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1962

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DETLEV WULF BRONK August 13,1897-November 17,1975 BY F R A N K B RIN K, JR. DETLEV WULF BRONK was born in 1897 in New York City, where his father, Mitchell Bronk, was pastor of the Ascen- sion Baptist Church at 1 60th Street and Park Avenue. Det received his unusual Christian names through his mother, Marie Wulf, whose father was Detlev Wulf, a businessman in New York City. The family moved to Bayonne, New Jersey in 1900, where his sister, Isabelle, was born in 1903. His later youth (1912-1919) was spent in Troy, New York in the same region of the state where his forebears had lived for many years. Detlev Bronk is a direct descendant of Mattheus Brunck, a "smith" from the Rhenish Palatinate, who came to West Camp, on the Hud- son River, in 1710. A grandson of Mattheus, Abraham, settled about 1797 on a farm near Duanesburg, Schenectady county, which became known as "the Bronk Place." Det's grandfather, Abram Bronk, grew up in Florida, New York. In nearby Man- chester lived Cynthia Brewster, a descendant of the Elder William Brewster of the Mayflower Colony. Abram and Cynthia were married in 1856 after a prolonged courtship, much of it carried on by letter via packets to and from California. After their marriage Abram farmed "the Bronk Place" from 1856 to 1861, and Det's aunt, Anna Isabella, was born there. Tracing the history of a contemporary American family that had one line beginning in 1710 and at least one other in 1620 3

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4 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS is both interesting and complex. The available letters and docu- ments are far too extensive for review here. Of present relevance is recorded evidence of a continuous thread of scholarship and a love of learning that linked the generations, even in times when practical concerns demanded most of each person's energy and attention. Det's grandfather, Abram, attended Union College for two years. He studied mathematics, was fascinated with astron- omy, and read poetry. He was, in succession, a schoolteacher, a "forty-niner" in California, a farmer in Duanesburg, and a storekeeper in Manchester. He was an able debater and kept notes on rules of public speaking. Also an avid reader who loved books, he left his family "more books than money" when he cried in 1870. Abram had attributes that were to characterize his chil- dren and grandchildren, even though he died when his children Isabella, Mitchell, and John were very young. His widow, Cynthia, a religious woman and a teacher, propagated the thread of scholarship by providing an environment that permitted Mitchell and Isabella to develop their scholarly talents, each earning the degree of Doctor of Philosophy. Their brother, John, became a lawyer. Aunt Belle taught French Language and Literature as a member of the faculty of Swarthmore College from 1901 to 1927; she had a very definite influence upon Det's development and general education during his college years there. Mitchell, a Baptist minister with a Ph.D. in theology, was an author of several books on religious matters both historical and inspirational. His essays covered a variety of subjects includ- ing experiences of his own life and times. Mitchell had strong views on the defects in the then current educational system. He wrote of his training: "interminable reviews, tests, and nerve- wracking exams in my opinion are not ta sign ok real scholar- # Mitchell Bronk, Discovering Any Forty-niner Father (Philadelphia: Judson Press, 1942~.

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DETLEV WULF BRONK 5 ship. It floes not result in a real love of literature." ~ According to my recollection of Det's account of his early education, he studied under guidance of his father until the age of ten. He graduated from the eighth grade in Bayonne in 1911, then enrolled in the Troy high school, graduating in 1915. During his college years at Swarthmore, Det corresponded constantly with his parents. In January HIS, he wrote to his father, "I took the differential equation training although I never may need them, and as far as the general training resulting from mathematics goes I have had quite enough. But since I do not know what I am going to do I suppose I might just as well go on and prepare myself for physics or electrical engineering. It seems a shame sometimes that I cannot decide what to do and then go ahead and fit myself for that work." Perhaps this urt- certainty derived from Det's urge to participate in the war effort. Soon after, he proposed in another letter to his father that he leave college and work with the Food Administration Office in Philadelphia. A follow-up letter to his mother asks her to be sure his father answered promptly and added that Aunt Belle approved. He became an inspector, enforcing the law regulating food prices through surprise visits to various food stores. How- ever, as more of the older students enlisted, he wrote to his father, "I can't quite agree with you on the proposition of enlisting and leaving college. I most certainly would never have been content to stay through next year. I suppose a young man feels the call of country more and while cold logic may point to a continuation of college, I have found few red-blooded men who were willing to do so. The nation and the world as I see it is #"An Old Fashioned Education," Scribners, 74 (Nov. 1923), No. 5. Similar opinions were part of the philosophy of higher education developed by his son, who later had an opportunity to implement some changes at The Johns Hopkins University and The Rockefeller University that fostered an individual's love of learning and judged accomplishment without emphasis on course credits and examinations.

