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WILLIAM THOMAS PECORA February 1, 1913_J~ly 19, 1972 BY CHARLES A. ANDERSON WILLIAM THOMAS PECORA was a stimulating and enthusiastic geologist, known as "Bill" to countless friends. He had an exciting career with the U.S. Geological Survey that culmi- nated in his appointment by President Richard Nixon on April 20, 1971, to serve as Undersecretary of the Department of the Interior. In June of 1972, Pecora was hospitalized because of diverticulitis and was unable to survive postoperative complica- tions leading to his death on July 19 of that year. Interior Secre- tary Rogers C. B. Morton paid high tribute to Bill Pecora, stat- ing, "Our departmentand the nationhas lost a singularly talented and energetic scientist and administrator. Few men possess the leadership qualities which Dr. Pecora showed in his quest for balance and harmony in resource development and conservation. Dr. Pecora understood conservation in the true sense. As a scientist, he recognized that Nature's forces are neither angry nor benign; they operate on laws and principles of matter, motion, physics, and chemistry. He felt strongly that man must not seek to subdue these forces, but understand them, work with them, and live in harmony with them." ~ Bill Pecora was born in Belleville, New Jersey, the son of Cono and Anna (Amabile) Pecora. Both parents were born in southern Italy in the village of San Arsenio, near Paestrum, an ~ Eulogy at St. Patrick's Episcopal Church, July 2l, 1972. 371

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372 BIOGRAPHICAL ME M OIRS early Greek settlement, and the recorded Pecora lineage dates from about 1600 A.D. His parents were married in Newark, New Jersey, and lived in Belleville for a time until they moved back to Newark, where they lived until their deaths. There were ten children in Bill's familyfour boys and six girls. Bill was num- ber nine, and in his boyhood he bras the unhappy "water boy," assigned to filling the twelve water glasses for the family. The Pecoras were an unusually devoted and close group, and family loyalty seemed to increase with the passage of time. Christmas was a "must" gathering, and one year Bill traveled from South America for thirty-six hours without sleep in order to be pres- ent for the Yuletide celebration. Bill's two older brothers, Louis and Charles, and his eldest sister, lean, carried on the family business of wholesale imports. His brother Sam, a physician, loved to discuss poetry and science with Bill. Surviving, children of the Pecora family are five sisters: Mrs. Ellis Blackman, Mrs. Vincent l. Casale, and Mrs. Frank Immersi of Newark; Firs. Gerard A. Riccardi, Juno, Florida; and Mrs. James J. Vasselli, Tequesta, Florida. Bill attended the Abington Elementary School and Bar- ringer High School in Newarl;, and was graduated from the latter in 1929. He alas very active in extracurricular affairs in high school, serving as editor of the monthly school paper, "Acropolis," and of the yearbook, "Taps." He contributed an editorial to "Taps" that summarized the four years of student life at Barringer High School, with appreciable emphasis on military jargon in keeping with the title of the yearbook. Baseball, soccer, and fencing used up some of his energy, and he partici- pated in the HiY Club, Latin Club, Italian Club, Thalians (acting), Forum (debating), and Science Club. In his spare time, he wrote the words for the song of the Class of 1929. Louise I. Capen (civics and history), Roger B. Saylor (math and science), and V. L. Sibilia (Italian) were teachers who took much personal interest in Bill and entertained him at their

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WILLIAM THOMAS PECORA 373 homes. As might be expected, he was valedictorian of his grad- uating class. In 1929, Bill was awarded a Charles H. K. Halsey Scholar- ship that provided funds for a four-year scholarship of $1000 annually, to be used for tuition and living expenses at Prince- ton University. Three scholarships were awarded that year to candidates who were residents of New Jersey and had received their preparatory education at one of the public high schools in that state and who, in the opinion of university authorities, would be unable to obtain an education at Princeton without this financial assistance. An additional requirement was that each winner be of a different religious faithone Protestant, one Jewish, and one Roman Catholic. Bill Pecora was the Roman Catholic selected. At Princeton, Bill majored in geology and geological engi- neering, with an emphasis on hard rocks. He received the B.S.E. degree in 1933, and was graduated with honors. His senior thesis was, "The problem of the Susquehanna Complex with special attention to specific gravity variations," with A. F. Buddington, H. H. Hess, and Edward Sampson as advisors. During his undergraduate days, he found time to serve on the editorial board of the campus humor magazine, "Tiger," and was associate editor of two other campus publications, "Nassau Herald" and "Bric-a-Brac." He was a member of the Pistol Club and Rifle Club and was active in varsity fencing, serving as captain of the team in his senior year when he was Inter- collegiate Fencing Champion. After graduation, he stayed on for two years at Princeton as a tutor in geology. In the summer of 1934, he was a field assistant to Erling Dorf, who was work- ing in Montana on Paleozoic stratigraphy and on the Beartooth Butte Formation, as well as collecting ostracoderms and fossil plants. Scholarship aid made it possible for Bill Pecora to start graduate studies at Harvard in 1935, where he concentrated

