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VANNEVAR BUSH March ~ I, 1890-June 2S, 1974 BY JEROME B. WIESNER NO AMERICAN has had Heater influence in the growth of science and technology than Vannevar Bush, and the twentieth century may yet not produce his equal. He was an ingenious engineer and an imaginative educator, but above all he was a statesman of integrity and creative ability. He orga- nized and led history's greatest research program during World War II and, with a profound understanding of implications for the future, charted the course of national policy during the years that followed. The grandson of two sea captains, "Van" Bush manifested his Cape Cod heritage in a salty, independent, forthright per- sonality. He was a man of strong opinions, which he expressed and applied with vigor, yet he stood in awe of the mysteries of nature, had a warm tolerance for human frailty, and was open- minded to change and to new solutions to problems. He was pragmatic, yet had the imagination and sensitivity of a poet, and was steadily optimistic. These essential qualities speak clearly in the foreword which he wrote in January 1970 for his book of reminiscences, Pieces of the Action: In my time, it has been my good fortune to have a piece of the action here and there in varied circumstances. It has been a pleasant experience for me to review some of the more rugged of these, and some of the more serene. Do birds sing for the joy of singing? I believe they do. The complexity of their songs is far greater than is needed for recognition or for marking 89

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go BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS of reserved areas. I have become acquainted with a catbird who obviously derives pleasure as he tries out little phrases on his own. Moreover, I believe that evolution produced birdsongs, and the joy that goes with them, because of the survival value they bestow. He who struggles with joy in his heart struggles the more keenly be- cause of that joy. Gloom dulls, and blunts the attack. We are not the first to face problems, and as we face them we can hold our heads high. In such spirit was this book written. Van Bush gave the most comprehensive view of himself in Pieces of the Action. Characteristically, he despised pomposity and rather than write a formal autobiography he organized his recollections in a way that would illuminate certain historical episodes and amplify some of his views of life. Written in a direct, down-to-earth manner, the book tells a great deal about the rugged, indomitable spirit of its author. Bush's father, the Reverend Richard Perry Bush, was also a nonconformist in style and conviction. He started his career as cook on a mackerel smack at Provincetown, Massachusetts at the age of fourteen and worked his way through Tufts College by delivering coal to students' rooms. Although of a Methodist family, he became a minister in the Universalist Church and was a pastor in Everett, Massachusetts when his son was born on March 11, 1890. Story has it that the boy was named for the Reverend John Van Nevar, a colleague of the Reverend Mr. Bush. Between Vannevar Bush and his father there was a strong bond of affection, cemented by a good-humored appreciation in each one for the personality and idiosyncracies of the other. Both were members of the Masonic order, both were good out- doorsmen, and both were wide-ranging in their interests. As a boy, Vannevar Bush loved to tinker. When his father became a pastor in Chelsea, where Vannevar attended high school, he had a versatile shop at home. After high school he moved on to Tufts College, where he received B.S. and M.S. p. ~x. ~ Vannevar Bush, Pieces of the Action (New York: William Morrow, 1970),

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VANNEVAR BUSH 91 degrees in 1913. Also, while still in college, he secured a patent the first of manyfor a surveying machine, which he built with two bicycle wheels and a device using a pendulum, for inte- grating and recording horizontal and vertical measurements. After graduating from Tufts, Bush worked for a time in the test department of the General Electric Company at Schenec- tady, New York, and then as an inspector for the U.S. Navy. He returned to Tufts in 1914 as an instructor in mathematics. He had higher goals, however, and one of them was to marry Phoebe Davis, a Chelsea girl. Having saved enough money for one more year of study, he proposed to earn a doctorate at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in that one year so that he could qualify for a better job and afford to get married. There was academic skepticism that he could accomplish this, and he was warned that he would wreck his health; but in 1916, at the end of a year, he had earned a Doctor of Engineering, a degree at that time given jointly by MIT and Harvard University. His health was never better, a troublesome case of rheumatism hav- ing disappeared for good. That fall he and Miss Davis were married, and he became an assistant professor of electrical engi- neering at Tufts. His first technical paper, "Oscillating-Current Circuits by the Method of Generalized Angular Velocities," based on his doctoral thesis, was presented before the American Institute of Electrical Engineers in 1917. At about that time, Bush became a consultant to American Research and Development Corporation (AMRAD), a small com- pany with quarters on the Tufts campus which, with the backing of l. P. Morgan, was pioneering in the development of radio devices. When the United States entered World War I, Bush went to New London, Connecticut to engage in antisubmarine research for AMRAD. He developed a magnetic device for the detection of submarines, but because of faulty administrative coordination it was never used effectively a circumstance that he would remember when he took charge of U.S. research dur-

