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ARNOLD RICE RICH March 28,1893-A prig 17,1968 BY ELLA H. OPPENHEIMER ARNOLD RICE RICH was born in Birmingham, Alabama in 1893 and died in 1968 in Baltimore, Maryland shortly after his seventy-fifth birthday. He was the second of two chil- dren in a prosperous Southern family. His father, the owner of a mercantile business, allowed Arnold a free choice in deciding his future. Arnold's older sister, now Mrs. Leonel R. Well of Montgomery, Alabama, never ceased to show interest in his career. After elementary school education in Birmingham, Arnold was sent to a military preparatory academy The gingham School in North Carolina. Whereas this military training dicl little to change Arnold's inherent dislike of regimentation and all forms of physical exercise, it probably was responsible for his erect bearing and slim figure. His trim appearance was pleas- ing in spite of his perpetual pallor, which mirrored a sedentary life. His most characteristic expression was a quizzical smile, whether in accord or dispute with his companions. Following his preparatory school education, Arnold entered the University of Virginia. An elastic curriculum permitted a free choice of any number of subjects at one time and Rich, after a short sojourn of only two years, was given his A.B., and one year later his M.A. degree, and was elected, as well, to Phi Beta Kappa. While at college, Rich had considered becoming a min- 331

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332 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS ing engineer, but since he detested mathematics, his alternative choice for a career was biology. His Master's research, carried out in the zoology department at the University of Virginia, concerned the reactions of the probiscus of a flatworm (Planaria albissima Vejdovsky); this work, completed in Virginia, was published during Rich's third year at medical school. Rich entered the Johns Hopkins Medical School in the fall of 1915 and received his M.D. in 1919 along with mem- bership in Alpha Omega Alpha. He was associated with Hop- kins for the remainder of his life. His specialization in path- ology was accidental. In medical school he came under the influence of Dr. William H. Howell and was fascinated by this extraordinary scholar whose interest at that time was coagula- tion of the blood. Rich was soon immersed in related research projects; his findings on the "Nature of Metathrombin" and the "Changes in the Clotting Power of Oxalated Plasma on Stanci- ing" (see bibliography, 1917) were published while he was still a medical student. He did not allow the school curriculum to interfere with his research to any great degree. One unexpected interruption did occur because of the par- ticipation of the United States in World War I. The medical students, in the fall of 1918, were regimented into the Johns Hopkins Unit of the Students Army Training Corps and be- cause of Rich's previous military training, he was made a ser- geant. Although the military regime did not hinder his pursuit of knowledge or further any athletic development, the war did change Rich's interest from theory to more practical medical problems; he therefore decided to specialize in experimental surgery. To this end, Dr. William Halsted, the Professor of Sur- gery, insisted that Rich devote himself to pathology for a year as preparation for a surgical internship. It was thus that Rich came under the influence of Dr. William G. MacCallum, and surgery lost its brilliant prospect to pathology. Except for a sabbatical year studying with Dr. Hans Eppinger

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ARN OLD RICE RICH 333 in Vienna, Rich remained in the Hopkins Pathology Depart- ment for his entire career. Flattering invitations from other institutions were always refused. Rich loved working at Johns Hopkins and living in Baltimore. He was appointed Professor of Pathology in 1944, and in 1947 he became the third Baxley Professor of Pathology, Chairman of the Pathology Department, and Pathologist-in-chief of the Johns Hopkins Hospital, adding his distinguished services to those of his predecessors, Drs. Wil- liam H. Welch and William G. MacCallum. Although Rich became Professor Emeritus in 1958, he retained his interest in pathology until his death in 1968, which followed a lone illness beset by cardiovascular complications. . An I first met Arnold Rich when I was a medical student. I was fortunate to have had him for my instructor, and he always remained my preceptor, associate, and friend. Few could resist his enthusiastic teaching. His contagious interest in the study of disease changed many of his students into embryonic patholo- gists. To his students he embodied the ideal teacher whose standard was excellence in all spheres. This he did by example: Rich taught superbly and lectured brilliantly, vividly describing his material in his soft, slightly Southern-tinged tones. His meticulous autopsy dissections, similarly accompanied by flow- ing lucid analyses, always drew a large audience of students and staff. Rich's influence was felt throughout the medical school and hospital, and he was consulted by members of all departments. This, in spite of the fact that as a careful and meticulous worker himself he might seem over-critical and discouraging. If Dr. Rich approved your work and encouraged its publication, you were assured of its worthiness; but he was ruthless in red-pencil- ing observations he considered incomplete, equivocal, uncon- trolled, or unimportant. Rich's power of critical evaluation was especially apparent at the weekly Journal Club meetings of the pathology department.