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6 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS facing the ultimate just at present and the most I can do for those principles which I believe right I want to do." In the same letter he added, "The very day after I wrote you last I saw the notice of those two deaths in the paper that you sent me and I thought what a very inappropriate time I had picked to write what I did about naval aviation. But I have only seen the notice of four naval aviators' deaths in the last year, and I not only read the papers but also Aerial Age each week and Naval Air Service." He stated that he would not go against their wishes but hoped they would see the matter from his viewpoint. He promised to take a long vacation at home before going to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology for ground training. His arguments pre- vailed and he was learning to fly at Pensacola Airbase in Sep- tember 1918. At this time Det wrote to his mother, I've been up in the air nearly three hours now and drive the plane alone, of course with an instructor in the machine with me. My instructor, by the way, is a Phi Psi from Leland Stanford. It's a wonderful sensation, riding around up there in the clouds, and I wouldn't have missed it for anything in the world. On my first trip the instructor gave me the thrill of a couple of stunts; and I've been flying upside down already; never think anything about it; tho I'd hardly want to do it all by myself just yet. As for fatalities, there hasn't been one here for eight months, and there are always ten or fifteen machines in the air. Gee! I certainly do like it! Sometime before leaving college to become an aviation cadet, Det had met and courted Helen Alexander Ramsey, a student in Aunt Belle's French language course. Like his grandfather, Abram, he continued his courtship by correspondence, and he and Helen became engaged. In a letter to his mother he gave instructions for carefully choosing an engagement ring. How- ever, the separation was soon over. In December 1918 he earned his wings and was commissioned an Ensign. During the next nine months he was on leave but on call for active service, and in September 1919 he returned to college. He and Helen grad- uated from Swarthmore College in June 1920.

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DETLEV WULF BRONK 7 Det had received a B.S. in electrical engineering. Yet he accepted a position in a brokerage firm in Philadelphia. This did not last long, because in January 1921 he became an instruc- tor in physics at the University of Pennsylvania, simultaneously taking courses in physical measurements, potential theory, and thermionic currents. Subsequent events and letters suggest that during this period he decided that advanced study and research in physics were essential for his future plans. That summer he studied at Harvard, choosing acoustics and advanced calculus in preparation for continuing his graduate studies in physics at the University of Michigan in the fall. His courtship of Helen must have flourished through this busy period because in September 1921 they were married at Swarthmore in a ceremony performed by his father. Det's part in planning the wedding arrangements was also by correspon- dence. A letter from his mother assured him that his father had put off getting his haircut until the last moment so that he would look his best at the ceremony. Clearly, Det Bronk had a warm and confident relation with his family, both then and later. In 1946, his father wrote to him, "You have worked hard, sacrifi- cially hard, and doggedly with little pushing except your own gumption, enterprise and ambition, and certainly deserve all the advancement and honors that have come to you or shall not to speak of the honor you have put over onto me and the family name. I have wanted to say this to you now, because at eighty-four it doesn't do to put it off." At this time the elder Bronk was living with his daughter in Germantown, Pennsyl- vania. Isabelle Bronk, a librarian at the University of Pennsyl- vania, took care of her father until his death in 1950. In the fall of 1921 Helen and Det went to live in Ann Arbor, Michigan. He continued his graduate studies in physics, and she established their home in a house at 11 Ridgeway, where they lived for five years. Det liked to tell how he rebuilt and improved the house, a necessity then and an avocation later as he acquired

