NRL STRATEGIC SERIES

Boundary Layer Dynamics

Panel on Boundary Layer Dynamics

Naval Studies Board

Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.
1997



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Boundary Layer Dynamics NRL STRATEGIC SERIES Boundary Layer Dynamics Panel on Boundary Layer Dynamics Naval Studies Board Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1997

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Boundary Layer Dynamics NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the panel responsible for this report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is interim president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and interim vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. This work was performed under Department of Navy Contract N00014-93-C-0089 issued by the Office of Naval Research under contract authority NR 201-124. However, the content does not necessarily reflect the position or the policy of the Department of the Navy or the government, and no official endorsement should be inferred. The United States Government has at least a royalty-free, nonexclusive, and irrevocable license throughout the world for government purposes to publish, translate, reproduce, deliver, perform, and dispose of all or any of this work, and to authorize others so to do. Copyright 1997 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Copies available from: Naval Studies Board National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 Printed in the United States of America

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Boundary Layer Dynamics Panel on Boundary Layer Dynamics Peter G. Brewer, Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, Chair Hans C. Graber, University of Miami William G. Large, National Center for Atmospheric Research W. Kendall Melville, University of California at San Diego William J. Plant, University of Washington Dennis W. Thomson, Pennsylvania State University Marshall Tulin, University of California at Santa Barbara Invited Participant Bruce Lake, TRW Navy Liaison Representative Bhakta Rath, Naval Research Laboratory Consultant Sidney G. Reed, Jr.

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Boundary Layer Dynamics Naval Studies Board David R. Heebner, Science Applications International Corporation (retired), Chair George M. Whitesides, Harvard University, Vice Chair Albert J. Baciocco, Jr., The Baciocco Group, Inc. Alan Berman, Applied Research Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University Norman E. Betaque, Logistics Management Institute Norval L. Broome, Mitre Corporation Gerald A. Cann, Raytheon Electronic Systems Seymour J. Deitchman, Institute for Defense Analyses (retired), Special Advisor Anthony J. DeMaria, DeMaria Electro-Optics Systems, Inc. John F. Egan, Lockheed Martin Corporation Robert Hummel, Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University David W. McCall, AT&T Bell Laboratories (retired) Robert J. Murray, Center for Naval Analyses Robert B. Oakley, National Defense University William J. Phillips, Northstar Associates, Inc. Mara G. Prentiss, Jefferson Laboratory, Harvard University Herbert Rabin, University of Maryland Julie JCH Ryan, Booz, Allen and Hamilton Harrison Shull, Naval Postgraduate School (retired) Keith A. Smith, U.S. Marine Corps (retired) Robert C. Spindel, Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington David L. Stanford, Science Applications International Corporation H. Gregory Tomatore, Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University J. Pace VanDevender, Prosperity Institute Vincent Vitto, Lincoln Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Bruce Wald, Center for Naval Analyses Navy Liaison Representatives Ronald N. Kostoff, Office of Naval Research Paul G. Blatch, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations Ronald D. Taylor, Director Peter W. Rooney, Program Officer Susan G. Campbell, Administrative Assistant Mary (Dixie) Gordon, Information Officer Christopher A. Hanna, Project Assistant

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Boundary Layer Dynamics Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications Robert J. Hermann, United Technologies Corporation, Co-Chair W. Carl Lineberger, University of Colorado, Co-Chair Peter M. Banks, Environmental Research Institute of Michigan Lawrence D. Brown, University of Pennsylvania Ronald G. Douglas, Texas A&M University John E. Estes, University of California at Santa Barbara L. Louis Hegedus, Elf Atochem North America, Inc. John E. Hopcroft, Cornell University Rhonda J. Hughes, Bryn Mawr College Shirley A. Jackson, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Kenneth H. Keller, The Harold Pratt House Kenneth I. Kellermann, National Radio Astronomy Observatory Margaret G. Kivelson, University of California at Los Angeles Daniel Kleppner, Massachusetts Institute of Technology John Kreick, Sanders, a Lockheed Martin Company Marsha I. Lester, University of Pennsylvania Thomas A. Prince, California Institute of Technology Nicholas P. Samios, Brookhaven National Laboratory L.E. Scriven, University of Minnesota Shmuel Winograd, IBM T.J. Watson Research Center Charles A. Zraket, Mitre Corporation (retired) Norman Metzger, Executive Director

