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WILLIAM FREDERICK DURAND March 5, 1 859-A ugust 9, 1958 BY FREDERICK EMMONS TERMAN WILLIAM FREDERICK DURAND began his professional career in 1880, when upon graduation from the U.S. Naval Academy he was assigned to the U.S.S. Tennessee to look after its steam engine and associated boiler. This was the largest vessel in the U.S. Navy and was the flagship of the North Atlantic fleet. It had a wooden hull and was full-rigged with mast, sails, and spars; the steam engine was for use when the wind was not favorable. Durand's last important assignment was assumed in 1941 at age eighty-two, when Vannevar Bush, Chairman of the National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics, appointed Du- rand chairman of a committee that was assigned the responsibil- ity of getting a jet engine for aircraft propulsion designed and manufactured in the United States. Durand carried this respon- sibility, as well as concurrently serving as Chairman of the Engineering Division of the National Research Council, until mid-1945, a few months beyond his eighty-sixth birthday. Durand came from early New England stock and was of mixed English and French-Huguenot blood. He was born March 5, 1859, at a village now known as Beacon Falls, Con- necticut, and grew up on a farm near Derby, Connecticut, which is approximately eight miles west of New Haven. His boyhood environment was that typical of New England farm and country town life in the period immediately after the Civil War. 153

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154 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS In school Durand showed unusual aptitude and interest for mathematics. He also hacl a special fondness for working with tools in the way of devising implements and apparatususually related to some phase of farm work. As an example, he spent much time and effort on the design and construction of a horse- drawn hay rig with operating features that he regarded as supe- rior to the rig then being used on the family farm. On the basis of these qualities, his older brother urged him to compete for entrance to the U.S. Naval Academy because of its engineering course. The permit necessary to attend the entrance examination was obtained through a congressman friend. To further his chances for selection to Annapolis, he dropped attendance at the high school for the spring of 1876 and spent the time in the tool room of a factory in a nearby village, riding to work daily on horseback. Here he gained familiarity with machine tools, a factor in the examination at Annapolis. Also that summer he supplemented his rather skimpy high school education by an intensive coaching review of the subjects covered by the Annapolis examination offered at the Maryland Agricultural College (now the University of Maryland). In the entrance examination Durand ranked tenth among the eighty applicants. He entered the Naval Academy in the fall of 1876. The years at the Naval Academy were a turning point in Durand's life. His school days in New England had provided little in the way of competition, and he had developed no special ambition, love of study, or definite purpose. Life at the Naval Academy, with its keenly competitive features, and with its appeal to the ambitions and visions of young adults, awakened him. Although the lessons were long and the examinations searching, he responded to the challenge. Seventy-three years later he wrote, "I give emphatic praise to the course of instruc- tion and to the thorough training at Annapolis. Whatever I may have been able to accomplish in later years, I credit unreservedly to this institution and to the training received there." Scholas-

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WILLIAM FREDERICK DURAND 155 tically, his class rank was four, three, two, and one in his succes- sive years, with an overall rank for the four years of number two. In his last year he was also given the highest cadet rank for which he was eligiblethe so-called three-stripe rank, which was based upon the general record, including not only class scholastic standing, but also aptitude for the service. This placed him in command of the four classes of engineering students at all general functions, such as dress parades, and also of his own class at all formalities. Thus did the farm boy from rural New England discover that he could achieve leadership in a broader world. Upon graduation from the Naval Academy in 1880, Durand was assigned to the U.S.S. Tennessee, as previously indicated. The next three years were spent on cruises up and down the Atlantic Coast and among the West Indies. In June of 1883 he was detached from the Tennessee and ordered to duty in the design room of the Bureau of Steam Engineering of the Navy Department, in Washington, D.C. Here he worked on the design of the engines for the cruiser Chicago, one of the first four ships of the new steel navy that Congress had authorized a few years before. During the three-year cruise on the Tennessee, Durand had begun to question whether a career in the Navy was best suited to his tastes and capacities. He also desired to be in a position to marry and to enjoy family life. A few years earlier a bill had been passed by Congress providing for the detail of officers in the Engineering Corps of the Navy to scientific and technical institutions of learning for the purpose of giving instruction in steam engineering and iron shipbuilding. Teaching had always appealed to Durand. He recognized that such an assignment would provide an opportunity to try out academic work in a provisional way without a final commitment. Accordingly, learning that Lafayette College at Easton, Pennsylvania, had applied for such a detail, Duran(1 took the necessary steps and in