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334 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS A junior staff member would report and criticize the original contributions in a specific journal, but it was Dr. Rich who always made the pertinent comments on the value of each. To underscore his evaluations, he delighted in arguing against his true opinion to develop perspicacity of judgment in his young staff members. Rich's critical ability was further appreciated and utilized as a member of the editorial board of the Bulletin of the Johns Hopkins Hospital and as a member of the Hopkins Re- search Society. His opinions were sought not only by colleagues, but by former associates in advanced positions in other institu- tions. A tribute to Dr. Rich's popularity was the overflowing audi- ence of students and staff that attended his weekly clinical- pathological conferences (cPc), probably the most popular hour in the school curriculum. Dr. William Thayer was his first clinical opponent, then for many years Dr. Louis Hamman, and finally Dr. A. McGehee Harvey. Each of these clinicians added a personal delightful variation to the session. It was Dr. Rich's function to select the cases to be shown, and these were always instructive. In addition, Rich delighted to choose patients who could illustrate a hitherto unrecognized problem or lesion. Many of the cPc cases were subsequently published and frequently served as a basis for research. It was in his research that Rich made his greatest impact on the field of pathology. He was instrumental in interesting his students and young pathology staff members in his work and utilized their aid in his extensive experimental investigations. His first important contribution elucidated the origin of biliru- bin and the bile pigments. This important physiological process had previously been poorly understood and controversial. Rich's studies culminated in his classic review, "Formation of Bile Pigment," for the Physiological Reviews (1925). In this he con- cluded that hemoglobin, derived from destroyed red blood cells, is the sole source of bile pigment; its normal site of origin is in

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ARNOLD RICE RICH 335 reticuloendothelial cells alone, especially the Kupffer cells, and the epithelial liver cells have rho role in the formation, but only in the excretion of the bile pigment. Additional studies in this field resulted in Rich's delineation of jaundice into two types on the basis of patho~enesis. The first, retention jaundice, results from overproduction of bile pigment in conditions that are associated with a decrease in the excretory power of the liver, such as immaturity, anoxemia, and fever. The sec- ond type regurgitation jaundiceis caused by reflux of bile from the liver canaliculi into the blood stream in the presence of duct obstruction or liver cell necrosis. Published in 1930, this work remains, with only slight modification, the basis for the present concept of jaundice, its clinical diagnosis, and its treat- ment. Dr. Rich's next consuming interest was in the field of inflam- mation and hypersensitivity, especially as related to tuberculous infection. This motivated his investigations for many years. With the assistance of several co-workers, he was able to demon- strate that acquired resistance in the host is independent of the hypersensitive inflammatory reaction, and the latter, injurious to the host, may be eliminated by desensitization without impair- ment of immunity. These findings were summarized in the Physiological Reviews in 1941. Continued research clarified the pathogenesis of the spread of the tubercle bacilli in the body and revolutionized the concept of the disease "tuberculosis" and its myriad manifestations. These monumental studies were pub- lished as a deservedly famous book, The Pathogenesis of Tuber- culosis, in 1944, revised in 1951 and subsequently translated into Spanish and Japanese. Extensive investigation of the mechanisms of hypersensi- tivity and immunity led to additional knowledge in pneumococ- cal infection and syphilis. But of greatest importance was Rich's demonstration that the lesions of periarteritis nodosa, rheumatic carditis and pneumonitis, and some forms of ~,lomerulonephritis