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8 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS a succession of houses at Sycamore Mills near Media, Pennsyl- vania; Penzance Point on Cape Cod; and Seal Harbor in Maine; and a cabin near Petersburg, New York. He planned the house at Sycamore Mills for several years and worked with the architect constantly as it was being built. During many more years the improvement of the grounds around this house and its mainte- nance and repair, including new roof shingles, were family projects, as was the construction of the cabin. Only the presi- dential houses at Johns Hopkins and Rockefeller University escaped his personal handiwork. Helen transformed all of these places into pleasant homes for them and their sons, John Everton Ramsey, Adrian Mitchell, and Mitchell Herbert. An important part of their family life was devoted to frequent hospitable gatherings of friends in their home. The Sunday night dinners at Hill House in Sycamore Mills were notable for good food, friendship, and interesting discussions. Scientists in the Johnson Foundation and graduate students were privileged to join the Bronk family and to meet visiting scientists. Det considered such occasions an enjoyable and valuable part of life, and Helen was an exceptionally gracious and friendly hostess. She participated fully in this aspect of his busy life. In this way she enriched the lives of her children and supported Det's efforts to emphasize essential qualities of a scholarly life. Their excursions to foreign places began in 1928 when they lived in Cambridge, England while Det worked with E. D. Adrian as a post-doctoral fellow. There were many other occasions for traveling together ove almost fifty years. The final trip was to attend the 250th Anni- versary celebration of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Moscow, shortly before Det's death. MOTIVATIONS, OPPORTUNITIES, AND DECISIONS In June 1922 Det received an M.S. from the University of Michigan and was enrolled as an applicant for the Ph.D. degree in physics. At that time he was working with Professors W. F.

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DETLEV WULF BRONK 9 Colby and C. F. Meyer on "An Extension of the Fundamental Infra Red Absorption Band of HC1." Four papers published between 1923 and 1927 with Bronk as co-author were based upon his measurements of the molecular spectra of several gases, using a diffraction grating for improved resolution. In July 1924 he made inquiries for possible positions in engi- neering and academic physics. Of great significance for his future was a letter to Professor Arthur Willis Goodspeed, at the Uni- versity of Pennsylvania, asking for a position there. In reply, Goodspeed said that all of the faculty in physics would be de- lighted to have him back "with a view of becoming a fixture." Because there was no vacancy then, Goodspeed and Charles Blizard Bazzoni came up with a different proposal. The latter was seeking funds to start a group in physics concerned only with research and instruction of graduate students. Bazzoni asked Bronk to consider such an appointment for the specific purpose of continuing investigation of the infra-red spectra of molecules. His letter starts, "As you know I have been developing a research section in this department in which I have endeavored to instill those ideals which are essential to the maintenance of the output in pure science.... There has been relatively little difficulty in acquiring a fair equipment, . . . the difficulty has been to get men mentally and temperamentally suitably constituted to carry out such work." This unusual opportunity must have seemed very tempting to Det, but he turned down the offer in Sep- tember 1924 because a new vista of physical investigations of physiological mechanisms had attracted his attention. At this critical juncture in his professional development Bronk dropped the idea of finishing his degree in physics. He described this sequence of changes in a letter to Bazzoni: "The object of my going into the department of physiology for this year was to get a good grounding in biological and medical sciences which would enable me to effectively carry on research in big-physics. Dr. Randall OH. M. Randall, Professor of Physics at the University

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10 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS of Michigan] has always encouraged me in the belief that there is a large and undeveloped field in the investigation of physical laws in living organisms and has said that he would be glad to have such work carried on in his department...." Bazzoni in- formed Det that H. C. Bazett, the Professor of Physiology at the University of Pennsylvania, wanted a physicist who was inter- ested in working in physiology. This contact eventually led to correspondence and a meeting between Bronk and Bazett. In February 1925 Bazett asked Bronk to consider coming to his department to oversee work of a graduate student who wanted to do research in x-ray analysis of the structure of fibrin and muscle. In reply Bronk revealed that his main interest was the study of the nerve impulse, "its generation, conduction, trans- mission across the synapse, and manner of activation." However, net was not ready to accept any position. A letter to Bazett states, "I am not certain that I will be able to complete my thesis in time to take my degree this June possibly not until the latter part of the summer. Last Spring, when I decided to take my degree in both physiology and physics, I found it neces- sary to give up the field of infra-red spectroscopy in which I had published three researches and in which I had a thesis well under way. In addition to building up a new research technique I have had to do much reading in Physiology and to take such courses as Physiological Chemistry, Histology, and Nervous Anatomy." And in March 1925 he wrote again, "I have finally developed what I believe to be entirely new methods for meas- uring conductivity, for determining pH, and for amplifying with vacuum tubes without drift or distortion. I am exceedingly anxious to use these methods on some very interesting problems which I have in mind and for which I have the set-ups practically completed. This work will carry me through the better part of another year." In collaboration with Robert Gesell he published (1926- 1928) seven papers based upon research related to his thesis. ~ T TO . . ~ . . -