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156 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS due time was ordered there on temporary detached duty, where he spent two pleasant years. In the fall, on October 23, 1883, he married Charlotte Kneen, five months his junior and a classmate from Derby High School. On June 14, 1885, a son, William Leavenworth, was born, their only child. After leaving Lafayette, Durand spent the next eighteen months on engineering assignments connected with the con- struction and testing of the new steel ships being built for the Navy. His most notable experience in this connection was as a member of the crew of the U.S.S. Dolphin, a so-called dispatch boat, when this vessel demonstrated its structural soundness by deliberately steaming full speed into the teeth of a storm off Cape Hatteras and coming through this ordeal unscathed. This ship had become the center of a political controversy, having been contracted for and designed under a Republican adminis- tration, but offered for acceptance to a succeeding Democratic administration that questioned its seaworthiness. During this period, Durand continued to think about his future and looked with increasing favor upon a career in the academic world. He sought and obtained an assignment by the Navy to Worcester Polytechnic Institute in March 1887, with the thought that this could be a stepping-stone to something more permanent. The following summer he was offered a posi- tion at Michigan State College (now Michigan State University) to organize and direct a new Department of Mechanical Engi- neering. This he accepted and concurrently resigned from the Navy as of September 1, 1887. The following year Lafayette awarded him the Ph.D. degree as a result of studies that he had initiated during his tour of duty at that institution and had completed in absentia in 1887-1888. Durand undertook the organization and development of the Michigan State Mechanical Engineering Department with great enthusiasm and within a few years had laid a good foundation for the future. However, fate had other plans in mind for him.

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WILLIAM FREDERICK DURAND 157 In the late spring of 1891 he was offered a professorship in Mechanical Engineering at Purdue University. Feeling this position would be a step upward in his academic career, he accepted, only to discover later in the summer that an opening existed at Cornell University as head of a new postgraduate program in Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering in Cornell's Sibley College. Naturally this opening was attractive to him, so he contacted Dr. R. H. Thurston, Director of Sibley College. After due consideration, Thurston informed Durand that they would like to have him as head of this new program if he could honorably clear himself of all obligation to Purdue. This he accomplished through finding a suitable substitute for . . . his position. At Cornell Durand had an opportunity for the first time to engage systematically in research and other creative work. He took full advantage of this situation, as is evidenced by the prodigious stream of publications that came from his pen dur- ing his thirteen years at Cornell. Durand's most important work during this period was his study of the screw propeller. From his early days on the cruise of the Tennessee, Durand had been interested in the screw pro- peller and its theory of operation. It appeared to him that through tests on models it would be possible to relate the physi- cal proportions and operating conditions of the propeller to its performance. Cornell hac} a Hydraulic Laboratory with a con- crete-lined canal that was suitable for such an investigation if it could be equipped for carrying out the necessary experimental observations. The apparatus needed included (1) a car with wheels running on rails laid on either sidle of the canal and fitted for carrying the model propeller and the necessary electrical equipment for its operation at any speed along the canal, at any desired number of revolutions per minute of the model, to- gether with the measuring equipment for determining the thrust and input power to the propeller, as well as revolutions

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158 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS per minute; and (2) electrical equipment for propelling the car at any desired speed along the track with electrical contacts and registering equipment for determining such speed. Since Cor- nell had no funds for the necessary equipment, Durand applied to the Carnegie Institution of Washington for financial help and was awarded the necessary grant. Altogether some forty-nine models, each one foot in diam- eter, were tested for varying form and proportion, area, and pitch ratio. With the results of such model tests and by the use of laws of comparison in stepping from model to full scale, it was then a simple matter to determine the characteristics of a full-scale propeller to meet any proposed conditions of opera- tion. The result was to make it possible to design and calculate the performance of a marine screw propeller on a systematic basis. Some years later Durand applied this same approach to pioneering studies of the airplane propeller, as will be subse- quently recounted. Durand's work at Cornell was not, however, limited exclu- sively to work on the screw propeller, as evidenced by the titles of various papers that he wrote during this period. Two addi- tional contributions are worthy of particular attention. The first of these was the introduction around 1892 or 1893 of logarith- mic cross-section paper. Durand was apparently the first ever to have had the idea of ruling cross-section paper with intervals corresponding to the logarithms of the numbers set down on the axis. As late as 1936 the general catalog of Keuffe] and Esser Co. listed logarithmic paper under the title, "Durand's Logarithmic Paper." Another important contribution during the Cornell period was the invention of a planimeter for averaging the ordinates of a diagram plotted in radial (polar) coordinates. As clock re- cording instruments were becoming common in power plants and elsewhere, Durand obtained a patent on the crevice and for