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92 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS ing World War II. "That experience," he wrote later, "forced into my mind pretty solidly the complete lack of proper liaison between the military and the civilian in the development of weapons in time of war, and what that lack meant." He did not serve in the Navy during World War I, but he was a lieutenant commander in the Naval Researve from 1924 to 1932. In 1919, Bush joined the MIT faculty as associate professor of power transmission. He was placed in charge of the intro- ductory course in electrical engineering and in 1922, with his colleague William H. Timbie, published a textbook, Principles of Electrical Engineering. Meanwhile, he had been macle clirec- tor of graduate study and of the Research Division of the De- partment of Electrical Engineering. Bush not only continued to serve as a consultant to AMRAD, but was also largely responsible for its progress, despite numer- ous vicissitudes, toward success. He enlisted Laurence K. Mar- shall, who had been his roommate at Tufts, to provide business leadership. A new company, eventually named Metals and Con- trols Corporation, was formed to manufacture a thermostat invented by John A. Spencer, a staff member. Thermionic tubes for the booming radio industry were developed by another com- pany, which took the name of Raytheon Manufacturing Com- pany in 1925 and became a corporate giant. One of the tubes, the S tube, a gaseous rectifier, enabled the owner of a radio set to plug it into the household circuit rather than use what was known as a B battery. The tube was the subject of papers pre- sented before the Institute of Radio Engineers and the Ameri- can Institute of Electrical Engineers by the inventor, C. G. Smith, and Bush. At MIT, Bush's interests turned toward computers. A former student, David O. Woodbury, recalls that in 1922 he was work- ing on a master's thesis, assigned by Bush, dealing with three- . # Pieces of the Action, p. 74.

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VANNEVAR BUSH 93 phase transients in alternating current motors. The research required onerous slide-rule computation, and Woodbury de- vised a small machine to do the work. One day Bush saw Wood- bury using the machine and asked what it was. When Woodbury explained, the professor said, "Dave, give up all that slip-stick work and write us a thesis on your invention." Woodbury did, and sold the machine to General Electric Company. The increasing complexity of power transmission networks stimulated further development in methods of analysis. Another of Bush's graduate students, Herbert R. Stewart, based a thesis on the Product Integraph, stating: "It was Dr. Bush's suggestion early in 1925 that a mechanical device should be developed to perform the continuous integration, which was the beginning of a continually expanding program of general solution of tran- sients in networks by electromechanical means" (A New Re- cord ing Prod uct Integraph and Multiplier, S.M. thesis, 1926~. The Product Integraph was the first in a series of analog computers which, though not direct ancestors of today's digital computers, led in the opening of the modern field of compu- tation. In addition to Stewart, those closely associated with Bush in this development included Frank D. Gage, Harold L. Hazen, King E. Gould, and Samuel H. Caldwell. An advanced machine, called the Differential Analyzer, was completed in 1931 and was so successful that it was the model for the con- struction of similar machines elsewhere. It could solve sixth- order differential equations or three simultaneous second-order differential equations. Another complex device developed at that time by Harold Hazen and Hugh H. Spencer with Bush's leadership was the Network Analyzer, used in the simulation of power systems. Preparation of the Differential Analyzer for solving a prob- lem was a cumbersome process. Planning for a more versatile machine, which could be controlled by punched tape, was be- gun in 1935. Known as the Rockefeller Differential Analyzer

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94 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS because it was funded in part by the Rockefeller Foundation, it had 2,000 electronic tubes, 200 miles of wire, 150 motors, and weighed 100 tons. It was demonstrated for the first time in 1941 and throughout World War II was operated on a three-shift basis in the computation of Navy range tables and studies of fire-control systems, radar antennas, and other critical subjects. Bush was by no means satisfied with the Differential Analyzer. As early as 1937 he wrote memoranda on the possibility of achieving greater speed with an electronic calculator the Rapid Arithmetical Machine, as he called it. Preliminary studies of its feasibility and, in fact, of tubes and circuits that might be used were conducted, but investigators were diverted by war research demands, and it was not until the early 1950s that MIT began operating Whirlwind I, a high-speed, high-capacity, highly reliable digital computer. Although Bush maintained a lively interest in such ma- chines, his career had taken a new direction. He had strong views on education. For example, in "Critical Analysis of the Examination System of American Engineering Schools," he wrote: The student is hounded. In four years the student has to take some forty or fifty independently taught subjects in which he is examined formally a total of perhaps a hundred times, and informally several hundred times.... All but exceptional students become automatons.... Our examinations are poor.... Student memories are being taxed with data which any reason- able practicing engineer would keep in notes or a handbook.. Dr. Karl T. Compton had become president of MIT in 1930, and as part of his program to strengthen the Institute, he re- organized it as three schools and appointed Bush vice president of the Institute and dean of the School of Engineering. In the latter position, Bush became virtually the operating executive. His national reputation was growing, and in 1934 he was # Vannevar Bush, Journal of Engineering Education, 23, no. 5 (January 1933~: 322-36.