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DETLEV WULF BRONK 11 They dealt with physiological properties of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems and with neural excitation of secretion from the salivary glands in mammals. He perceived clearly that physiological phenomena provided a rich field for discovery of fundamental biological mechanisms through research based upon physical methods. His letters to Professor Bazett at Penn and to President Frank Aydelotte at Swarthmore seeking an appointment earnestly proclaim that biophysics can be devel- oped into a powerful intellectual discipline for understanding "the living state of matter." His research reports for the years 1923 to 1928 marked the transition of a physicist into a bio- physicist concerned with the physical analysis of physiological processes in animals. The scientific roots of Det Bronk in engi- neering and physics are evident throughout his published re- search. The early investigations of blood flow exhibit a physi- cist's concern for improving quantitative measurements and a physiologist's insight into the importance of the neural mecha- nisms for controlling distribution of blood in an organism, a problem involving a knowledge of physics and of the engineer- ing of machine-like control systems. Letters written to him in 1924 and 1925 indicate that he was also considering a management or engineering post in com- mercial firms. For example, in January 1926 he decided not to accept a position with C-T Electric, a Philadelphia company manufacturing electric trucks. Of particular interest are several handwritten preliminary versions of his letters of application in which he develops a description of his qualifications for each post. Such a letter to James Gilbert White is particularly inform- ative about Det's ideas in 1926: I took my undergraduate work in electrical engineering at Swarthmore College from which I graduated in 1920. As evidence of the nature of my work while there I might say that on graduation I was awarded the College medal for "character, scholarship, and leadership". I was president of the Student Government Association, a varsity debater, editor of the College

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12 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Annual and Weekly, captain of the varsity debating team, and a member of two varsity athletic teams. My summer months were spent with the General Electric Company, the Western Electric Company and the Penn- sylvania Railroad. During the war, I was secretary to the Philadelphia Food Administrator and later an ensign in the Naval Air Corps. During my last semester in college I spent half time as assistant power engineer with the Philadelphia Electric Company. The year following graduation I was assistant to Mr. L. I. Schumaker, president of several Philadelphia companies. I then decided that the intensive work and habits of analytical thought and investigation that come in research would be a valuable training so I accepted a position as instructor in Physics at the University of Michigan. Last year I was selected as the physicist to carry on research in the medical school in connection with the application of modern electrical methods to biological problems. I have completed four research publications including my doctor's dissertation. It has seemed to me that the type of position I am seeking exists in your organization. I do not desire purely technical nor research work; the University has assured me an attractive future should I care to continue in that work. Nor do I wish to go into banking or bond sales. The work I am looking for would lie between the two; it would perhaps be assistant to one of your executives, or involve the analysis of reports, or a study of special conditions in connection with construction or operation anything that would offer a choice for hard work and growth towards a real oppor- tunity in connection with management and administration. To such an opening I think I could bring habits of study, and analysis, willingness to work nights as well as day, the ability to get along well with people, some experience in writing and speaking, and a familiarity with once and business methods. However, there were other irons in quite different fires. In April 1925 the Professor of Physics at Swarthmore, Winthrop R. Wright, asked Det to consider an appointment for one year as a physics teacher. In his reply Det revealed his aspirations for a career in research and teaching of biophysics and suggested that such a plan might be worked out at Swarthmore: My idea rather was that I be appointed assistant professor in big-physics, to divide my teaching time between physics and biology with perhaps allowance for a course in big-physics to be devoted to such things as mechanism of the sense organs, protoplasmic and nervous action, the electrical activity of the body, effect of light on living things in short the physics and chemistry of life.... If you like, the one course would be

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DETLEV WULF BRONK 77 upon pain produced by cutaneous injury. Am. J. Physiol., 116:56 (A). With L. K. Ferguson, R. Margaria and D. Y. Solandt. The activity of the cardiac sympathetic centers. Am. l. Physiol., 117: 237-49. The activity of nerve cells. Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol., 4: 170-78. 1937 With F. Brink. Rhythmic activity of single nerve fibers induced by low calcium. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 37:94-95. With M. G. Larrabee. The effects of activity and altered circulation on ganglionic transmission. Am. J. Physiol., 119:279 (A). With A. C. Burton. The motor mechanism of shivering and of thermal muscular tone. Am. I. Physiol., 119:284 (A). 1938 The relation of physics to the biological sciences. J. Appl. Phys., 9:139-42. With T. Sjostrand and F. Brink. Relation of chemically-induced activity in nerve to changes in demarcation potential. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 38:918-20. With M. G. Larrabee and F. Brink. The chemical excitation of nerve cells. Internat. Physiol. Congr. Proc., 16th, Zurich, 2:241. With M. G. Larrabee. Persistent discharge from sympathetic gan- glion cells following preganglionic stimulation. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 38:921-22. Henry Herbert Donaldson, Ph.D., Sc.D. 1857-1938. Arch. Neurol. Psychiatr., 39: 1313. Also in: Trans. Am. Neurol. Assoc., 64:222- 23. With S. S. Tower, D. Y. Solandt and M. G. Larrabee. The trans- mission of trains of impulses through a sympathetic ganglion and in its postganglionic nerves. Am. J. Physiol., 122: 1-15. With F. Brink and T. Sjostrand. Chemically induced rhythmicity in peripheral axones. Am. l. Physiol., 123: 22-23 (A). With M. G. Larrabee, J. B. Gaylor and F. Brink. The influence of altered chemical environment on the activity of ganglion cells. Am. J. Physiol., 123: 24-25 (A). With M. G. Larrabee. Long-lasting effects of activity on ganglionic transmission. Am. l. Physiol., 123: 126 (A).