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WILLIAM FREDERICK DURAND 159 years received royalties from a manufacturer of scientific in- struments licensed under this patent. The pleasant rhythm of the Cornell years was suddenly upset by the unexpected death of Thurston from a heart attack in October 1903. Durand, who had been made Secretary of Sibley College by Thurston some years before, was appointed Acting Director for the remainder of the year while a search was launched for a successor to Thurston. After the appointment in the spring of Professor A. W. Smith of Stanford University as the new Director of Sibley College, Durand decided to apply for a year of sabbatical leave during which plans could be made for the future. However, late in the spring of 1904, fate again intervened in Durand's life, when President David Starr Jordan of Stanford persuaded him to fill the vacancy created at Stanford by the departure of A. W. Smith. Durand served as professor and head of Mechanical Engineering at Stanford until his retirement in 1924, and as Professor Emeritus until his death on August 9, 1958. During his first year at Stanford, Durand was also in charge of the Electrical Engineering Department, along with an as- signment from Dr. Jordan to find a head for that department. To this end he consulted extensively with his close friend Harris I. Ryan of Cornell, who had already achieved distinction for studies of corona generated by high-voltage electrical power lines. During the course of these consultations, he discovered that Ryan might himself be interested in this opening. The result was that Ryan came to Stanford in 1905 as head of the Department of Electrical Engineering, a position that he filled with great distinction, as indicated by his election to the Na- tional Academy of Sciences in 1920. At Stanford the Durands quickly adjusted to their new cir- cumstances. In 1905 they built a home on a hill that overlooked

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160 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS the university buildings and that also provided a breathtaking view of San Francisco Bay and the northern end of the Santa Clara Valley. They were delighted when the Ryans built a home on an adjacent lot in 1906. The San Francisco earthquake of April 18, 1906, caused major damage to Stanford's buildings. During the following two years, Durand gave much of his spare time to service on a three- man faculty Board of Engineering responsible for making the temporary repairs required to enable the University to reopen in the fall, and for planning the permanent restoration of the damaged structures. In planning for the Panama Pacific International Exposi- tion, held in San Francisco in 1915, the major engineering soci- eties of the United States decided to hold a worldwide Engineer- ing Congress. Durand was appointed chairman of the local Com- mittee of Management and spent much of his time for several years getting together an adequate staff, making plans for the Congress, and inviting delegates from the leading nations to write papers to be read before it. Finally came the Congress itself, with a great opening session, an address by General Goe- thals, who had accepted the post of Honorary President, recep- tions, banquets, technical sessions, etc. Thereafter came the work of gathering together all the papers read before the Con- gress and the related discussions, and preparing this material for publication. This latter phase was interrupted by World War I, and was not finally completed until around 1920. With his fluid mechanics background, it was natural for Durand to become interested in the water and power problems of the western United States. He retained this interest until the end of his life. For some thirty years he served as a consultant to the Bureau of Power and Light of the City of Los Angeles in the construction and design of its water and electrical supply systems. For the City of San Francisco there was a period of three or four years' service in connection with the design and