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VANNEVAR BUSH 95 elected to the National Academy of Sciences. The following year he served on the Committee on the Relation of the Patent System to the Stimulation of New Industries, organized by the Science Advisory Board of the National Research Council. In 1938 Bush was invited to become president of the Car- negie Institution of Washington. President Compton was so loath to lose him that he suggested an arrangement by which he, Compton, would become chairman of the corporation and Bush would become president of MIT. Bush accepted the Carnegie invitation, however, and shortly afterward was also appointed chairman of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). As he later put it, he soon "learned quite a bit of the mysterious ways in which one operates in the Washington maze." ~ After World War II broke out in Europe in 1939, Bush and others became increasingly concerned by the lack of technologi- cal preparedness in the United States. He; James B. Conant, president of Harvard University, and Frank B. Jewett, president of the National Academy of Sciences and president of Bell Telephone Laboratories, were members of the Committee on Scientific Aids to Learning, formed by the National Research Council in 1937, and thus had occasion to meet together and discuss the subject. President Compton of MIT and Richard C. Tolman, dean of the Graduate School at the California Insti- tute of Technology, also joined in these discussions. Irvin Stewart, who was secretary of the Committee on Scientific Aids to Learning, was likewise involved. Out of the discussions came a plan for the establishment of the National Defense Research Committee (NDRC), which Bush described in four short paragraphs and submitted to President Roosevelt. At the end of ten minutes he had an "OK-FDR," and an order creating NDRC was issued on June 27, 1940, providing ~ Pieces of the Action, p. 34.

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96 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS nearly a year and a half of lead time before the United States entered the war. Bush commented thirty years later: There were those who protested that the action of setting up NDRC was an end run, a grab by which a small company of scientists and engineers, act- ing outside established channels, got hold of the authority and money for the program of developing new weapons. That, in fact, is exactly what it was. Moreover, it was the only way in which a broad program could be launched rapidly and on an adequate scale. To operate through estab- lished channels would have involved delays and the hazard that inde- pendence might have been lost, that independence which was the central feature of the organization's success. Bush was appointed chairman, and other members of the committee, in addition to Compton, Conant, Jewett, and Tol- man, were Conway P. Coe, Commissioner of Patents; Rear Adm. Harold G. Bowen, representing the Navy; and Brig. Gen. George V. Strong, representing the Army. Stewart became the executive secretary. The organization was elaborated in 1942, when the Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD) was established, with Bush as its director. OSRD had three principal subdivisions at that time: the NDRC, with Conant as chairman; the Commit- tee on Medical Research (CMR), with A. Newton Richards as chairman; and the Advisory Council, with Bush as chairman. The latter, which included the chairmen of NACA, NDRC, and CMR, as well as Army and Navy representatives, served as a co- ordinating group. In addition, Bush was chairman of the Joint New Weapons Committee of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and, when the Manhattan District was created, chairman of its Mili- tary Policy Committee, which functioned as its board of direc- tors. Although a certain organizational complexity was inevitable in so large a program, OSRD and NDRC operations were simplified ~ Pieces of the Action, pp. 3~-3~.

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VANNEVAR BUSH 97 by the fact that Van Bush was unquestionably the boss. He had the full confidence of the President and Congress. He was de- cisive and could be tough. "I remember one time when a section walked into my office and resigned as a body," he wrote. "I still do not know quite what the row was about. So I just told them, 'One does not resign in time of war. You chaps get the hell out of here and get back to work, and I'll look into it.' " ~ His wis- clom and integrity were respected. The organization was a remarkable invention, but the most significant innovation was the plan by which, instead of builcl- ing large government laboratories, contracts were made with universities and industrial laboratories for research appropriate to their capabilities. OSRD responded to requests from military agencies for work on specific problems, but it maintained its independence and in many cases pursued research objectives about which military leaders were skeptical. Military tradition was that a war had to be fought with weapons that existed at its beginning. Bush believed that World War II could be won only through advances in technology, and he proved to be cor- rect. In some instances, the armed forces were enthusiastically cooperative. In others, resistance to innovation had to be over- come. Bush, himself, went to Europe to make sure that the proximity fuse was introduced to the battlefield and used effec- tively. The major exception to the policy of avoiding the building of government laboratories was in the development of the atomic bomb. After preliminary studies by NDRC and OSRD, it became clear that a colossal program would be needed, and Bush recommended to Secretary Stimson that the Army take over the responsibility. The result was the formation of Man- hattan Engineering District by the Corps of Engineers. Bush, ~ Pieces of the Action, p. 41.