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78 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Cellular organization of nervous function (S. Weir Mitchell Ora- tion) . Trans. Studies Coll. Physicians, Phila., 4th Ser., 6:102-17. The influence of circulation on activity of nerve cells. In: The Circulation of the Brain and Spinal Cord. Assoc. Res. Nerv. Ment. Dis., 18:298-315. 1939 Synaptic mechanisms in sympathetic ganglia. In: Symposium on Synapse. Springfield, Ill.: C. C. Thomas. Also in: l. Neuro- physiol., 2:380-401. With F. Brink and T. Sjostrand. Factors determining the frequency of chemicallyinitiatednerveimpulses.Am.~.Physiol.,126:442- 43(A). With M. G. Larrabee and F. Brink. The effect of chemical agents on the excitability of ganglion cells. Am. T. Physiol., 126:561 (A). With F. Brink and M. G. Larrabee. Chemical excitation of nerve cells. Trans. Am. Neural. Assoc., 65:46-49. With F. Brink. Bioelectric studies of the excitation and response of nerve. Annul Rev. Physiol., 1 :385~06. 1940 With M. G. Larrabee. Neural factors determining the frequency of impulses discharged from a ganglion cell. Am. i. Physiol., 129: 320 (A). With R. F. Pitts and M. G. Larrabee. Role of the hypothalamus in cardiovascular regulation. In: The Hypothalamus. Assoc. Res. Nerv. Ment. Dis., 20:323-41. Also in: Am. J. Physiol., 129:441~2 (A). The nervous regulation of visceral process. In: Chemistry and Medi- cine., ed. M. B. Nlisscher, pp. 261-75. Minneapolis: Univ. Minne- sota Press. 1941 With F. Brink. Chemical initiation of rhythmic local responses in nerve preceding trains of propagated impulses. Am. J. Physiol., 133:222-23 (A). With F. Brink and P. W. Davies. Chemical control of respiration and activity in peripheral nerve. Am. J. Physiol., 133:224-25 (A). With R. F. Pitts and M. G. Larrabee. An analysis of hypothalamic cardiovascular control. Am. .T- Physiol., 134:359-83.

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DETLEV WULF BRONK 1942 79 With R. F. Pitts. Excitability cycle of hypothalamus sympathetic neuron system. Am. I. Physiol., 135: 504-22. Joseph Priestly and the early history of the American Philosophical Society. Proc. Am. Philos. Soc., 86: 103-7. Physical instruments for the biologist. Rev. Sci. Instr., 13 (No. 1~: 1-2. The case for biological engineering. In: Karl T. Compton, Robert W. Trullinger, Vannevar Bush, Scientists Face the World of 1942, p. 69. New Brunswick, N.~.: Rutgers University Press. 1944 With P. W. Davies, F. Brink, and M. G. Larrabee. Oxygen supply and oxygen consumption in the nervous system. Trans. Am. Neurol. Assoc., 70: 141~4. The discovery and interpretation of biological phenomena. Proc. Am. Philos. Soc., 87:307-12. Human problems in military aviation. Proc. Am. Philos. Soc., 88: 189-95. 1945 Physical structure and biological action of nerve cells, with some references to problems of human flight. In: Science in Progress, ser. 4, p. 49. New Haven: Yale Univ. Press. Also in: Amer. Scient., 34~1946~:55-76. Re-employment of biologists now in the Army Air Forces. Science, 102: 335-36. Human problems in Milita natiior. Gen. Mag. Hist. Chron. Univ. Penn. Gen. Alumni Soc., 42: 181. The 220th Anniversary Celebration of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. June 15-29. Rev. Sci. Instr., 16:302-5. 1946 Human problems in military aviation. Smithson. Inst. Annul Rep. 1945, pp. 401-11. International relations among scientists. Proc. Am. Philos. Soc., 90: 30~8. With M. G. Larrabee. After-discharge from sympathetic ganglion cells following preganglionic nerve stimulation. Fed. Proc., 5:60 (A).