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WILLIAM FREDERICK DURAND 161 construction of the Hetch Hetchy Dam and the associated water supply and hydroelectric power installations. He also helped the Metropolitan Water District of California in the design and construction of pumping equipment for the Colorado River canal to bring river water to Los Angeles and other cities. As a by-product of these assignments, he did significant research on hydraulic machinery, the hydraulics of pipelines, and the theory of the surge chamber. In spite of these new activities, Durand never lost his interest in the problems of the screw propeller. With the development of the airplane, he began to give attention to the airplane pro- peller, and in the 1914 volume of the Journal of the Franklin Institute he has a twenty-seven-page paper, "The Screw Pro- peller; with Special Reference to Airplane Propulsion." In that same year he attended a conference in Washington, D.C., called by Charles D. Walcott, Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, the purpose of which was to consider ways and means for awak- ening and stimulating interest in aeronautical science, with particular reference to activity on the part of the government. This conference developed a background that led to a bill en- acted by Congress the following year providing for the organi- zation of the National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics (NACA, now NASA), which was "to supervise and direct scien- tific study of the problems of flight with a view to their practical solution." President Wilson appointed Durand as one of the five civilian members of this Committee, which held its first meeting in the spring of 1915. At this first meeting Durand set forth the need for experi- mental studies of the air propeller analogous to those of ship propellers he had carried on at Cornell. This proposal met with favor by the Committee, and led later to a contract with Stan- ford University for carrying out such an investigation under NACA sponsorship. This contract called for an expenditure of $4000 for the initial year, including the cost of building and

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162 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS instrumenting the wind tunnel that would be used in carrying out the tests. Even allowing for the charade in purchasing power that has occured since 1916, this is indeed a modest sum for the first definitive investigation on a basic topic, especially when compared with present-day grants. This was the beginning of a long series of researches on air propellers performed at Stanford with the help of Professor E. P. Lesley, which extended over the following dozen or so years ~ Over one hundred model propellers were tested in a wind tunnel under widely varying conditions of operation, and principles of design were established. The resulting reports were the authoritative sources for design data for many years. This investigation included the first experimental study made in the United States of the variable-pitch propeller, which in time came into almost universal use in all propeller-driven airplanes. It also included a thorough comparison of the measured data with theoretically computed characteristics for eight of the model propellers, as well as a comparison of model results with full-scale flight-test data, which were obtained under Lesley's direction at the Langley Laboratory of NACA. The latter com- parison, which necessarily involved the testing of the propeller in combination with a fuselage, gave rise to the important concept of propulsive efficiency for such combinations. This became a standard analytical tool in the design of propeller- driven aircraft. At the second meeting of NACA, held in the fall of 1916, Durand was chosen chairman. Upon the entry of the United States into World War I in the spring of 1917, Durand took a leave of absence from Stanford and moved to Washington, D.C. hit is significant that these studies of propellers were conducted with little or no involvement of graduate students. Neither were they used as a vehicle to recruit and develop young faculty members of outstanding promise. In spite of his diverse accomplishments and leadership qualities of high order, Durand was not notable as an organizer of academic programs or as a developer of faculty talent.

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WILLIAM FREDERICK DURAND 183 1901 The marine steam boiler; an elementary discussion of the principles controlling the generation of steam. Mar. Eng., 6:36-37. The marine steam engine; overhauling and repairs. Mar. Eng., 6: 211-14. Practical Marine Engineering for Marine Engineers and Students, with Aids for Applicants for Marine Engineers' Licenses. New York: Marine Engineering, Inc. 706 pp. 2d ea., 1902. Problem of the connecting rod. Sibley l. Eng., 15:188-95, 339~4. Speed and power trials of ships. Sibley l. Eng., 15:309-14. Discussion of: The theoretical and practical methods of balancing marine engines, by D. W. Taylor. Trans. Soc. Nav. Archit. Mar. Eng., 9:133-34. 1902 The equipment of the canal of the hydraulic laboratory of Cornell University for experimental work on the resistance and propul- sion of ships. Sibley l. Eng., 16: 141-49. Graphical chart for the solution of valve-gear problems. J. Am. Soc. Nav. Eng., 14:1141-50. John Ericsson: navies of war and commerce. Chapter in: Beacon Lights of History, vol. XIV. ed. bv John Lord. on. 197-247. New J A ' 1 1 York: James Clarke & Co. Discussion of: The vibrations of steamships, with special reference to those of second higher period, by George W. Melville. Trans. Soc. Nav. Archit. Mar. Eng., 10:228-29. 1903 Design of motor launches. Mar. Eng., 8: 11-18. Employment of the air propeller for motorboat propulsion. Auto- mobile, 8:616-17. The powering and propulsion of small boats. Mar. Eng., 8:121-26. A problem connected with the screw propeller. l. Am. Soc. Nav. Eng., 15:887-901. Propellers for launches. (Reply to E. R. Koile) Mar. Eng., 8:322. Robert Henry Thurston. Smithsonian Institution, Annual Report, pp. 843-49.

