INTERMETALLIC ALLOY DEVELOPMENT

A Program Evaluation

Panel on Intermetallic Alloy Development

Committee on Industrial Technology Assessments

National Materials Advisory Board

Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems

National Research Council

Publication NMAB-487-1
NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C. 1997



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Intermetallic Alloy Development: A Program Evaluation INTERMETALLIC ALLOY DEVELOPMENT A Program Evaluation Panel on Intermetallic Alloy Development Committee on Industrial Technology Assessments National Materials Advisory Board Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council Publication NMAB-487-1 NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1997

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Intermetallic Alloy Development: A Program Evaluation NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is interim president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and interim vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. This study by the National Materials Advisory Board was conducted under Grant No. DE-FG41-95R110859 with the U.S. Department of Energy. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. Available in limited supply from: National Materials Advisory Board 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. HA-262 Washington, DC 20418 202-334-3505 Additional copies are available for sale from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Box 285 Washington, DC 20055 800-624-6242 or 202-334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area) http://www.nap.edu Copyright 1997 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Cover: Scanning electron micrograph of a grain boundary in a weld of Ni3Al alloy. The two-phased, γ+γ', microstructure of the matrix is apparent. A particle of Ni-Ni5Zr eutectic is located on the grain boundary. Courtesy of Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

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Intermetallic Alloy Development: A Program Evaluation PANEL ON INTERMETALLIC ALLOY DEVELOPMENT NORMAN A. GJOSTEIN (chair), NAE, materials engineering consultant, Dearborn, Michigan JOHN V. BUSCH, IBIS Associates, Wellesley, Massachusetts TIMOTHY E. HOWSON, Wyman-Gordon Company, North Grafton, Massachusetts LYMAN A. JOHNSON, GE Aircraft Engines, Cincinnati, Ohio HARRY A. LIPSITT, Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio ANATOLY NEMZER, FMC Corporation, Princeton, New Jersey MAXINE L. SAVITZ, NAE, AlliedSignal Aerospace Corporation, Torrance, California National Materials Advisory Board Staff THOMAS E. MUNNS, Senior Program Officer AIDA C. NEEL, Senior Project Assistant BONNIE SCARBOROUGH, Research Associate National Materials Advisory Board Liaison KATHLEEN C. TAYLOR, NAE, General Motors Corporation, Warren, Michigan Government Liaison CHARLES SORRELL, U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.

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Intermetallic Alloy Development: A Program Evaluation COMMITTEE ON INDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENTS R. RAY BEEBE (chair), NAE, consultant, Tucson, Arizona GARY A. BAUM, Institute of Paper Science and Technology, Atlanta, Georgia PHILIP H. BRODSKY, Monsanto Company, St. Louis, Missouri JOHN V. BUSCH, IBIS Associates, Wellesley, Massachusetts NORMAN A. GJOSTEIN, NAE, materials engineering consultant, Dearborn, Michigan FRANCIS C. McMICHAEL, Carnegie-Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania MAXINE L. SAVITZ, NAE, AlliedSignal Aerospace Corporation, Torrance, California National Materials Advisory Board Staff THOMAS E. MUNNS, Senior Program Officer AIDA C. NEEL, Senior Project Assistant BONNIE SCARBOROUGH, Research Associate National Materials Advisory Board Liaison KATHLEEN C. TAYLOR, NAE, General Motors Corporation, Warren, Michigan Government Liaisons DENISE SWINK, U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C. JAMES E. QUINN, U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.

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Intermetallic Alloy Development: A Program Evaluation NATIONAL MATERIALS ADVISORY BOARD ROBERT A. LAUDISE (chair), NAS/NAE, Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies, Murray Hill, New Jersey G.J. ABBASCHIAN, University of Florida, Gainesville JAN D. ACHENBACH, NAS/NAE, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois MICHAEL I. BASKES, Sandia/Livermore National Laboratories, Livermore, California JESSE L. BEAUCHAMP, NAS, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena EDWARD C. DOWLING, Cyprus Amax Minerals Company, Englewood, Colorado FRANCIS DISALVO, NAS, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York ANTHONY G. EVANS, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts JOHN A. S. GREEN, The Aluminum Association, Washington, D.C. JOHN H. HOPPS, Morehouse College, Atlanta, Georgia MICHAEL JAFFE, Hoechst Celanese Corporation, Summit, New Jersey SYLVIA M. JOHNSON, SRI International, Menlo Park, California LIONEL C. KIMERLING, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge HARRY A. LIPSITT, Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio RICHARD S. MULLER, NAE, University of California, Berkeley ELSA REICHMANIS, NAE, Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies, Murray Hill, New Jersey KENNETH L. REIFSNIDER, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg EDGAR A. STARKE, University of Virginia, Charlottesville KATHLEEN C. TAYLOR, NAE, General Motors Corporation, Warren, Michigan JAMES WAGNER, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland JOSEPH WIRTH, Raychem Corporation, Menlo Park, California BILL G. W. YEE, Pratt and Whitney, West Palm Beach, Florida ROBERT E. SCHAFRIK, Director

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Intermetallic Alloy Development: A Program Evaluation Acknowledgments The hospitality of the employees of Martin Marietta Energy Systems at Oak Ridge National Laboratories during the panel's site visit and their time and effort in meetings and presentations are greatly appreciated. Individuals who prepared presentations or conducted laboratory tours include Bill Appleton, Jim Stiegler, Linda Horton, C. T. Liu, Vinod Sikka, Mike Santella, Rod Judkins, Peter Angelini, and Larry Dickens, Mike Miller, Kathi Alexander, Joe Horton, and Cam Hubbard. The panel on Intermetallic Alloy Development acknowledges Gary Hudson of United Defense LP/Steel Products Division, Jim Farago of General Motors Delphi Saginaw Steering Systems, and John Rogers of Sandusky International for providing an industrial perspective of the commercial potential of intermetallic alloys. The panel is particularly grateful to Charles Sorrel and James Quinn of the Department of Energy Office of Industrial Technology and Peter Angelini of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for assistance in conducting the meeting at Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Finally, the panel gratefully acknowledges the support of Thomas E. Munns, National Materials Advisory Board (NMAB) senior program officer, Aida C. Neel, NMAB senior project assistant, and Bonnie Scarborough, NMAB research associate.