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80 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Eldridge Reeves Johnson (1867-1945~. Yearb. Am. Philos. Soc., pp. 314-17. With F. Brink and M. G. Larrabee. Chemical excitation of nerve. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 47:457-85. Aviation medicine. In: l. F. Baxter, Scientists Against Time, p. 377. Boston: Little, Brown. 1947 Physicians of the machine age. Ann. Int. Med., 26:489-95. With F. Brink, C. M. Connelly, F. D. Carlson, and P. W. Davies. The time course of recovery oxygen consumption in nerve. Fed. Proc., 6:83 (A). With M. G. Larrabee and l. M. Posternak. Effects of chemical agents on metabolism and function of synapses and fibers in sympa- thetic ganglia. Fed. Proc., 6: 148 (A). With l. M. Posternak and M. G. Larrabee. Oxygen requirements of the neurons in sympathetic ganglia. Fed. Proc., 6:182 (A). With M. G. Larrabee. Prolonged facilitation of synaptic excitation in sympathetic ganglia. J. Neurophysiol., 10:139-54. The motives and satisfactions of the scientist's career. Proc. Conf. Sci., Rockford Coll. Centenn. Publ., p. 117. 1948 With F. Brink and M. G. Larrabee. The sequence of functional changes in a neuron during narcosis and anoxia. Fed. Proc., 7: 14 (A). With F. D. Carlson and F. Brink. A method for direct measurement of rate of oxygen utilization by nerve. Fed. Proc., 7:18 (A). With C. M. Connelly. Measurements of rapid changes in oxygen by nerve following brief periods of stimulation. Fed. Proc., 7:22 (A). With P. W. Davies and R. G. Grenell. The time course of in vivo oxygen consumption of cerebral cortex following electrical stimulation. Fed. Proc., 7:25 (A>. With M. G. Larrabee and J. B. Gaylor. Effects of circulatory arrest and oxygen lack on synaptic transmission in sympathetic gan- glion..~. Cell. Comp. Physiol., 31:193-212. 1949 Science and human) ty. In: Changing Pa t terns of A m erican Civil iza- tion, Benjamin FrankIin Lectures 1948, pp. 1-15. Philadelphia:

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DETLEV WULF BRONK 81 Univ. of Pennsylvania Press. Also in: Science, 109:477-82 (con- densed form). Rhythmic action and respiration of nerve cells. The Croonian Lecture, Roy. Soc. London, June 30, 1949 (unpublished). Responsibilities of citizenship. (Commencement Address.) Rice Inst. Pamph. Rice Institute, Houston, Tex. 36~4~: 13-20. The Unity of the Sciences and the Humanities, 4th Annul Arthur Dehon Little Mem. Lect., Nov. 22, M.I.T. Cambridge, Mass.: M.I.T. Press. 1950 With F. D. Carlson and F. Brink. A continuous flow respirometer utilizing the oxygen cathode. Rev. Sci. Instr., 21: 923-32. The natural sciences face the world crisis. (Address given at the An- nual Meeting of the Am. Council on Education, Chicago.) Ed. Rec., July: 30~14. With C. M. Connelly. Effect of electrical polarization on oxygen consumption of nerve. Fed. Proc., 9:24 (A). Science in a democracy. Proc. 75th Anniv. Conn. Agric. Exp. Sta., New Haven, September 28-29, pp. 17-27. Introductory remarks. Afternoon session Welch Centenn. Celebra- tion. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 87(Suppl.~: 1. 1951 With F. Brink. Mechanism connecting impulse conduction and oxygen metabolism in peripheral nerve. Fed. Proc., 10:19 (A). Research and national policies. Chem. Eng. News, 29:278-79. The Johns Hopkins Future. Address, 75th Anniversary, Johns Hop- kins University, Baltimore, Feb. 22. 1952 The natural sciences and the law. Symposium: The Relation be- tween General Education and Law School Training in the Preparation of a Lawyer. N.Y.U. Law Rev., 27:70-91. The worth of an individual. J. Home Econ., 44:493-97. With F. Brink, F. D. Carlson and C. M. Connelly. The oxygen up- take of active axons. Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol., 17:53-67.

