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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Table of Contents Papers from a National Academy of Sciences Colloquium on Science, Technology, and the Economy Science, technology, and economic growth Ariel Pakes and Kenneth L.Sokoloff 12655–12657 Trends and patterns in research and development expenditures in the United States Adam B.Jaffe 12658–12663 Measuring science: An exploration James Adams and Zvi Griliches 12664–12670 Flows of knowledge from universities and federal laboratories: Modeling the flow of patent citations over time and across institutional and geographic boundaries Adam B.Jaffe and Manuel Trajtenberg 12671–12677 The future of the national laboratories Linda R.Cohen and Roger G.Noll 12678–12685 Long-term change in the organization of inventive activity Naomi R.Lamoreaux and Kenneth L.Sokoloff 12686–12692 National policies for technical change: Where are the increasing returns to economic research? Keith Pavitt 12693–12700 Are the returns to technological change in health care declining? Mark McClellan 12701–12708 Star scientists and institutional transformation: Patterns of invention and innovation in the formation of the biotechnology industry Lynne G.Zucker and Michael R.Darby 12709–12716 Evaluating the federal role in financing health-related research Alan M.Garber and Paul M.Romer 12717–12724 Public-private interaction in pharmaceutical research Iain Cockburn and Rebecca Henderson 12725–12730 Environmental change and hedonic cost functions for automobiles Steven Berry, Samuel Kortum, and Ariel Pakes 12731–12738 Sematech: Purpose and Performance Douglas A.Irwin and Peter J.Klenow 12739–12742 The challenge of contracting for technological information Richard Zeckhauser 12743–12748 An economic analysis of unilateral refusals to license intellectual property Richard J.Gilbert and Carl Shapiro 12749–12755
OCR for page R2
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America This page in the original is blank.