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374 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS largely in optical mineralogy and petrography under Esper S. Larsen, Jr. Bill became an assistant to Professor Larsen, which was considered an honor by the graduate students be- cause of the legend that Esper Larsen's absentmindedness re- quired an assistant who was very bright. Later Bill became an instructor in petrography. He was always regarded as one of "the Professor's boys," and Larsen encouraged Bill to select a thesis area in the Bearpaw Mountains, where he had a group of students working on igneous rocks. Bill received a grant from the Holden Fund to finance his fieldwork in 1937-1939 in the western fringe of the Bearpaw Mountains. For his doctoral thesis, Bill made a petrologic study of the Boxelder laccolith and concluded that it differed structurally and petrologically from all the described laccoliths in the Highwood Mountains and that the syenitic rocks differentiated from shonkinite after the emplacement of shonkinitic magma into the laccolithic horizon. The progression of differentiation was from pla~,ioclase shonkinite to plagioclase syenite to sani- dine syenite. In addition, Bill studied the unusual nepheline- bearing pegmatites in the Rocky Boy stock, located about twenty miles southeast of the Boxelder laccolith, concluding, that these rocks resemble the unusual pegmatites of the Kola Peninsula in Russia. He also described drusy vugs in a monzo- nite dike that contained albite tablets associated with prehnite and smaller masses of calcite. Bill was awarded the Ph.D. degree by Harvard in 1940. During the summer of 1936, Bill was in Germany as a mem- ber of the United States Olympic fencing team, and during his later student days at Harvard he continued this activity. In one demonstration, Bill and his partner fenced on roller skates. He was very gregarious and had another social life completely out- side the Harvard geology department. To the envy of his friends, Bill liked to brag about the great Italian meals he had enjoyed in South Boston.

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WILLIAM THOMAS PECORA 375 Foster Hewett, Chief of the Metals Section of the U.S. Geo- logical Survey, was a frequent visitor to the geology department at Harvard before the outbreak of World War II, and because of the glowing recommendations from the department, he hired Bill Pecora to participate in the Strategic Minerals Program. Bill's first assignment in 1940 was the study of nickeliferous de- posits in the western states; the assignment was later expanded to include similar deposits in Brazil. Bill found that the richer deposits of nickel were the result of long weathering of pyroxe- nite or peridotite during a complex physiographic history and that serpentinite was not a favorable rock for the residual ac- cumulation of nickel. Garnierite in the nickel-silicate deposit near Riddle, Oregon, had three modes of occurrence, reflecting an orderly variation in color, specific gravity, and nickel con- tent, which serve as useful guides for economic geologists. Mica was an important strategic mineral during World War II, and in 1943 Bill was assigned to southeastern Brazil to participate in and direct investigations of the mica-bearing pegmatites. He and his associates were able to unravel the complexities of the structural controls, which led to the dis- covery of important mica deposits needed for the war program. Bulletin reports were published by the Brazilian government and by the U.S. Geological Survey. In addition, Bill spent some time in Colombia, Venezuela, and Brazil investigating quartz crystals needed for radio oscillators during World War II. Bill had a sharp eye and an affection for minerals, and the pegmatites in Brazil were excellent collecting sites for choice specimens. In 1946 he returned to Washington, D.C., with a number of semiprecious gems that he enjoyed displaying to his numerous friends. Phosphate minerals are common in the Brazilian pegmatites, and Bill collaborated with several of his colleagues in mineralogical studies of his specimens that re- sulted in a series of papers describing new minerals. Later in Montana, he found two new carbonate minerals, which he