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184 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Special methods of determining groups of curves representing engi- neering formulae. Sibley l. Eng., 17:321-33. On a special type of boat for transporting grain and ore on the Great Lakes of North America. (Sur un type special de navires destines au transport des grains ou du mineral de fer sur les Grands Lacs de l'Amerique du Nord) Bulletin de ['association technique maritime, Session de 1903, no. 14. Water power development. Engineer, 40:44-46. 1904 The law of comparison in engineering structures. Sibley J. Eng., 18:362-74. Problem of the auto boat. Automobile, 11 :255-56, 331-32, 405-7. Robert Henry Thurston. Proceedings, Washington Academy of Sci- ences, b:419-21. 1905 Experimental researches on the performance of screw propellers. Trans. Soc. Nav. Archit. Mar. Eng., 13:71-85. Fourier's analysis applied to the plain slide valve gear. Sibley J. Eng., 19: 356-66. Lines of progress in marine engineering. Pac. Mar. Rev., 2:9-11. Marine engineering. Trans. Am. Soc. Civ. Eng., 54(part C):183-241, 261-68. Discussion of: Naval architecture in Great Britain, by William H. White. Trans. Am. Soc. Civ. Eng., 54(part D):124-26. Practical points about the screw propeller. Mar. Eng., 10: 14-17, 58-60, 115-19, 168-72. Motor boats. Mar. Eng., 10:278-80, 319-21, 385-88, 415-17, 456-57, 490-94. 1906 Collision forces in automobiles. Sci. Am. Suppl., 62:25775-76. Superheated steam. Eng. Rec., 54:86-87. Commercial factors in power plant problems. Eng. Rec., 54:113-14, 141-42. The molding of propellers. International Marine Engineering, 11 184-88. .

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WILLIAM FREDERICK DURAND 185 Motor boats. Mar. Eng., 11:21-23, 68-70, 93-96, 148-50, 180-82, 236-37, 277-81, 308-11, 366-67, 403-5. 1907 Improved transmission dynamometer. Trans. Am. Soc. Mech. Eng., 28:697-703. Motor boats. Mar. Eng., 12:29-32. Motor Boats; a Thoroughly Scientific Discussion of Their Design, Construction and Operation. With additional chapters on the uses of kerosene and alcohol in internal combustion engines. London, New York: International Marine Engineering. 200 pp. Power plant of the Sperry Flour Company, Los Angeles, California. Eng. Rec., 55 :408-10. Progress in marine engineering during the year 1906. Pac. Mar. Rev., 4:19-20. Researches on the Performance of the Screw Propeller. Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Institution of Washington (Publication no. 79~. 61 pp. Test of power plant of Home Gas Company, Redlands, California. Engineer, 44:804-8. A transmission dynamometer. Am. Mach., 30:883-84. 1908 An averaging instrument for polar diagrams. Trans. Am. Soc. Mech. Eng., 30: 1201-6. 1909 The Resistance and Propulsion of Ships. 2d ed. rev. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 427 pp. Some things about steam. l. Electr. Power Gas, 23:407-8. 1910 Impressions of recent hydro-electric practice in Switzerland. Eng. Rec., 62:536-39. Opportunities, responsibilities and training necessary for success in the engineering field. l. Electr. Power Gas, 24:95-102. The physical meaning of entropy. Journal of Electricity, 25:488-90. With H. J. Ryan and O. H. Ensign. Preliminary Report of Consult-

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186 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS ing Board of Engineers of the Bureau of Los Angeles Aqueduct Power. Los Angeles, February 12. Proposed form of seismograph intended to give a direct indication of the forces in play. Bulletin, Geological Society of America, 20:708-10. (A) 1911 On the control of surges in water conduits. l. Am. Soc. Mech. Eng., 33: 671-710. Discussion, 34: 363-77. A Pacific Coast Navy. Navy, b:25-30. Practical Marine Engineering for Marine Engineers and Students, with Aids for Applicants for Marine Engineers' Licenses. 3d ed. New York: Marine Engineering, Inc. 794 pp. 1912 On the control of surges in water conduits. Trans. Am. Soc. Mech. Eng., 34:319-77. 1913 Developments in prime movers. Electr. World, 61:7-9. Investigation of surge phenomena by means of model experiments. Western Engineering, 3:421-31. 1914 Developments in prime movers. Electr. World, 63: 15-16. The interpretation of electric current flow in terms of the electron theory. l. Electr. Power Gas, 32: 175-79. The screw propeller; with special reference to aeroplane propulsion. J. Franklin Inst., 178:259-86. 1915 Progress in the field of mechanical engineering during recent years. J. Am. Soc. Mech. Eng., 37:viii-x. Recent developments in prime movers. Electr. World, 65: 19-21. 1916 Final report on the Columbia River power project. l. Electr. Power Gas, 37: 125-26.