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82 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS With M. G. Larrabee. Metabolic requirements of sympathetic neur- ons. Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol., 17:245-66. Introduction. In: Great Adventures in Medicine, ed. Samuel Rap- port and Helen Wright. N.Y.: Dial Press. 1953 Forestry in the world resource picture. Amer. Forestry Assoc. Proc., 4th Am. Forestry Congr., October. With C. M. Connelly and F. Brink. A sensitive respirometer for the measurement of rapid changes in metabolism of oxygen. Rev. Sci. Instr., 24:683. 1954 The role of scientists in the furtherance of science. Science, 119: 223-27. Presentation of the George M. Kober Medal to Dr. Herbert S. Gasser. Trans. Assoc. Am. Physicians, 67:39~3. Also in: Rocke- feller Inst. Occasional Papers, no. 4 (1959), 10 pp. Editorial transition: resignation, appreciation and succession. J. Cell. Comp. Physiol., 44:535-36. 1955 The communication of knowledge. In: The Unity of Knowledge, pp. 271-78. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday. The graduate program of The Rockefeller Institute. .T- Proc. Ad- dresses Annul Conf. Assoc. Grad. Schools, pp. 120-26. 1956 Chairman's foreword. Nat. Sci. Found. Annul Rep., 6th. The furtherance of science as a national goal and value. Proc. 88tl~ Convoc. Bd. Regents Inaug. Pres. Univ. St. N.Y. Commis. Ed., pp. 14-21. 1957 The new world of technology. I. Am. Inst. Architects, 28~2~:68-72. Chairman. Symposium on Science in Education, Nat. Acad. Sci., April 25th. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA, 43:621-48. With P. W. Davies. Oxygen tension in mammalian brain. Fed. Proc., 16:689-98.

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DETLEV WULF BRONK 83 With P. F. Cranefield and F. Brink. The oxygen uptake of the peripheral nerve of the rat. i. Neurochem., 1:245-49. The national problem. Air Force Mag., April. Chairman's foreword. Nat. Sci. Found. Annul Rep., 7th. 1958 Statement to the U.S. Senate Committee on Labor and Public Wel- fare, January 21. The next hundred years. The Witness, 45:10-11. Chairman's foreword. Nat. Sci. Found. Annul Rep., 8tk 1959 A university of graduate studies. Nature, 184:86. Chairman's foreword. Nat. Sci. Found. Annul Rep., 9th. 1960 Science arid the community. Robert Kennedy Duncan Memorial Lecture, Mellon Institute, December 15. Education in the sciences. In: Voice of America Forum Lectures, Ed. Ser. 11. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Information Agency. 8 pp. Convocation, Rockefeller Institute, June 18, 1959. Opening remarks and conferring of degrees. Conferring of Degree of Doctor of Sci- ence Honoris Causa on Peyton Rous, Member Emeritus, and Herbert S. Gasser, Director Emeritus. Rockefeller Inst. Occa- sional Papers, no. 8, pp. 1-2, 19-20. 1961 Address in Symposium on the economic and social contributions of life insurance to the Nation, July 28. Rockefeller Inst. Occasional Papers, no. 6, 6 pp. Science, man and nature. Gideon Seymour Memorial Lecture, No- vember 20, 1960, Minneapolis, Univ. Minnesota, 16 pp. Convocation, Rockefeller Institute, June 10, 1960. Opening remarks, conferring of degrees. Conferring of the Degree of Doctor of Science Honoris Causa on Alfred Newton Richards, Emeritus Professor of Pharmacology in the University of Pennsylvania. Rockefeller Inst. Occasional Papers, no. 9, pp. 1, 27-28. John Davison Rockefeller, [r. 187~1960. Rockefeller Inst. Occa- sional Papers, no. 9, p. 29.