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376 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS named after his friends, Wilbur Burbank and Frank Calkins. Bill described whewellite, a calcium oxalate monohydrate from Montana, the mineral's first known locality in North America. As a result of considerable laboratory work, Bill and his col- leagues described nine new mineral species from his mineral collections. In 1949, he started his large-scale geologic mapping pro- gram of eight fifteen-minute quadrangles in the Bearpaw Moun- tains in Montana. He became a very effective recruiting officer at universities and colleges and selected many promising stu- dents as field assistants. Ten of these are named as co-authors on the published maps; seven remained with the U.S. Geo- logical Survey and nosier have responsible research assignments. The first four geologic maps were published in 1957 on a planimetric base as Miscellaneous Geologic Investigation Maps and the other four were published in bulletins in multicolor on topographic base maps, starting, in 1960 and ending in 1963. Bill was very proud of the accomplishments of this mapping project of the Cenozoic alkalic igneous rocks. In 1956, Bill Pecora published an outstanding review paper on carbonatites, which are essentially carbonate-silicate rocks containing a great variety of minerals. He concluded that the carbonatites were deposited by solutions ranging widely in temperature, pressure, and concentrations that were derived from alkalic magmas during silicate crystallization. He also concluded that a carbonate magma in the normal sense is less likely to exist than carbonate-rich solutions, which at elevated temperatures and pressures can contain higher concentrations of dissolved ingredients than are normally in hydrothermal solutions. At many localities, the carbonatites occur as veinlike or dikelike bodies or as cores in volcanic plugs of alkalic rocks. Demonstrating his awareness of the importance of mineral re- sources, he emphasized that the carbonatites and related alkalic rocks contain an impressive reserve of rare commoditiesnio-

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WILLIAM THOMAS PECORA 377 bium, titanium, zirconium, rare earths, and uraniumas well as the common commoditiesbarium, strontium, magnetite, phosphate, and vermiculite. In a later paper (1962), Bill concentrated on the carbona- . .. ~ ,, % ~ . tote problem In the oearpaw Mountains, where a composite alkalic stock contains a volcanic neck of subsilicic porphyritic cancrinite syenite, partly altered to sericite, calcite, sulfide min- erals, barite, and zeolites. Subsequent fracturing was followed by introduction of pegmatites and veins, composed of K- feldspar, biotite, calcite, pyrrhotite, pyrite, uranium-rich pyro- chlore, rare-earth carbonates, barite, and ilmenite, a suite of minerals that is typical of carbonatites, having considerable economic potential. These differing mineral assemblages nose . . . . . .. . . . ~ 1 some problems In geochem~cal history, but the evidence indi- cates that early ma~,matic crystallization of silicates yielded an aqueous residual fluid that became progressively enriched in CO,, S. F. P. Ca, Fe, and Mg. Geochemistry has long been one of the fields of major in- terest in the Geological Survey, and during the mid-l9bOs there was a growing recognition of its increased importance in the Survey program. In 1957, Bill vitas selected to be Chief of the Branch of Geochemistry and Petrology because of his back- ground in field geology, mineralogy, petrology, and geochem- istry. He effectively recruited talented youngsters to appre- ciably strengthen the research capability in these joint disci- plines. Many of these early recruits are still with the Survey, whereas others were attracted to university positions that they now occupy with distinction. Bill strengthened activities he believed there undernourished, establishing strong programs in geochronology, experimental petrology, and mineralogy. As Branch Chief, he played an important catalytic role when nat- ural coesite was discovered and its significance as an indicator of meteorite impact on both the earth and the moon was pointed out. In 1961, Bill returned to his former status of Re- . . .. . .