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WILLIAM FREDERICK DURAND 187 Flow of steam in pipes. Power, 43:324-25; also in J. Am. Soc. Mech. Eng., 38:354. Marine engineering. In: Mechanical Engineers Handbook, ed. by L. S. Marks, pp. 1229~. 1st ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co. Second Annual Report of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, 1916, W. F. Durand, Chairman. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Govt. Print. Off. 19 pp. Significant developments in prime movers. Electr. World, 67:18-19. 1917 The aircraft problem. Trans. Am. Soc. Mech. Eng., 39:508-17. The applications of science. Scientific Monthly, b:146-53. Experimental Research on Air Propellers, I. National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics Technical Report no. 14. 58 pp. Also in Annual Report for 1917, pp. 83-138. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Govt. Print. Off. Mechanical aspects of aeronautics (Symposium on Aeronautics). Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 56:170-88. Practical Marine Engineering for Marine Engineers and Students, with Aids foil A pplicants for Marine Engineers' Licenses. 4th ea., revised and enlarged by Captain C. W. Dyson. New York: Marine Engineering, Inc. 982 pp. Progress and outlook in prime movers. Electr. World, 69:22-24. Third Annual Report of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, 1917, W. F. Durand, Chairman. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Govt. Print. Off. 32 pp. 1918 The Aerodynamic Laboratory at Leland Stanford Junior University and the equipment installed with reference to tests on air pro- pellers. Journal of Society of Automotive Engineers, 2:230-38; also in Aeronautics, London, 14:335-43. The aircraft problem. Trans. Am. Soc. Mech. Eng., 39:508-17. America's air service. J. Franklin Inst., 185: 1-27. With E. P. Lesley. Experimental Research on Air Propellers, II. National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics Technical Report no. 30. 65 pp. Also in Annual Report for 1918, pp. 261-320. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Govt. Print. Off.

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188 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Modern aeronautics. Automat. Ind., 39:368-70, 42~26, 464-67; also inSci.Am.Suppl., 86:130-31, 150-51, 166-67. Note on a theorem in mechanics. Sibley l. Eng., 32:48-50. Outstanding problems in aeronautics. Aeronautical Journal, Lon- don,22: 183-201. Problems in aeronautics. In: Problems of Aeroplane Improvement, pp. 11-15. Bulletin no. 3 issued by Naval Consulting Board and Engineering Council's War Committee of Technical Societies, Washington, D.C. New York: U.S. Naval Consulting Board. Paris under the long range gun. The Stanford Sequoia, Stanford University, 27(spring issue): 1-6. 1919 Analysis of the need for civil aviation. Automot. Ind., 41:872-75, 922-24, 968-71, 1020-24. With E. P. Lesley. Experimental Research on Air Propellers, III. National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics Technical Report no. 64. 35 pp. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Govt. Print. Off. 1920 With E. P. Lesley. Experimental Research on Air Propellers, IV. National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics Technical Report no. 109. 11 pp. Also in Annual Report for 1920, pp. 681-89. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Govt. Print. Off. The hydraulics of oil pipe lines. l. Electr., 44:434-39. Appendix to: The Problem of the Helicopter, by E. P. Warner, pp. 16-18. National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics Technical Note no. 4. Shock of water ram in pipe lines with imperfect reflection at the discharge end and including change of valve opening. Proceed- ings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 6:441~2. Water hammer in pipe lines. Engineering News-Record, 85:1212- 16. 1921 Application of the law of kinematic similitude to the surge-chamber problem. Trans. Am. Soc. Mech. Eng., 43:1177-1200. Discussion in: Mech. Eng., 1922, 44:541, 542, 764, 857, 858; 1923, 45:22. With E. P. Lesley. Experimental Research on Air Propellers, V. National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics Technical Report