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336 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS were caused by the anaphylactic type of hypersensitivity. This work was instrumental in stimulating other scholars to investi- gate the basic mechanisms of the pernicious interactions of antigen and antibody which produce disease in the human body. During Rich's long career, in addition to basic research, he made numerous important observations in the field of patho- logical anatomy and histology and clarified the pathogenesis of previously poorly understood conditions. With his colleagues, he demonstrated that portal cirrhosis in rabbits could result from repair following liver cell necrosis caused by a diet deficient in vitamins Be, B.,, Be, and nicotinic acid. By time-lapse cinemicrog- raphy of cells in vitro, he first depicted the characteristic loco- motion and nature of the "acute splenic tumor" cell. He helped clarify the pathogenesis of acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis by proving that activation of trypsinogen by enterokinase is not a necessary step in the production of this lesion, which may result therefore from liberation of Inactivated pancreatic enzymes in the parenchyma following rupture of ductules. Rich showed the relation of the "tubular" lesions of the adrenal cortex to acute infection, described a peculiar focal interstitial form of nephritis that may occur in acquired syphilis, and first noted the obstructing pulmonary arteriolar lesions that occur in tetralogy of Fallot. His description of idiopathic inter- stitial fibrosis of the lungs was made in conjunction with the clinical observations of Dr. Louis Hamman, and this condition now bears the name "Rich-Hamman disease." Dr. Rich was the recipient of many honors. In 1954 he was elected a member of the National Academy of Sciences. Prior to that time he was a consultant to the Chemical Warfare Service, to the Surgeon General of the United States Army, and to the Tuberculosis Control Division of the United States Public Health Service. In 1947, Rich received the certificate of honor of the American Academy of Tuberculosis. In 1951, France gave him its top award, making him a Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. He was a committee member of the National Research

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ARN OLD RICE RICH 337 Council from 1947 to 1952. In 1951, Rich became the Chairman of the Scientific Advisory Board of the Armed Forces Institutes of Pathology. He was the U.S. Department of State delegate to the International Congress of Allergy, Zurich, at which time he was granted an honorary M.D. by the University of Zurich and was made a fellow of the International Association of Allergists. Further honors followed. In 1952, Rich was appointed an honorary committee member to celebrate the both Anniversary of the discovery of anaphylaxis in Paris. The University of Toronto honored him in 1956 as the man who during the pre- ceding ten years had contributed most toward practical knowl- edge in medical arts and science. In this year he also became an honorary fellow of the British Royal Society of Medicine. The Kober Medal of the Association of American Physicians was presented to Rich in 1958. Even in his retirement, Rich con- tinued to receive further honors. He was made an honorary Mickle fellow of the University of Toronto, and the Gardner award was given him at this University for his research on the allergic effects of certain ([rugs. He was presented the Gordon Wilson Medal by the American Clinical and Climatological Association, the Trudeau Medal by the National Tuberculosis Association, an honorary plaque by the Japanese Society of Tuberculosis, the Seaman award by the Association of Military Surgeons, and an award by the American College of Physicians. The stupendous numbers of honors and awards received by Rich for his work in medical science might suggest that his interests were confined to this field. Not so! His talents were notable in many diverse directions, and it is difficult to separate his scientific from his personal life. Rich met his future wife, Helen ~ones, in 1915, while still at the University of Virginia, through a mutual interest in music. Miss Jones continued her musical education and career and did not marry Dr. Rich until 1925. Mrs. Rich remains a talented pianist and composer. There are two daughters and five grand- children. The elder daughter is Adrienne Rich, the famous