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378 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS search Geologist, and during this interval he wrote an important paper on the carbonatite problem in the Bearpaw Mountains. Bill Pecora was named Chief Geologist in 1964, and a year later was appointed Director of the Survey by President Lyndon B. Johnson. As Director, he pressed vigorously for programs that would be responsive to current and emerging national problems, such as the accelerated investigations of gold re- sources when national stocks were being depleted at an alarm- ing rate and investigations for offshore development of oil and gas in anticipation of the impending energy dilemma. In re- sponse to problems revealed by the Alaska earthquake of 1964, he obtained approval to establish the National Center of Earthquake Research in Menlo Park, California, now an im- portant center for earthquake studies. The Santa Barbara oil spill on January 28, 1969, was the first major challenge to face Bill Pecora as Director, and he moved forcefully into action with the firm conviction that the fundamental facts must be determined in order to reach a rational decision. Many of these facts are available to the public in Geological Survey Professional Paper 679, published promptly under his direction in 1969. An account of Bill Pecora and his activities as Director at that time is given below. "One old timer among the newcomers in Washington was William Pecora, Director of the U.S. Geological Survey. Pecora had 30 years of distinguished service with the U.S.G.S. to his credit, and was held in high esteem by his colleagues in science and government. For the recriminations associated with Santa Barbara, Pecora was the most senior scapegoat. Secretary Udal] was no longer around to take the rap; and Secretary Hickel . . . could scarcely be blamed for the original blowout. But Pecora Pecora was in command of the agency that was most intimately connected to the original leasing in the Santa Barbara Channe] and the subsequent management of operations there. When appointed as director in 1965, he had taken over a staid and

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WILLIAM THOMAS PECORA . . 379 scientifically respectable agency with a history of conservatism. . Pecora, a former Olympic athlete, liked action and the per- sonal engagement of Washington politics. His activity in policy matters and in defense of U.S.G.S. programs brought his agency into the rough political world.... True, his biography does lean to degrees, scientific societies, research honors, and mem- bership in national academies, but, good poker player that he is, he took bad deals well, and his appointment in 1971 as Undersecretary of the Interior was helped more than hurt by his performance in Santa Barbara." ~ The discovery of large reserves of oil and gas in 1968 on the north coast of Alaska led to Bill's second major challenge. A large part of Alaska is underlain by permafrost, which would melt beneath the pipeline proposed to transport hot oil to southern Alaska, where harbors are available for tankers in an area of major earthquake faults. Again, Bill insisted that all of the geological factors involved should be assembled and analyzed before making decisions, and the Geological Survey made ~ careful study of the geological aspects of the proposed pipeline route. Bill arranged for the mechanism for discus- sions between industry and government agencies that led to the preparation of environmental and technical stipulations for the construction of the trans-Alaska pipeline. These are now a part of the permit and, if properly monitored, will provide accept- able protection of Alaska's unique environment and will also provide access to the area's vast resources of petroleum. Bill recognized that conventional methods of gathering re- sources and environmental data were not providing information as rapidly as our expanding population and economy required. He believed that aircraft and spacecraft might gather important data quickly, effectively, find economically; thus, he actively ~ From Carol E. and John S. Steinhart, Blowout: A Case Steady of the Santa Barbara Oil Spill (Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth Publishing Co., Inc., 1972), p. 12; reprinted by permission of the publisher, Duxbury Press, North Scituate, Mass.

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380 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS supported research in photogeology and remote sensing. As a result of this research, new aerial methods were developed for finding fresh water, surveying volcanoes, and assessing the en- vironment. In 1964, he formed an association with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) that enabled the Geological Survey to accelerate its remote sensing research and extend it to include analyses of the potential values of sur- veying the earth from space. Results of these spacecraft studies led Bill to recommend that the Secretary of the Interior estab- lish a departmental program to survey the Earth from space and to extend the research in remote sensing to meet needs of all bureaus of the department. This recommendation led to the establishment of the Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Program, which was announced on September 21, 1966. Bill directed that performance specifications be developed to provide "remote sensing data of maximum usefulness to the maximum number of scientists and technicians throughout the world." The performance specifications for the space survey, co- ordinated and refined in cooperation with the Department of Agriculture, were delivered to NASA on October 21, 1966, for implementation; and the first Earth Resources Technology Satellite (EATS-1) was launched on July 23, 1972, just three days after Bill's death. Without the vision and drive of Pecora, there might never have been an EROS Program. Although the announcement of the EROS Program pro- duced varied reactions, Bill strongly emphasized the need and soundness of the program, and on December 10, 1974, the New York Times quoted Dr. James C. Fletcher, Administrator of NASA, as saying, "If I had to pick one spacecraft, one space age development, to help the world, I would pick ERTS and the operational satellites which I believe will be evolved from it, later in this decade." Bill placed Earth in a new perspective. Directors of federal organizations make annual pilgrimages

