7. Mowery, D.C. (1995) in Coordination and Information, eds. Lamoreaux, N.R. & Raff, D.M.G. (Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago), pp. 147–176.
8. Khan, B.Z. (1995) J. Econ. Hist. 55, 58–97.
9. Machlup, F. (1958) An Economic Review of the Patent System (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC).
10. Simonds, W.E. (1871) Practical Suggestions on the Sale of Patents (privately printed, Hartford, CT).
11. Sokoloff, K.L. (1986) in Long-Term Factors in American Economic Growth, eds. Engerman, S.L. & Gallman, R.E. (Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago), pp. 679–736.
12. U.S. Patent Office (1891) Annual Report of the Commissioner of Patents for the Year 1891 (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC).
13. Chandler, A. (1977) The Visible Hand (Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, MA).
The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Long-term change in the organization of inventive activity ."
(NAS Colloquium) Science, Technology and the Economy . Washington, DC: The National Academies Press,
Please select a format:
As of 2013, the National Science Education Standards have been replaced by the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), available as a print book, free PDF download, and online with our OpenBook platform.
The NGSS offer a detailed description of the key scientific ideas and practices that all students should learn by the time they graduate from high school. The standards are based largely on the 2011 National Research Council report A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Practices, Crosscutting Concepts, and Core Ideas.