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84 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS The humane qualities of science. J. Franklin Inst., 272:513. Address. Milit. Med., 126:8-11. Convocation Rockefeller Institute, June 6, 1961. Opening re- marks, conferring of degree. Conferring of the Degree of Doctor of Science Honoris Causa on Thomas Milton Rivers, Director Emeritus, The Rockefeller Institute, Hugh Scott Taylor, Presi- dent of the Woodrow Wilson Foundation and Dean of the Graduate School, Emeritus, of Princeton University. Rockefeller Inst. Occasional Papers, no. 12, 1, 31-32, 33-34. Graduate education in biology. Graduate Education Today Lecture. 50th Anniv. Ohio State Univ. Graduate School, pp. 58-65. 1962 Evaluation of graduate work. Am. Assoc. Land-Grant Coll. State Univ. Proc., November 12-16, 1961. Centennial Convocation, 2:174. Foreword. In: Enzymes, viruses and other proteins. Suppl. (honoring John Howard Nothrop) J. Gen. Physiol., 45(part 2~:9. Foreword. In: Rene' Jules Dubos, the Unseen World. N.Y.: Rocke- feller Inst. Press in association with Oxford Univ. Press. 1963 The material uses and spiritual values of science. In: 75th Anniver- sary Symposium on Engineering for Major Scientific Programs, Atlanta. Georgia Inst. Technol., pp. 8-13. The humane values of an industrial civilization. In: Proc. of the President's Conference on Occupational Safety, Washington, D.C., Bull. No. 263, U.S. Dept. Labor, p. 10. If you forget your errand. In: Swarthmore Remembered, ed. M. O. Gillespie, p. 57. Swarthmore, Pa.: Swarthmore College. 1965 Foreword. In: G. W. Corner, A History of The Rockefeller Institute, 1901-1953. N.Y.: Rockefeller Inst. Press. With F. Seitz. Foreword. In: National Academy of Sciences Cen- tennial Addresses' October 1963. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences.

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DETLEV WULF BRONK 85 1966 Ludwig Edelstein, colleague and counsellor. l. Hist. Med. Allied Sci., 21~2~:179-81. The magic square. In: Our Michigan: an Anthology Celebrating the University of Michigan's Sesquicentennial. ed. E. A. Walter, p. 56. Ann Arbor: Univ. of Michigan. 1967 Electronics in quest of the nature of life. In: 1912-1967, Twenty-five Years at R ca La boratories, p. 29. 1968 Recommendations. In: Selected Papers from the Governors Con- ference on Oceanography, October 1967, p. 186. Albany, N.Y.: State Dept. of Commerce. 1969 Science and engineering in development of the economy and culture of nations. In: Industrialization and Development, ed. Hoelscher Hawks, p. 27. San Francisco: San Francisco Press. 1970 The humane values of science and technology. In: The 1971 Britan- nica Yearbook of Science and the Future, p. 424. Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica Inc. Introductory remarks to Jacques Loeb Memorial Lecture. J. Gen. Physiol., 55:563-64. The generalist reader in a specialist society. In: The Future of Gen- eral Adult Books and Reading in America, ed. P. S. Jennison and R. N. Sheridan, p. 127. Chicago: American Library Assoc. The place of psychology in an ideal university (as a member of the 1947 Harvard commission). Am. Psychol., 25:391. The place of psychology in an ideal university: Twenty-five years later (The 1947 Harvard commission report: retrospective com- ments by members of original commission). Am. Psychol., 25:411.

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86 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1971 The nature of science and its humane values. In: The Shape of Likelihood: Relevance and the University, [ohn Leonard Frank- lin Lectures in Science and Humanities, 2d Ser., 1969-1970, Auburn University, p. 21. Univ. of Alabama Press. The role of science at the local level. In: Science for Society, ed. l. E. Mock, p. 147. Atlanta: Georgia Science and Technology Com- . . mission. Introduction to W. l. V. Osterhout Memorial Lecture. Marine Biol. Lab., July 23, Woods Hole, Mass. Alfred Newton Richards, 1876-1966. Yearb. Am. Philos. Soc., pp. 143-53. 1972 The creation of the American Institute of Biological Sciences. Bio- Science, 22:420. A national focus of science and research. Science, 176:376-80. 1973 Looking back twenty-five years: an account of the creation of the American Geological Institute within the National Research Council. Geotimes, 18:34. 1974 Science advice in the White House. The genesis of the President's Science Advisers and the National Science Foundation. Science, 186:116-21. Closing remarks: neurophysiology as synthesis and catalyst of sci- ence. Actual. Neurophysiol. (Paris), 10:206. 1975 Marine Biological Laboratory: origins and patrons. Science, 189: 613-17. The National Science Foundation: origins, hopes, and aspirations. Science, 188:409-14. Also in: Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA, 72:2839- 421.

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DETLEV WULF BRONK 87 Personal and societal values of academies of science. The 1974 Lehman Award Lecture. Trans. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 37:27. 1976 Alfred Newton Richards, 1876-1966. Persp. Biol. Med., 19:413-22.