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Intermetallic Alloy Development: A Program Evaluation Preface The Department of Energy Office of Industrial Technology (OIT) requested that the National Research Council, through the National Materials Advisory Board (NMAB), conduct a study to evaluate the OIT program strategy, to provide guidance during the transition to the new Industries of the Future strategy, and to assess the effects of the change on crosscutting technology programs. The Committee on Industrial Technology Assessments (CITA) was established to review and evaluate the program and plans of the overall OIT program, to review the plans and progress of selected OIT-sponsored research programs, and to conduct site visits and laboratory evaluations, when appropriate, to supplement program assessments. In the future, the committee will establish and oversee topical panels to review selected aspects of the program, conduct the site visits, and bring in additional members with expertise in the topical areas to be evaluated. The purpose of the panel on Intermetallic Alloy Development, the first topical panel established under CITA, was to document and evaluate the progress of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) toward the development and commercialization of high temperature intermetallic alloys, to identify industrial applications and barriers to commercialization, and to recommend criteria for selecting and prioritizing future research projects. This topic was selected because the intermetallic alloy program is a mature program focused on crosscutting research and development projects. The ORNL intermetallic alloy development program is a long-term, collaborative R&D program involving various Department of Energy program offices, including Basic Energy Sciences (BES), which sponsors fundamental research, and Fossil Energy (FE) and Energy Efficiency (EE), which sponsor applied

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Intermetallic Alloy Development: A Program Evaluation research and development programs. The objective of the ORNL intermetallics program has been to develop high strength, ductile, intermetallic alloys that can be processed and utilized for high-temperature structural applications. The panel met with key ORNL researchers, program managers, and industrial participants on June 6 and 7, 1996, at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, to discuss progress and plans, review program strategies and accomplishments, and tour the laboratory facilities. This report reviews and assesses the intermetallic alloy development program and offers recommendations for the focus of the program in the future, as well as assessing the implications of the lessons learned for the entire OIT program strategy. The chair thanks the panel members for their efforts, dedication, and patience during the preparation of the report and the staff of the NMAB for their assistance in the publication of the panel's report. The diligence and goodwill of all who were involved made for an unusually effective team effort. Comments and suggestions can be sent via Internet electronic mail to nmab@nas.edu or by FAX to the NMAB (202) 334-3718. Norman a. Gjostein, chair Panel on Intermetallic Alloy Development

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Intermetallic Alloy Development: A Program Evaluation Contents     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   1 1   INTRODUCTION   7     Committee on Industrial Technology Assessments   8     Panel on Intermetallic Alloy Development   8 2   OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY INTERMETALLICS PROGRAM   10     History of Program Management   11     Technical Progress and Accomplishments   16     Interactions with Industry   21     Conclusions   28     References   30 3   PROGRAM STRATEGIES   32     Identifying and Prioritizing Projects   32     Balancing Industry-Focused and Crosscutting Programs   34     Metrics for Selecting and Prioritizing Projects   34     Commercialization   35     References   38

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Intermetallic Alloy Development: A Program Evaluation 4   CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS   39     Prioritization and Metrics   40     Focus for the Research and Development Program   41     Implications for the Office of Industrial Technology Program   42     APPENDICES         A MEETING AGENDA   47     B BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF PANEL MEMBERS   50

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Intermetallic Alloy Development: A Program Evaluation Tables and Figures TABLES 1-1   Status of IOF Vision Documents,   9 2-1   Ni3Al Alloy Compositions,   18 FIGURES 1-1   Manufacturing energy use (1991),   8 2-1   Profile of funding (in then-year dollars) by Basic Energy Sciences (BES), Energy Efficiency (EE), and Fossil Energy (FE) offices of DOE,   12 2-2   Time line of program management and interactions,   13 2-3   Integration of research projects and mechanisms for technology transfer,   14 2-4   Mechanical properties of cast Ni3Al based alloys (IC-221M and IC-396M) and Fe-Ni-Cr steel alloy as a function of test temperature,   19 2-5   Cast and welded Ni3Al transfer roll,   24 2-6   Ni3Al carburizing grids,   25 3-1   Phases and activities in the commercialization process,   37

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Intermetallic Alloy Development: A Program Evaluation Acronyms AECC Alloy Engineering and Casting Company AIM Advanced Industrial Materials BES Basic Energy Sciences CITA Committee on Industrial Technology Assessments CRADA cooperative research and development agreement DOE Department of Energy ECUT Energy Conversion and Utilization EE Energy Efficiency FE Fossil Energy IOF Industries of the Future NRC National Research Council NMAB National Materials Advisory Board OD outer diameter OIT Office of Industrial Technology ORNL Oak Ridge National Laboratory UDLP United Defense LP/Steel Products Division

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