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338 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS poetess who, to date, has received twenty prizes and awards for her published works. Cynthia Rich Glauber, four years younger, writes and also teaches creative writing at Harvard University. Both girls received a unique, unconventional classical education from their parents. The Baltimore census did not discover their existence until Adrienne was nearly eleven and Cynthia seven. At this point, the truant officers of the Baltimore School System insisted they attend conventional school. Their placement in a proper class was not facilitated by their ignorance of mathe- matics, their fluency in languages modern and classical and a remarkable appreciation of history, art, and world conditions. The Rich hospitality was delightful. Dr. Rich enjoyed enter- taining his staff members and held many of the Pathology Jour- nal Club meetings in his attractive home. Once the discussion of current journals was completed, Mrs. Rich, aided by her daugh- ters, would treat our group to delicious homemade cakes and potent punch (a secret recipe) and join in the general conversa- 1- - tion. Often an informal musicale would follow with Mrs. Rich at the piano, Dr. Rich playing his violin or viola d'amore, and a junior staff member playing a cello or a wood instrument. These sessions were delightful and lasted well into the night: invari- ably the pathology staff would arrive late for work the following morning. This passed unnoticed by Rich, who abhorred the early morning and whenever possible arrived for work near noon, but remained in his office or laboratory until any hour at night. He enjoyed detaining an associate with him to discuss, in an informal manner, current problems in the department, music, literature, politics, or ethics. Time would pass heedlessly while families at home awaited a delayed supper. The scope of Dr. Rich's interest was unlimited, and he did not limit the time he devoted to others. Probably the two main nonscientific concerns of Rich were music and literature. He was a member of the Chamber Music group that included the late "Bard of Baltimore," H. L. Mencken, and he enjoyed as well the rich musical environment

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ARN OLD RICE RICH 339 offered by the City of Baltimore. He read voraciously in the classics, English, and foreign literature. His sharp critical ability was evident in his analyses of modern writings. He himself wrote with ease, and although his compositions seemed as uncontrived and fluent as his speech, he admitted that he rewrote every sentence innumerable times before satisfied of its clarity. He did thorough research in any subject that drew his interest; his studies on the "Source of the Nile" were almost as extensive as those of Alan Moorehead. One further quality In nits writing must be added: he had a delightful sense of humor. This was always apparent in his original presentations, and was exempli- fied by an elfin twinkle as he read a treatise such as "In Defense of the Double Bed." Rich was modest, but his vision was wide and clear. He was a free thinker and in two fields was known as a nonconformist. In an era of specialization in the medical sciences, Rich advo- cated comprehensive knowledge without splintering of activities. His interest in pathology was universal, enveloping all facets of disease. He did not limit his studies to a specific sex, age, or portion of the body. He was proud to be a "general" pathologist. Rich's nonconformity was apparent . In a second direction. His stimulus to work was love of work; monetary rewards were unimportant to him. He urged this precept on his juniors, but unfortunately lost many a staff member who was unable to sur- vive on the meager salary provided by Rich. Government grants were anathema. He would not consider applying for outside funding which might necessitate modification of his work or its direction. As a result, the pathology department, supported en- tirely by Johns Hopkins funds, remained small during Rich's tenure. This was in keeping with the Rich precepts of quality and excellence which influenced not only his immediate associ- ates but also spread far afield to other institutions and countries. He was responsible for directing many promising students into the specialty of pathology. Arnold Rice Rich will be remem- bered by them and by his peers in this field as a great pathologist.

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340 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS BIBLIO GRAPHY 1917 The nature and properties of metathrombin. Am. J. Physiol., 43: 549-70. The changes in the clotting power of an oxalated plasma on stand- ing. Am. J. Physiol., 43:571-76. 1918 With W. A. Kepner. Reactions of the probiscis of Planaria albissima Vejdovsky. J. Exp. Zool., 26:83-100. 1920 A physiological study of the eustachian tube and its related muscles. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 31: 206-14. An ultramicroscopic study of the two stages of blood coagulation. Science, 52:38~1. The innervation of the tensor veli palatini and levator veli palatini muscles. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 3 1: 305-1 0. 1921 The condition of the capillaries in histamine shock. I. Exp. Med., 33:287-98. 1922 A study of the relation of the adrenal glands to experimentally pro- duced hypotension (shock). Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 33:79-93. Uber die Bilirubinbildungstratigkeit der Milz. Klinische Wochen- schrift, I, Nr. 42:2079-89. 1923 Experimental studies concerning the site of origin of bilirubin. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 34:321-29. 1924 With W. C. Davison and C. H. Greene. Xeroderma pigmentosum. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 35: 285-94. The formation of bile pigment from haemoglobin in tissue cultures. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 35:415-16.

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ARN OLD RICE RICH 341 With I. Howland. Gaucher's disease with extensive involvement of the bones and invasion of the spinal canal. Trans. Am. Pediat. Soc., 36:42~3. 1925 On the extrahepatic formation of bile pigment. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 36: 233~7. With J. H. Bumstead. On the identity of haematoidin and bilirubin. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 36:225-32. The formation of bile pigment. Physiolog. Rev., 5:182-224. With J. H. Bumstead. On the alleged power of bacteria to form bile pigment from haemoglobin. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 36: 376-86. With W. F. Rienhoff, fir. The bile-pigment content of the splenic vein. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 36:431-36. With I. H. Bumstead. On the question of the formation of bile pigment from haemoglobin by the action of enzymes. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 36:437~. 1926 With W. H. Resnik. On the mechanism of the jaundice following pulmonary infarction in patients with heart failure. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 38:75-76. The place of R.~.H. Dutrochet in the development of the cell theory. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 39: 330-65. 1928 With M. R. Lewis. Mechanism of allergy in tuberculosis. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 25:596-98. 1929 The role of allergy in tuberculosis. Arch. Int. Med., 43:691-714. With H. A. McCordock. An enquiry concerning the role of allergy, immunity and other factors of importance in the pathogenesis of human tuberculosis. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 44:273~24. With J. H. Bumstead and M. Frobisher, Jr. Hemorrhagic glomer- ular lesions produced by filtrates of streptococcus virdans cul- tures. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 26:397-99.

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342 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1930 With J. H. Brown. The dissociation of allergy from immunity in pneumococcal infection. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 27:695-96. The demonstration that allergic inflammation is not necessary for the operation of acquired immunity. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 16: 460-64. Observations on the relation of allergy to immunity. (Address before Saranac Lake Medical Society.) Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 47: 189-214. The pathogenesis of the forms of jaundice. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 47: 338-77. 1931 Bacterial allergy and acquired immunity. Trans. Natl. Tuberc. Assoc., 27: 149-58. Reflections on the relation of the curriculum to certain problems in medical education. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 49: 121-69. 1932 The nature of allergy in tuberculosis as revealed by tissue culture studies. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 50: 115-31. The pathology of nineteen cases of a peculiar and specific form of nephritis associated with acquired syphilis. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 50:357-82. With C. M. McKee. The protective power of antibody in immunized animals deprived of leucocytes. Arch. Path., 14:284. With P. H. Long, L. E. Holt, I. H. Brown, and E. A. Bliss. Experi- ments upon the cause of whooping cough. Science, 76:330-31. On the etiology and pathogenesis of whooping cough. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 51:346-63. 1933 With H. A. McCordock. The pathogenesis of tuberculous meningitis. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 52: 5-37. With A. M. Chesney and T. B. Turner. Experiments demonstrating that acquired immunity in syphilis is not dependent upon al- lergic inflammation. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 52:179-202.