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WILLIAM THOMAS PECORA 381 to Congress to defend their requests for funds, and Bill Pecora was superb in his meetings with the appropriation committees, always presenting his requests in an articulate and friendly manner. Because of his excellent memory for detail, he could answer pertinent questions from the members of the commit- tees clearly and forcefully and with a delightful sense of humor if the situation vitas appropriate. He always left the members of the committees well aware of the importance of the USGS program and its benefits to the taxpayer. During the period Bill Pecora served as Director of the Geological Survey and Undersecretary of the Department of Interior, he became increasingly involved with the geological aspects of problems concerning our environment. In his Horace M. Albright conservation lecture, given at Berkeley on January 18, 1972, he emphasized "inadequate data persist in the arena of assessment and decision making. Consumers demand a con- tinuing supply of energy and resource products on one hand, and demand maximum pollution protection on the other.... Geologic science demonstrates that nature is a massive polluter of the environment. In comparison, man's activity is of little consequence on a planetary scale in some issues, but may be of ~~_~;~J~ ____ i$A ~ 1~J~_L~1 ~_~_~L..... Science and research churl n 1 1 c roan can 1 1 AN rid 1 n ~ I Arm 1 roan tear t are needed more than ever to provide guidance to courses of national action aimed at fulfilling human needs. As the most intelligent species on earth, man can certainly provide for him- self and yet prudently protect the total ecosystem from unneces- sary and unacceptable degradation." A Committee on Geological Sciences of the National Re- search Council sponsored a study, "The Earth and Human Affairs," and Bill Pecora met informally with this group on several occasions, inspiring the members with his enthusiasm for the job at hand. In appreciation, the published reports ~ National Academy of Sciences, The Earth and Human Affairs (San Francisco: Canheld Press, 1972).

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382 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS was dedicated "To the memory of William T. Pecora, an early, effective, and enthusiastic advocate of 'the geologic per- spective'." Bill Pecora made many contributions to the official and nonofficial activities of the employees of the Geological Survey. During the period from 1947 to 1967, he was an effective mem- ber of the U.S. Civil Service Commission's Board of Examiners for Geology, concerned with the development and maintenance of high standards in the selection of geologists for federal em- ployment. He was always a live wire at the various scientific meetings of geologists held in Washington, D.C., where he could be counted upon to probe the strengths and weaknesses of the speakers' presentations and stories. For many years, he was an active participant in the Survey's Pick and Hammer shows, which revere presented primarily to poke fun at the Sur- vey brass. Some of his particularly hilarious performances are still vividly remembered by the cast and audience. Shortly after becoming, Director, he was a speaker at a conference in- cluding two eminent science advisors and the President of the National Academy of Sciences. When Bill was introduced, he began by addressing these gentlemen as "Your Highness," "Your Excellency," and "Your Worship"; the character of the meeting was somewhat modified after that greeting. Bill Pecora was the recipient of many honors during his pro- fessional career. Among these that deserve mention are the presidencies of the Geological Society of Washington ( 1964) and of the Cosmos Club (Washington, D.C., 1968~. He was a Fellow and Councilor of the Geological Society of America and of the Mineralogica] Society of America. He alas elected Hon- orary Member of the Rocky Mountain Association of Geologists. He received the Doctor of Science degree from Franklin and Marshall College (1969) and Doctor of Engineering degree from the Colorado School of Shines (1970~. The American Associa- tion of Petroleum Geologists presented him with its Public

