3. Semiconductor Industry Association (1993) Databook (SIA, San Jose, CA), p. 41.

4. National Science Foundation (1989) Research and Development in Industry (National Science Foundation, Washington, DC), NSF Publ. No. 92–307, p. 77.

5. Cohen, L. (1994) Am. Econ. Rev. 84, 159–163.

6. Irwin, D. (1996) in The Political Economy of American Trade Policy, ed. Krueger, A. (Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago), pp. 11–70.

7. Spencer, W. & Grindley, P. (1993) Calif. Manage. Rev. 35, 9–32.

8. Grindley, P., Mowery, D. & Silverman, B. (1994) J. Policy Anal. Manage. 13, 723–758.

9. General Accounting Office (1991) Federal Research: Sematech’s Efforts to Develop and Transfer Manufacturing Technology (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington DC), GPO Publ. No. GAO/RCED-91–139FS.

10. Burrows, P. (1992) Electron. Bus. 18, 47–52.

11. General Accounting Office (1992) Federal Research: Lessons Learned from Sematech (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC), GPO Publ. No. GAO/RCED-92–1238.

12. Romer, P. (1993) Brookings Pap. Econ. Act. Microecon. 2, 345– 390.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement