yale J. Biol. Med., 36:2-4. Poliomyelitis immunization 1963. Med. Clin. North Am., 47~: 1219-30. Neurotropic virus diseases. In: Internal Medicine in World War II,

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JOHN RODMAN PAUL 367 Infectious Diseases, vol. 2, chap. 4, pp. 79-102. OSG, Department of the Army. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Once. 1964 With i. C. Niederman, R. l. C. Pearson, and C. du Ve Florey. A nationwide serum survey of United States military recruits, 1962. I. General considerations. Am. i. Hyg., 80:286-92. 1965 A nationwide serum survey of U.S. recruits in the three armed services. Military Medicine, 130:1-12. Worldwide public health progress. (Editorial) Conn. State Med. J., 20:650-51. Serological epidemiology and the function of serum banks. Archiv fur die gesamte Virusforschung, Band XVII, Heft 3-4, 465-71. With W. P. Havens, Jr. Infectious hepatitis and serum hepatitis. In: Viral and Rickettsial Infections of Man, 4th ea., ed. by F. L. Horsfall, Jr., and I. Tamm, pp. 965-93. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co. With A. S. Evans. Infectious mononucleosis. In: Viral and Rickett- sial Infections of Man, 4th ea., ed. by F. L. Horsfall, fir., and I. Tamm, pp. 994-1005. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co. 1966 Academic preventive medicine. Newsl. Assoc. Teach. Prev. Med., 12:1-8. Poliomyelitis. In: Encyclopaedia Britannica, pp. 156-58. Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. 1968 With l. C. Niedermann and R. W. McCollum. A new lead in in- fectious mononucleosis. (Editorial) l. Am. Med. Assoc., 203: 219-20. 1970 Dean Winternitz and the rebirth of the Yale Medical School in the 1920s. Yale I. Biol. Med., 43:111-19. Thomas Francis, Jr., M.D., as a clinician. Archives of Environ- mental Health, 21: 247-51.

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368 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Poliomyelitis (infantile paralysis). In: Infectious Agents and Host Reactions, ed. by Stuart Mudd, chap. 22, pp. 5 19-37. Phila- delphia: W. B. Saunders Co. 1971 A clinician's place in academic preventive medicine: my favorite hobby. Bull. N.Y. Acad. Med., 47:1262-71. A History of Poliomyelitis. New Haven and London: Yale Univ. Press. 1972 Stanhope Bayne-Jones (1888-1970~. Educator, military hero, micro- biologist and historian. Yale J. Biol. died., 45:22-32. 1973 An account of the American Epidemiological Society. A retrospect of some fifty years. Yale i. Biol. Med., 46:3-84. Serological Epidemiology, ed. by J. R. Paul and C. White. New York: Academic Press, Inc. 1974 Thomas Francis, fir., 1900-1969. In: National Academy of Sciences, Biographical Memoirs, 44:57-110. Washington, D.C.: Nationa Academy of Sciences.

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