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ARN OLD RICE RICH 343 With L. Hamman. A clinical-pathological conference. A case of heart failure. Internatl. Clin., 43d series, 1:197-232. The mechanism responsible for the prevention of spread of bacteria in the immune body. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 52:203-24. With L. Hamman. A clinical-pathological conference. Two cases of subacute bacterial endocarditis. Internatl. Clin., 43d series, 2: 201-37. With F. B. Jennings, Jr. and L. M. Downing. The persistence of ac- quired immunity after abolition of allergy by desensitization. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 52: 172-96. With L. Hamman. A clinical-pathological conference. Two instances of jaundice. Internatl. Clin., 43d series, 3:230-53. Experimental pathological studies on the nature and role of bacterial allergy. (Opening paper in Symposium on Allergy, 2d Interna- tional Pediatric Congress, London.) Acta Paediatrica, 16:1-17. Discussion of Prof. F. Hamburger's paper on "Allergy in Tubercu- losis" (at 3d International Pediatric Congress, London). Acta Paediatrica, 16: 133-34. Experimental pathological studies on the nature and role of bac- terial allergy. Lancet, 225:521-25. 1934 With C. M. McKee. A study of the character and degree of pro- tection afforded by the immune state independently of the leucocytes. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 54:277-314. With G. L. Duff. Vascular lesions in haemorrhagic pancreatitis. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 31:470-72. With L. Hamman. A clinical-pathological conference. A case of syphilitic myocarditis. Internatl. Clin., 4(Series 44~:221-54. 1935 On the frequency of occurrence of occult carcinoma of the prostate. J. Urol., 33:215-22. Acute splenic tumor produced by non-bacterial antigens. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 32:1349-51. With L. Hamman. Fulminant diffuse interstitial fibrosis of the lungs. Trans. Am. Clin. Climatol. Assoc., 51: 154-63.

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344 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1936 With G. L. Duff. Experimental and pathological studies on the pathogenesis of acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 58:212-59. With P. H. Long, E. A. Bliss, l. H. Brown and L. E. Holt. The experimental production of whooping cough in chimpanzees. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 58: 286-306. Immunity in Tuberculosis. In: Diseases of the Respiratory Tract: 8th Annual Graduate Fortnight of the N.Y. Aced. Med., pp. 215-39. N.Y.: W. B. Saunders. Inflammation in resistance to infection. (Opening paper in Sympos- ium on Inflammation, Joint Session of Am. Assoc. of Pathologists and Bacteriologists and Am. Assoc. of Immunologists.) Arch. Path., 22:228-54. Inflammation in resistance to infection. Abstract and discussion. Am. J. Path., 12:723-33. With C. M. McKee. The mechanism of a hitherto unexplained form of native immunity to the Type III pneumococcus. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 59:171-207. 1937 Studies on the dissociation of hypersensitivity from immunity. Revue d'Immunologie, 3:25-49. With G. L. Duff. The production of hyaline arteriolosclerosis and arteriolonecrosis by means of proteolytic enzymes. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 61: 63-70. 1938 With R. H. Follis, in The inhibitory effect of sulfanilamide on the development of experimental tuberculosis in the guinea pig. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 62:77-84. The influence of age-determined factors on the development of tuberculosis. (4th John W. Bell Tuberculosis Lecture.) Minn. Med., 21: 745-64. 1939 With C. M. McKee. The pathogenicity of avirulent pneumococci for animals deprived of leucocytes. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 64:434-46.