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Boundary Layer Dynamics Preface To assist with its long-range strategic planning, the Naval Research Laboratory (NR.L) requested that the Naval Studies Board of the National Research Council (NRC) form a panel to study research opportunities and related issues in boundary layer dynamics. NRL's request for independent advice acknowledged the importance of this area of science for a broad range of naval applications. Generally, boundary layer dynamics (BLD) is concerned with observing, modeling, and predicting the structure of and changes in the atmospheric and upper ocean environment in which the Navy operates. Besides nonlinear dynamics of the marine atmospheric and oceanic boundary layers, radiative fluxes and thermodynamic phase changes are involved in BLD, all of which must be understood to serve the Navy's interests in such topics as signal propagation and ocean wave prediction. Coastal areas are particularly challenging, because it is in nearshore environments that BLD processes are most complex. Coastal atmospheric phenomena and processes have been addressed in the NRC report Coastal Meteorology-A Review of the State of the Science (National Academy Press, Washington D.C., 1992), which discusses many scientific opportunities specific to coastal regions and provides a valuable complement to the present report. In response to NRL's formal request, the Panel on Boundary Layer Dynamics was established and was directed to assess research challenges in the area, identify leading research groups worldwide, and discuss the best use of NRL's research facilities for work in BLD. As with the other parallel efforts in the NRL Strategic Series studies, the panel was requested to meet with NRL researchers working in BLD and receive briefings on existing and planned research efforts. These briefings would guide the panel as it considered potential characteristics of and research thrusts for a coordinated and focused program in boundary layer dynamics to make the best use of NRL capabilities and facilities, particularly the most recently assimilated NRL laboratory on the West Coast, in BLD research. The formal charge to the panel was as follows: The environment has considerable impact on the ability to detect, localize, and identify objects remotely. Boundary layer meteorology appears to be a dominant factor affecting the Navy environment. Critical aspects of this will be examined and discussed according to the following: The air/sea interface has been investigated experimentally and theoretically for decades, with many sophisticated models currently available. Yet, there are inconsistencies between models and between theory and experimental observations in a number of cases. An assessment of the experimental and theoretical scientific opportunities is desired. Particular emphasis is desired for the examination of leading R&D activities worldwide and a priority ranking of the frontiers currently anticipated. Hydrodynamic modeling is an important aspect of predicting the ocean surface patterns resulting from wind/wave interaction. The formation of wave roughness patterns, slicks, and other phenomena is the result of a complex process. What are the scientific principles which are highest priority to pursue in order to understand these phenomena? Where are the leading groups in this endeavor? The effect of microwave scattering from the ocean surface is a complex phenomenon. Rough surfaces are more difficult to handle due to breakdown of the Fourier approximation normally used to model scattering from minimally perturbed surfaces. The surface takes on complex patterns involving nonlinear wave-wave/current interactions, surface tension effects, etc. Millimeter waves demonstrate a number of

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Boundary Layer Dynamics these complexities. What scientific principles are currently being pursued and/or appear to be the leading endeavors during the next decade in this field? Where are the leading efforts worldwide? Given the pockets of technical expertise currently pursuing these efforts, what facilities should be emphasized by various types of participants (academic, government laboratory, industrial) for maximum progress in this field? During the course of the study, the Panel on Boundary Layer Dynamics held meetings at NRL-East, Washington, D.C., on May 19, 1992; at NRL-West, Monterey, California, on July 9–10, 1992; at NRL-S, Stennis Space Flight Center, Bay St. Louis, Mississippi, on October 29–30, 1992; and at the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute, Pacific Grove, California, on November 18, 1993.

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Boundary Layer Dynamics Contents     Executive Summary   1 Chapter 1-   Introduction   5 Chapter 2-   Scientific Opportunities and Recommendations   7     Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer Fluxes   7     Coupled Turbulent Flows   9     Ocean Data Assimilation   11     Surface Wave Dynamics   13     Electromagnetic Propagation and Signature Physics   18     Boundary Layer Dynamics-related Acoustical and Optical Oceanography   24 Chapter 3-   Synergistic Opportunities   27     Multiscale and Intersecting-scale Research Projects   27     A New Center at NRL-W   28     Additional Suggestions   30 Chapter 4-   Infrastructure-Resources and Needs   31     Instruments and Laboratory Facilities   31     Ships and Aircraft   31 Chapter 5-   Closing Comments   32 Appendix A-   Some Leading Research Groups in Opportunity Areas   33 Appendix B-   Glossary   39

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