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WILLIAM FREDERICK DURAND 189 no. 141. 82 pp. Also in Annual Report for 1921, pp. 16~241. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Govt. Print. Off. Hydraulics of Pipe Lines. New York: D. Van Nostrand Co. 271 pp. The Joseph Henry Fund of the National Academy of Sciences. Science, 54:542~3. Stanford War Memorial, a suggestion. Stanford Illustrated Review, 22:308. With E. P. Lesley. Tests on Air Propellers in Yaw. National Ad- visory Committee for Aeronautics Technical Report no. 113. 37 pp. Also in Annual Report for 1921, pp. 93-127. 1924 Discussion of: Aeronautics in naval architecture, by J. C. Hunsaker. Trans. Soc. Nav. Archit. Mar. Eng., 32:17-19. Discussion of: Comparison of model propeller experiments in three nations, by D. W. Taylor. Trans. Soc. Nav. Archit. Mar. Eng., 32:79. With E. P. Lesley. Com parison of Mod el Pro pelter Tests with A ir- foil Theory. National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics Technical Report no. 196. 26 pp. Marine engineering. Section in: Mechanical Engirzeer's Handbook, ed. by L. S. Marks, pp. 1300-1321. 2d ed. New York: McGraw- Hill Book Co. Simpson's rules generalized. Mech. Eng., 46: 885-86. 1925 With E. P. Lesley. Comparison of Tests on Air Propellers in Flight with Wind Tunnel Model Tests on Similar Forms. National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics Technical Report no. 220. 29 pp. Also in Annual Report for 1925, pp. 273-99. The engineer and civilization. Trans. Am. Soc. Mech. Eng., 47:553- 68. The problem of the Colorado River. Mech. Eng., 47:79-84. Discussion of: Helicopters, by Alexander Klemin. Mech. Eng., 47: 268. 1926 Science and engineering. Mech. Eng., 48: 337~0. Review of: The hydraulic laboratories of Europe (Die waserbaula- boratorien Europas). Mech. Eng., 48:1491-92.

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190 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Interaction Between Air Propellers and Airplane Structures. Na- tional Advisory Committee for Aeronautics Technical Report no. 235. 23 pp. Also in Annual Report for 1926, pp. 107-27. Science and civilization. Science, 64: 167-73. Tests on Thirteen Navy Ty pe Mod el Pro pelters. National Advisory Committe for Aeronautics Technical Report no. 237. 17 pp. Also in Annual Report for 1926, pp. 153-65. 1927 Some problems of life and destiny. Bulletin of the University of Utah, vol. 17, no. 13. 1928 Aeronautic Education. The Guggenheim Fund for the Promotion of Aeronautics, Inc. g pp. Problems of the Colorado River. U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. De- velopment of the Lower Colorado River. Report by special advisers to the Secretary of the Interior, pp. 379~18. Washing- ton, D.C.: U.S. Govt. Print. Off. U.S. Congress: House Committee on Irrigation and Reclamation. Protection and Development of the Lower Colorado River Basin. Hearings, Seventieth Congress, first session on H. R. 5773, pp. 476-514. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Govt. Print. Off. The public needs aeronautic education. Airway Age, 9~8~:21-23. From the scientific standpoint; Wright's accomplishments constitute fine example of application of true scientific methods. Airway Age, 9412~:27-28. 1929 Historical sketch of the development of aerodynamic theory. Aero- nautical Engineering (ASME Transactions), 1: 13-19. Robert Henry Thurston; A Biography, The Record of a Life of Achievement as Engineer, Educator, and Author. New York: American Society of Mechanical Engineers. 301 pp. 1930 Genesis and evolution. Am. Mach., 72:567-68. How old is the engineer? Engineers and Engineering, 47:285-88. Hydraulic theory. Mech. Eng., 52:367-70.