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ARN OLD RICE RICH 345 With M. R. Lewis and M. M. Wintrobe. The nature of the acute splenic tumor cell, as revealed by comparative motion picture studies of cells of the spleen, lymph nodes, bone marrow, and leukemic blood. Trans. Assoc. Am. Phys., 54: 188-98. With M. M. Wintrobe and M. R. Lewis. The differentiation of myeloblasts from lymphoblasts by their manner of locomotion. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 65: 291-309. With M. R. Lewis and M. M. Wintrobe. The activity of the lym- phocyte in the body's reaction to foreign protein, as established by the identification of the acute splenic tumor cell. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 65:31 1-27. With R. H. Follis, in Further studies on the effect of sulfanilamide on experimental tuberculosis. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 65: 466-88. 1940 With R. H. Follis, fir. Studies on the site of sensitivity in the Arthus phenomenon. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 66:106-20. With l. D. Hamilton. The experimental production of cirrhosis of the liver by means of a deficient diet. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 66: 185-96. With l. D. Hamilton. Further studies on cirrhosis of the liver pro- duced by a dietary deficiency. Trans. Assoc. Am. Phys., 66:133-39. 1941 The significance of hypersensitivity in infections. Physiol. Rev., 21: 70-111. 1942 With R. H. Follis, fir. The effect of low oxygen tension upon the development of experimental tuberculosis. Trans. Assoc. Am Phys., 57:271. The role of hypersensitivity in periarteritis nodosa, as indicated by seven cases developing during serum sickness and sulfonamide therapy. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 71:123-40. Additional evidence of the role of hypersensitivity in the etiology of periarteritis nodosa. Another case associated with a sulfonamide reaction. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 71: 375-79.

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346 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS With R. H. Follis, in The effect of low oxygen tension upon the development of experimental tuberculosis. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 71: 345-64. 1943 Withy. E. Gregory. The experimental demonstration that periarter- itis nodosa is a manifestation of hypersensitivity. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 72:65-88. With T. E. Gregory. Experimental evidence that lesions with the ~ ~ , ~ basic characteristics of rheumatic carditis can result from ana- phylactic hypersensitivity. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 73: 239-64. With J. E. Gregory. On the anaphylactic nature of rheumatic pneumonitis. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 73:465-78. 1944 A peculiar type of adrenal cortical damage associated with acute infections, and its possible relation to circulatory collapse. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 74: 1-15. With L. Hamman. Acute diffuse interstitial fibrosis of the lungs. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 74: 177-212. The Pathogenesis of Tuberculosis. Springfield, Ill.: Charles C. Thomas. 1028 pp. With l. E. Gregory. Further experimental cardiac lesions of the rheumatic type produced by anaphylactic hypersensitivity. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 75: 115-34. 1945 Hypersensibilidad al iodo coma uno de las causes de periarteritis nodosa. Arch. Soc. de Argentina de Anato. Norm. y Patol., 7: 133. The role of hypersensitivity in the pathogenesis of rheumatic fever and periarteritis nodosa. (21st Lewis Linn McArthur Lecture, Chicago Institute of Medicine.) Proc. Inst. Med., Chicago, 15: 270-81. Hypersensitivity to iodine as a cause of periarteritis nodosa. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 77: 43-48. 1946 With l. E. Gregory. The experimental production of anaphylactic pulmonary lesions with the basic characteristics of rheumatic pneumonitis. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 78: 1-12.

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ARNOLD RICE RICH 347 Hypersensitivity in disease, with especial reference to periarteritis nodosa, rheumatic fever, disseminated lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. Harvey Lectures, 42:106~7. 1947 With J- E. Gregory. Experimental anaphylactic lesions of the coronary arteries of the "sclerotic" type commonly associated with rheumatic fever and disseminated lupus erythematosus. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 81 :312-24. 1948 A hitherto unrecognized tendency to the development of widespread pulmonary vascular obstruction in patients with congenital pul- monary stenosis (tetralogy of Fallot). Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 82:389-401. With M. Berthrong and F. G. Germuth, fir. An experimental inquiry into the mechanism of development of cirrhosis of the liver. Trans. Assoc. Am. Phys., 61:263-70. 1949 With W. Dock. Adrenal and cardiac factors in circulatory failure in acute infections. Proc. 20th Annul Postgraduate Symposium on Heart Disease. Heart Division of San Francisco Tuberculosis Association, pp. 73-87. With W. Dock. Clinical-pathological conference. Cardiac amyloido- sis. Proc. 20th Annul Postgraduate Symposium on Heart Disease. Heart Division of San Francisco Tuberculosis Association, pp. 87-103. - - With M. Berthrong. Evidence for the presence of ribonucleic acid in the cytoplasmic bodies that appear in the hepatic and adrenal epithelial cells of man in acute infection. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 85:327~3. 1950 With M. Berthrong and P. C. Griffith. A study of the effect of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) upon the experimental cardiovascular lesions produced by anaphylactic hypersensitivity. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 86: 131~0.

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348 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS With M. Berthrong and I. L. Bennett, fir. The effects of cortisone upon the experimental cardiovascular and renal lesions produced by anaphylactic hypersensitivity. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 87: 549-67. 1951 With M. Berthrong et al. The effect of ACTH and cortisone upon experimental glomerulonephritis. Trans. Assoc. Am. Phys., 64: 257-61. With T. H. Cochran and D. C. McGoon. Marked lipemia resulting from the administration of cortisone. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 88: 101-9. With I. L. Bennett, Jr. and M. Berthrong. A further study of the effect of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) upon the experi- mental cardiovascular lesions produced by anaphylactic hyper- sensitivity. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 88:197-209. Das Wesen der Allergie und ihre Bedentung fur die Medizin. Neue Zuricher Zeitung, Nr. 2040, p. 5. With M. Berthrong, I. L. Bennett, fir., T. H. Cochran, and P. C. Griffith. The effects of ACTH and cortisone upon experimental anaphylactic glomerulonephritis. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 88: 1 89-93. 1952 The occurrence of focal tuberculoid lesions in experimental serum sickness. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 91:109-23. Allergic diseases and diseases accompanied by sensitization (Opening paper of 1st International Congress for Allergy). Proceedings of the 1st International Congress for Allergy, International Archives Allergy and Immunology, Supplement, pp. 1-11. 1953 With G. A. Voisin and F. B. Bang. Electron microscopic studies of the alteration of collagen fibrils in the Arthus phenomenon. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 92: 222~3. With O. M. Wilbur, fir. A study of the role of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in the pathogenesis of tubular degeneration of the adrenals. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 93:321~7.

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ARNOLD RICE RICH 1955 349 Chairman's opening and closing remarks. In: Experimental Tuber- culosis; Bacillus and Host, pp. 1, 335. Ciba Symposium, London: I. & A. Churchill. 1956 The pathology and pathogenesis of experimental anaphylactic glomerulonephritis in relation of human acute glomerulone- phritis. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 98: 120-51. 1957 A hitherto undescribed vulnerability of the juxtamedullary glom- eruli in lipoid nephrosis. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 100: 173-86. 1958 Studies on hypersensitivity. (Charles Mickle Honorary Fellowship Lecture, University of Toronto.) Can. Med. Assoc. l., 78:163-70. Acceptance of the Kober Medal for 1958. Trans. Assoc. Am. Physi- cians, 71:40~9. Studies in hypersensitivity. The Medical Graduate (University of Toronto), 4:No. 2, 5. Tissue reactions produced by sensitivity to drugs. (Opening paper on tissue sensitivity and tissue reactions.) Sensitivity Reactions to Drugs, Council for International Organizations of Medical Science Symposium, Liege, 1957, pp. 196-208. Oxford, Eng.: Blackwell Scientific Publications. 1960 Unsolved problems in phthisiology and the future of human tuber- culosis. Kakkaku, 35:23-37. Visceral hazards of hypersensitivity to drugs. Gordon Wilson Lec- ture. Trans. Am. Clin. Climatol. Assoc., 72:46-65. The award of the Trudeau Medal for 1960. Am. Rev. Respiratory Diseases, 82:584-85.

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350 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1961 Problems of hypersensitivity. Can. Med. Assoc. J., 84:755-57. Chairman's opening and closing remarks. In: Ciba Foundation Symposium on Renal Biopsy. Clinical and Pathological Signif- cance, pp. 1~, 374-78. London: l. & A. Churchill. 1963 Immunologic disease. Military Medicine, 128:293-305.

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