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Biographical Memoirs NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

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NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Biograpl~ical Fl~femoirs VOLUME 50 NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES WA S H ~ N GT O N , D . C . ~ 9 7 9

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CONIFNTS PkEE^CE DETLEV GULF BOOK BY FRANK BRINK, ]R. V^~E~k BUSH BY ]ERO~F B. PILSNER RUFLS COLE BY C PHILLIP MILLER WALLACE OSGOOD PENN BY BERN ~~N PALL ~^k~IN FOOTE BY ALLEN V. ASPIC WILLIAM ZEV H^SSID BY CLINTON BALLOU AND HORACE A. BARKER [k^N ~ L^PPIN HOkSF^LL, jig. BY GEORGE K. HIRST V , . V11 3 8g 9 HI 75 lg7 oar , .

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V1 CONTENTS OTTO LAP ORTE BY H. R. CRANE AND D. M. DENNISON PHILIP DURYEE McMASTER BY WALTHER F. GOEBEL MARIA GOEPPERT MAYER BY ROBERT G. SACHS ARNOLD RICE RICH BY ELLA H. OPPENHEIMER RICHARD EDWIN SHOPE BY CHRISTOPHER ANDREWES WILLIAM HAMMOND WRIGHT BY C. D. SHANK ACKNOWLEDGMENTS FOR THE PHOTOGRAPHS 269 287 311 331 353 377 397

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PREFACE The Biographical Memoirs is a series of volumes, first pub- lished in 1877, containing the biographies of deceased members of the National Academy of Sciences and bibliographies of their published scientific contributions. The goal of the Academy is to have these memoirs serve as a contribution toward the history of American science. Each biographical essay is written by an individual familiar with the discipline and the scientific career of the deceased. These volumes, therefore, provide a record of the lives and works of some of the most distinguished leaders of American science as witnessed and interpreted by their col- leagues and peers. Though the primary concern is the members' professional lives and contributions, these memoirs should also include those aspects of their lives in their home, school, col- lege, or later life that led them to their scientific career. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, honorary organization of scientists and engineers elected on the basis of outstanding contributions to knowledge. Established by a Con- gressional Act of Incorporation on March 3, 1863, the Academy works to further science and its use for the general welfare by bringing together the most qualified individuals to deal with scientific and technological problems of broad significance. DAVID R. GODDARD Home Secretary PATRICIA RYAN LYLES Associate Editor . . V11

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