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WILLIAM FREDERICK DURAND 191 Marine engineering. Section in: Mechanical Engineer's Handbook, ed. by L.S. Marks, pp. 1493-1512. 3d ed. New York: McGraw- Hill Book Co. Proof of the Theorem Regarding the Distribution of Lift Over the Span for Minimum Induced Drag. National Advisory Com- mittee for Aeronautics Technical Report no. 349. 15 pp. Wash- ington, D.C.: U.S. Govt. Print. Off. Rear Admiral Taylor's achievements in aeronautics an apprecia- tion. Trans. Soc. Nav. Archit. Mar. Eng., 38:323. 1931 Problems of the screw propeller. Pac. Mar. Rev., 28:365-67. 1932 The Zuider Zee Reclamation Project. Mech. Eng., 54:520. 1933 The development of our knowledge of the laws of fluid mechanics. Science, 78: 343-51. 1934 Editor-in-Chief of: Aerodynamic Theory, 6 vols. Berlin: Julius Springer, 1934-36. Reprinted 1943 by Durand Reprinting Com- mittee. Mathematical aids. In: Aerodynamic Theory, vol. 1, div. A, pp. 1- 104. Berlin: Julius Springer. Reprinted 1943 by Durand Re- printing Committee. Fluid mechanics, part I. In: Aerodynamic Theory, vol. 1, div. B. pp. 105-223. Berlin: Julius Springer. Reprinted 1943 by Durand Reprinting Committee. 1935 Discussion of: Photoflow method of water measurement, by W. M. White and W. [on Rheingans. Trans. Am. Soc. Mech. Eng., 58: 157-58. Report of Special Committee on Airships, W. F. Durand, Chairman. National Academy of Sciences Report no. 1/~-5, 4 vole., 1936- 37. Stanford: Stanford Univ. Press. Why the engineer? Electr. Eng., 55: 1301-3.

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192 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1937 Lewis Muhlenberg Haupt (1844-1937~. In: Yearbook of the Ameri- can Philosophical Society, pp. 358-61. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society. lg38 Address, Second Congress of the International Commission on Large Dams. Transactions of the Second Congress on Large Dams, Washington, D.C., vol. 1, pp. 172-77. Harris Joseph Ryan, 1866-1934. In: National Academy of Sciences, Biographical Memoirs, vol. 19, pp. 285-306. Development of standard code for large welded steel pipe for hy- draulic purposes. Welding Journal, 17: 37~0. The Wright brothers. Journal of the Aeronautical Sciences, 5:111- 12. 1939 Dr. Robert Henry Thurston's eighteen years at Cornell. Science, 90: 547-52. Modern Trends in Air Transport. Smithsonian Report for 1939, pp. 513-33. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution. The outlook in fluid mechanics. J. Franklin Inst., 228:183-212. The Pelton water wheel. I. Developments by Pelton and others prior to 1880. Mech. Eng., 61:447-54. II. Developments by Doble and others, 1880 to date. Mech. Eng., 61:511-18. With R. D. Calkins and W. H. Rich. Report of the Board of Con- sultants on the Fish Problems of the Upper Columbia River. Denver: U.S. Bureau of Reclamation. 83 pp. 1940 The flow of water in channels under steep gradients. Trans. Am. Soc. Mech. Eng., 62:g-14. A general view of the Central Valley Project. Commonwealth Club of California Transactions, 34: 241-45. New obligations in aeronautics. Journal of Engineering Education, 31:110-17.

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WILLIAM FREDERICK DURAND 1941 193 Aims and objects of American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Mech. Eng., 63:667-70, 91~16. Ionization as a factor in fluid mechanics. In: Theodore Con Barman Anniversary Volume; Contributions to Applied Mechanics and Related Subjects by the Friends of Theodore Con Barman on his Sixtieth Birthday, pp. 76-84. Pasadena: Calif. Inst. of Tech- nology. Ames Laboratory crowns NACA progress. Aviation, 43:123. 1946 Jet propulsion. Mech. Eng., 68:191-93; see also Engineers Digest (British edition), 7:281-82. 1947 Early engineering education and the United States Navy. Proceed- ings, U.S. Naval Institute, 73: 167-77. 1948 Orville Wright. Mech. Eng., 70:581-85. 1949 Orville Wright, 1871-1948. In: National Academy of Sciences, Bio- graphical Memoirs, vol. 25, pp. 259-74. George W. Lewis, 1882-1948. In: National Academy of Sciences, Biographical Memoirs, vol. 25, pp. 297-312. 1953 Adventures in the Navy, in Education, Science, Engineering and in War; a Life Story. New York: The American Society of Mechan- ical Engineers and McGraw-Hill Book Co. 212 pp.