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Introduction

The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Industrial Technology (OIT) sponsors research and development programs to improve energy efficiency and resource utilization in energy- and waste-intensive U.S. industries. The programs focus on materials processing industries and are aimed at developing technologies that reduce the use of raw materials and energy, reduce the generation of waste, and increase industrial productivity.

Since 1993, the OIT has been changing from a "technology push" program strategy, in which projects are selected and prioritized primarily for their potential for reducing energy consumption or waste generation, to a "market pull" strategy, in which industry needs and priorities are the primary criteria. The OIT program has focused on seven energy-and waste-intensive materials processing industries—steel, forest products, glass, metal casting, aluminum, chemicals, and petroleum refining. These industries, designated as "Industries of the Future" (IOF), use about 80 percent of the energy (Figure 1-1) and produce more than 90 percent of the manufacturing waste in the entire industrial sector.

As Table 1-1 shows, each industrial segment has (or will) develop a technology "vision" that identifies high priority needs, including the strategic goals and research priorities for each industry. Based on these visions, the industry groups will develop research agendas, devise implementation strategies to meet their high priority needs, and commit the resources to conduct and manage the research projects. OIT facilitates the IOF process by assisting with planning, coordinating participants and catalyzing industry interactions, providing access to the laboratories, and sharing the cost of selected projects.



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Intermetallic Alloy Development: A Program Evaluation 1 Introduction The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Industrial Technology (OIT) sponsors research and development programs to improve energy efficiency and resource utilization in energy- and waste-intensive U.S. industries. The programs focus on materials processing industries and are aimed at developing technologies that reduce the use of raw materials and energy, reduce the generation of waste, and increase industrial productivity. Since 1993, the OIT has been changing from a "technology push" program strategy, in which projects are selected and prioritized primarily for their potential for reducing energy consumption or waste generation, to a "market pull" strategy, in which industry needs and priorities are the primary criteria. The OIT program has focused on seven energy-and waste-intensive materials processing industries—steel, forest products, glass, metal casting, aluminum, chemicals, and petroleum refining. These industries, designated as "Industries of the Future" (IOF), use about 80 percent of the energy (Figure 1-1) and produce more than 90 percent of the manufacturing waste in the entire industrial sector. As Table 1-1 shows, each industrial segment has (or will) develop a technology "vision" that identifies high priority needs, including the strategic goals and research priorities for each industry. Based on these visions, the industry groups will develop research agendas, devise implementation strategies to meet their high priority needs, and commit the resources to conduct and manage the research projects. OIT facilitates the IOF process by assisting with planning, coordinating participants and catalyzing industry interactions, providing access to the laboratories, and sharing the cost of selected projects.

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Intermetallic Alloy Development: A Program Evaluation FIGURE 1-1 Manufacturing energy use (1991). Total energy  use is 20.3 Quads (quadrillion BTUs). Source: OIT. COMMITTEE ON INDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENTS The OIT asked the National Research Council (NRC), through the National Materials Advisory Board, to conduct a study to evaluate their program strategy and to provide guidance during the transition to the new IOF strategy and assess the effects of the change on crosscutting technology programs, that is, programs to develop technologies applicable to several industries. The Committee on Industrial Technology Assessments (CITA) was established to review and evaluate the program and plans of the overall OIT program, review the plans and progress of selected OIT-sponsored research programs, and to conduct site visits and laboratory evaluations, when appropriate, to supplement program assessments. The committee will suggest improvements to the technical programs, methods of coordinating research with other agencies, and mechanisms for transferring technology to industry. To help the committee review the overall OIT program, CITA will establish and oversee topical panels to review selected aspects of the program, conduct the site visits, and bring in additional members with expertise in the topical areas to be evaluated. PANEL ON INTERMETALLIC ALLOY DEVELOPMENT The first topical panel established under CITA was the Panel on Intermetallic Alloy Development. This topic was selected because the intermetallic alloy program, which has been active at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) since 1981, is a mature program focused on crosscutting research and development projects. OIT, through the Energy Conversion and Utilization (ECUT) and Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) programs, has provided significant funding

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Intermetallic Alloy Development: A Program Evaluation TABLE 1-1 Status of IOF Vision Documents Industry Sector Vision Document Date Released Forest Products Agenda 2020: A Technology Vision and Research Agenda for America's Forest, Wood, and Paper Industry November 1994 Metal Casting Beyond 2000: A Vision for the American Metal casting Industry September 1995 Steel Steel: A National Resource for the Future May 1995 Aluminum Partnerships for the Future March 1996 Glass Glass: A Clear Vision for a Bright Future January 1996 Chemicals Technology Vision 2020: The U.S. Chemical Industry December 1996 Petroleum Refining TBD Not Available (roughly one third of the total) to ORNL for alloy development and commercialization. The purpose of this report is to document and evaluate the progress of ORNL toward the development and commercialization of high temperature intermetallic alloys, to identify industrial applications and barriers to commercialization, and to recommend criteria for the selection and prioritization of future research projects. The panel was charged with the following tasks: to review the progress and accomplishments of the intermetallic alloy research and development program to describe program management strategies, including selection criteria, commercialization plans, and industry involvement to describe successful and unsuccessful efforts to develop commercial applications for intermetallic alloys to suggest potential applications in the OIT target industries, including steel, forest products, glass, metal casting, aluminum, chemicals, and petroleum refining to recommend criteria for selecting and prioritizing future projects for the research and development of intermetallic materials and processes The panel's evaluation included a site visit to ORNL on June 6 and 7, 1996, when panel members met with key ORNL researchers, program managers, and industrial participants to discuss progress and plans, review program strategies and accomplishments, and tour the laboratory facilities. The agenda for the evaluation meeting and a list of participants appears in Appendix A.