proportions are shown in Fig. 12. What stands out is that while the United States spends about half of its government support of academic research on life sciences, the other countries all spend more like one-third. Interestingly, the other countries differ in where else the money is spent. Relative to the United States, Japan spends more in engineering, and professional and vocational fields; Germany and France spend more on physical sciences, and the United Kingdom spends more on everything but life sciences (all as shares of the country totals).

I gratefully acknowledge research support from the National Science Foundation Grants SBR–9320973 and SBR–9413099.

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