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WILLIAM THOMAS PECORA 383 Service Award (1972~. He received the Distinguished Service Award of the Department of the Interior (1968) and the Rocke- feller Public Service Award (1969~. He was a Foreign Member of the Brazilian Academy of Sciences. The American Philo- sophical Society elected him to membership (1970) and he was a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1965~. He was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1965. On April 7, 1947, William T. Pecora married Ethelwyn Elizabeth Carter from Franklin County, Kentucky. They had two children, William Carter, born in 1949, and Ann Stewart, born in 1953. The Pecora family lived in a house near the Potomac River that was designed by an architect friend. After becoming a homeowner, Bill developed into an enthusiastic gardener, which helped him to forget temporarily troublesome problems left in the office. He was particularly enthusiastic about Camellia sasanqua and he planted many of the shrubs in his garden. Bill and EthelwYn enioved entertaining Quests ~ 1_ 1 1 7 J J ~ ~ ~ In sneer lovely name, where Bill presided over the carving of the roast and extolled the virtues of the red wine that he had just discovered in one of the many liquor stores in Washington, D.C. In 1973, a 6000-foot ridge in the Bearpaw Mountains was named Pecora Ridge in honor of Bill. The ridge extends southwest about two miles from the 6916-foot top of Baldy Mountain and forms the divide between Eagle Creek and the headwaters of Birch and Little Birch creeks. In the summer of 1973, William Carter Pecora carried the ashes of his father and those of Esper S. Larsen 3d, Bill's close friend since Harvard days, to the top of Baldy Mountain. This was an appropriate mission as Bill dearly loved the Bearpaw Mountains. On July 21, 1972, at the auditorium of the Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey Director V. E. McKelvey delivered a eulogy for Bill: "It is hard for any of us here to be- lieve that Bill Pecoraour loved one, friend, colleague, leader is no longer with us. We have suffered a loss that we are only

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384 BIOGRAPHICAL i\IEMOIRS beginning to fathom but it is a loss we know we cannot replace. There will be no replacement for Bill's smile and hearty chuckle, his intellect, his uncanny ability to perceive the solu- tion to seemingly unsolvable problems, his cool in the midst of crisis, his verve in approaching, a difficult situation, his con- ta7ious excitement over a new idea, his ability to inspire, to bring out our best efforts, to lead us to accomplishments that fire never dreamed revere possible. We know too that our loss as loved ones, friends, and colleagues is not ours alone. It is the Nation's loss and the world's, for Bill Pecora's talents were being effectively applied to the solution of problems of great national and international significance."

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WILLIAM THOMAS PECORA BIBLIOGRAPHY KEY TO ABBREVIA TIONS 385 Am. Assoc. Pet. Geol. Bull. = American Association of Petroleum Geolo- gists Bulletin Am. Mineral. = American Mineralogist Braz. Div. Fom. Prod. Mirier. .\vulso = Brazil, Divisao de Fomento da Produc~ao Mineral Avulso Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. Geological Society of America Bulletin Min. Congr. {. = Mining Congress Journal U.S. Geol. Surv. Bull.U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin U.S. Geol. Surv. Misc. Geol. Invest. Map = U.S. Geological Survey NIis- cellaneous Geologic Investigations Map 1941 Structure and petrology of the Boxelder laccolith, Bearpaw Moun- tains, Montana. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 52:817-53. With S. N\1. Hobbs. Nickel-gold deposit near Mount Vernon, Skagit County, Washington. U.S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 931-D, pp. 57-78. 1942 With S. W. Hobbs. Nickel deposit near Riddle, Douglas County, Oregon. U.S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 931-I, pp. 205-26. Nepheline syenite pegmatites, Rocky Boy Stock, Bearpaw Moun- tains, Montana. Am. Mineral., 27:397~424. Nickel-copper deposits on the west coast of Chicagof Island, Alaska. U.S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 936-I, pp. 221-43. 1944 Nickel-silicate and associated nickel-cobalt-manganese deposits near Sao lose do Tocantins, Goiaz, Brazil. U.S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 935-E, pp. 247-305. 1945 With A. L. Barbosa. Bananal mica mine, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Braz. Div. Fom. Prod. Miner. Avulso, no. 67, 32 pp. With A. L. Barbosa. Mica in the Serra dos Lourencos, Minas Gerais. Braz. Div. Fom. Prod. Miner. Avulso, no. 68, 42 pp. 1946 With Bernard Fisher. Drusy vugs in a monzonite dike, Bearpaw Mountains, Montana. Am. Mineral., 31:370-85.

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386 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1949 With S. W. Hobbs and K. J. Murata. Variations in garnierite from the nickel deposit near Riddle, Oregon. Economic Geology, 44:13-23. With J. J. Fahey. ~ 1 O ---, Brazil: scorzalite and souzalite, two new phosphate minerals. Am. Mineral., 34:83-93. With R. W. Brown. Paleocene and Eocene strata in the Bearpaw Mountains, Montana. Science, 109:487-89. With J. J. Fahey. Scorzalite from South Dakota, a new occurrence. Am. Mineral., 34:685-87. The Corre~o Frio Hematite Mina.s Gerais 1950 With J. J. Fahey. The lazulite-scorzalite isomorphous series. Am. Mineral., 35: 1-18. With H. M. Bannerman. Training geologists a United States Geological Survey viewpoint. U.S. Geological Survey Circular 73, 6 pp. With M. R. Klepper, D. M. Larrabee, A. L. Barbosa, and R. Frayha. Mica deposits in Minas Gerais, Brazil. U.S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 964-C, pp. 205-305. With G. Switzer, A. L. Barbosa, and A. T. Myers. Structure and mineralogy of the Golconda pegmatite, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Am. Mineral., 35:889-901. 1953 With M. L. Lindberg and A; L. Barbosa. Moraesite, a new hydrous beryllium phosphate from Minas Gerais, Brazil. Am. Mineral., 38:1126-33. With l. H. Kerr. Burbankite and calkinsite, two new carbonate minerals from Montana. Am. Mineral., 38:1169-83. 1954 With J. H. Kerr. Whewellite from a septarian limestone concretion in marine shale near Havre, Montana. Am. Mineral., 39:208-14. With 1~. L. Lindberg. Tavorite and barbosalite, two new phosphate minerals from Minas Gerais, Brazil. Science, 119:739. With R. E. Van Alstine. Results of recent nationwide geology examinations offered by the U.S. Civil Service Commission. Am. Assoc. Pet. Geol. Bull., 38:2011-16.

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WILLIAM THOMAS PECORA 387 With M. L. Lindberg. Avelinoite, a new hydrous sodium ferric phosphate from Minas Gerais, Brazil. Science, 120:1074-75. 1955 With M. L. Lindberg. Tavorite and barbosalite, two new phosphate minerals from Minas Gerais, Brazil. Am. Mineral., 40:952-66. 1956 Carbonatites a review. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 67:1537-55. 1957 With I. l. Witkind and D. B. Stewart. Preliminary general geologic map of the Laredo Quadrangle, Bearpaw Mountains, Montana. U.S. Geol. Surv. Misc. Geol. Invest. Map I-234. With D. B. Stewart, D. B. Engstrom, and H. R. Dixon. Preliminary geologic map of the Centennial Mountain Quadrangle, Bearpaw Mountains, Montana. U.S. Geol. Surv. Misc. Geol. Invest. Map I-235. With i. H. Kerr, D. B. Stewart, and H. R. Dixon. Preliminary geo- logic map of the Shambo Quadrangle, Bearpaw Mountains, Montana. U.S. Geol. Surv. Misc. Geol. Invest. Map I-236. With others. Preliminary geologic map of the Warrick Quadrangle, Bearpaw Mountains, Montana. U.S. Geol. Surv. Misc. Geol. Invest. Map I-237. 1958 With M. L. Lindberg. Phosphate minerals from the Sapucaia peg- matite mine, Minas Gerais. Sociedade Brasileira de Geologia Boletim, 7:1-14. 1960 Coesite craters and space geology. Geotimes, 5~2~: 16-19. With B. Bryant and R. G. Schmidt. Geology of the Maddux Quad- rangle, Bearpaw Mountains, Blaine County, Montana. U.S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 1081-C, pp. 91-116. 1961 With R. G. Schmidt, B. Bryant, and W. G. Ernst. Geology of the Lloyd Quadrangle, Bearpaw Mountains, Blaine County, Mon- tana. U.S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 1081-E, pp. 159-88.

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388 B I O G R A P H I C A L M E M O I R S 1962 Memorial to Esper Signius Larsen, Jr. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 73: 27-29. With B. G. Hearn, Jr., and Charles Milton. Origin of spherulitic phosphate nodules in basal Colorado Shale, Bearpaw Mountains, Montana. U.S. Geological Sll~v~v Prnf`~cinnn1 Arts Ban 30-35. ~~ J ~ v_ ~ ~lJ=1 (JV-1J~ it. Memorial to Esper Signius Larsen, 3d. Am. Mineral., 47:460-63. Review of geology, 1961. In Frank aunt Wr~.`rnailc 70~;7 OPEL Read ~ rev Rev ~ ~ ~ ^ ~~! ~ TV~ pp. ~15-77. New York: Standard Reference Works P~hlishin~ Co., Inc. ~ ~ , . . . ~ ~ ~ aroonat~te problem in the Bearpaw Mountains, Montana. In: Petrologic Studies: A Volume in Honor of A. F. B~ddington, ed. by A. E. i. Engel, Harold L. James, and B. F. Leon~rcl an 83-104. New York: Geological Society of America. ~, Or With R. G. Schmidt and B. C. Hearn, [r. Geology of the Cleveland Quadrangle, Bearpaw Mountains, Blaine County, Montana. U.S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 1141-P, 26 pp. 1963 With B. C. Hearn, Jr., and \\T. C. LSwacllev ~f~ol~v ^~ the Battle snake Quadrangle, Bearpaw Mountains, Blaine County, iMon- tana. U.S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 1181-B, 66 pp. Geology 1962. In: Plink and V[7agnalls 1962 Year Book, p. 132. New York: Standard Reference Works Publishing Co., Inc. '' In-_ 7. ~~v$V~ y ~1 Lila ~aLLlC- 1965 Current geologic research as a guide for future mineral exploration. In: Minerals Day Collected Papers. Skokie, Ill., International Minerals and Chemical Corporation, Mining and Exploration Division, pp. 54-80. Geologic science and the future of man: arid and semi-arid lands- a preview. ICASALS Publication, Texas Technical Institute, 1:49-56. 1966 Edith Meyer Rubin. Absolute dating and the history of man. In: Time and Stratigra~phy in the Evolution of Man. National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council Publ. 1469: 43-56.

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WILLIAM THOMAS PECORA 389 National Center for earthquake research. Geotimes, 10~: 13. Geology in modern society. North Dakota Quarterly, 34~2~:45~7. 1967 Surveying the Earth's resources from space. Surveying and Mapping, 27:639-43. 1968 Searching out resource limits. University of Texas Quarterly, 11: 148-54. Erforschung von Bodenschatzen vom Weltraum aus. Umschau, 68: 727. 1969 New horizons in natural resources management. The Professional Geographer, 21~2~:73-78. Mineral potential of the continental margin. AIAA Student ~our- nal, 7: 70-75. Use of WAE When actually employed appointments. In: Sympo- sium on Education and Federal Laboratory-University Relation- ships. Federal Council for Science and Technology, American Council on Education, pp. 181-87. Surveying the Earth's resources from space. TRW Space Log, 9: 2-15. 1970 Earth resource observations from an orbiting spacecraft. In: Astro- physics and Space Science Library, pp. 75-87. Dordrecht, Hol- land: D. Reidel Publishing Company. Resources and environment quest for balance. August 1970, pp.65-70. Min. Congr. J., Science and the quality of our environment. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, October 1970, pp.20-23. The influence of modern life on the work of the Geological Survey. Annales, Instituti Geologici Publici Hungarici, 54:99-103. Challenge of change the need for new mineral resources to main- tain the economic and social health of the free world. Min. Congr. J., November 1970, pp. 77-81. The role of the U.S. Geological Survey in natural resource evalua- tion. In: Santa Barbara Oil Symposium, December 16-18, pp. 271-82.

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390 B I O G R A P H I C A L M E M O I R S 1971 Uniqueness of man and his environment. Am. Assoc. Pet. Geol. Bull., 55:1715-18. 1972 Remote sensing of earth resources users, prospects and plans. Com- mittee on Science and Astronautics, U.S. House of Representa- tives, January 26, 1972, pp. 1-8. The administration's energy message and program. The Conference Board Record, 9~7) :27-30. Geologic base line for conservation philosophy. Congressional Record, March 21, pp. H2307-H2309. Horace M. Albright Lec- ture IJniver.sirv of California, Berkeley, January 18, 1972.

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