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98 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS with Conant as his deputy, maintained an active scrutiny of the enterprise. Bush successfully confronted Sir Winston Churchill (and earned his wrath) in London in an argument over the terms of exchanging atomic information. He had the duty, after the death of President Roosevelt, of giving President Truman his first detailed account of the bomb. He was among those whose recommendations prevailed when the President decided in spite of some objections that the Smyth Report on atomic energy should be released. He urged the appointment of the Interim Committee to advise the President on use of the bomb and on postwar atomic energy, and he was then appointed a member of the committee. He was a participant in the "Atlee Conference" and prepared the final draft of an agreement with the British proposing control of atomic energy by the United Nations. He was a defender of Dr. I. Robert Oppenheimer. After the Atomic Energy Commission's (AEC) decision that Oppenheimer's clearance be cancelled, he stated: "It does not affect my complete confidence in Dr. Oppenheimer's loyalty and deep devotion to the security of the United States.... Our in- ternal security system has run wild." ~ Bush did not have a central role in the formation of the AEC, but his voice was heard on this and other issues, such as military unification. He was influential in developing a policy of main- taining a high level of research for the military services and was instrumental in organizing the Office of Naval Research. But his greatest contribution was to launch an unprecedented national program in science and technology. Long before the war was over, Bush began to devote thought to how the momentum of research could be sustained, with new peacetime goals. In a letter, President Roosevelt asked him to make recommendations on government policies for combating ~ Newsweek, July 12, 1954, pp. 24-25.

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VANNEVAR BUSH 107 Marcellus Hartley Public Welfare Award, National Academy of Sciences, 1945 Washington Award, Western Society of Engineers, 1946 Hoover Medal for 1946, AIEE, ASCE, AIMME, ASME, 1947 Distinguished Service Award, Tufts Alumni Council, 1947 Medal for Merit with Bronze Oak Leaf Cluster, President Truman, 1948 Knight Commander, Most Excellent Order of the British Empire, 1948 Medal, Industrial Research Institute, Inc. 1949 John Fritz Medal, AlEE, ASCE, AIMME, ASME, 1951 Award of Merit, American Institute of Consulting Engineers, 1953 John l. Carty Medal and Award for the Advancement of Science, National Academy of Sciences, 1954 William Proctor Prize, Scientific Research Society of America, 1954 Officer, Legion of Honor, France, 1955 New England Award, Engineering Societies of New England, 1957 Charles F. Kettering Award, George Washington University, 1952 1963 National Medal of Science, President Johnson, 1964 Great Living American Award, Chamber of Commerce of the United States, 1964 Citation, Brotherhood of Temple Ohabei Shalom, Brookline, Massa- chusetts, 1964 Wisdom Award of Honor, The Wisdom Society, 1965 First Annual Founders Medal, National Academy of Engineers, 1966 Distinguished Service to Science Education Citation, National Sci- ence Teachers Association, 1968 Atomic Pioneer Award, President Nixon, 1970 BOARDS Life Member, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Corporation; Chairman, 1957-1959; Honorary Chairman, 1959-1971 Regent, Smithsonian Institution, 1943-1955 Trustee, Tufts College, 1943-1962 (Emeritus) Trustee, Johns Hopkins University, 1943-1955 Trustee, Carnegie Corporation of New York, 1939-1950 Trustee, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1958-1974 Trustee, George Putnam Fund of Boston, 1956-1972

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108 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Director American Telephone and Telegraph Co., 1947-1962 Director, Merck & Co., Inc., 1949-1962; Chairman of Board, 19~7- 1962 Director, Metals and Controls Corporation, 1952-1959 Director and Life Member, Graphic Arts Research Foundation, Inc., 1949-1974

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VANNEVAR BUSH BIBLIOGRAPHY 109 1917 Oscillating-current circuits by the method of generalized angular velocities. Proc. Am. Inst. Electr. Eng., 36~2~: 189-203; Trans. Am. Inst. Electr. Eng., 36:207-34. The coupled circuit by the method of generalized angular velocities. Proc. Inst. Radio Eng., 5:363-73. 1919 Gimbal stabilization. l. Franklin Inst., 188: 199-215. 1920 Alignment chart for circular and hyperbolic functions of a complex argument in rectangular coordinates. T. Am. Inst. Electr. Eng., 39:658-59. A simple harmonic analyzer. l. Am. Inst. Electr. Eng., 39:903-~. 1921 With C. G. Smith. A new rectifier. Proc. Inst. Radio Eng., 10:41-51. 1922 With W. H. Timbie. Principles of Electrical Engineering. N.Y.: John Wiley & Sons. ix + 629 pp. With C. G. Smith. Control of gaseous conduction. Trans. Am. Inst. Electr. Eng., 41 :402-11. With L. H. Connell. The eRect of absorbed gas on the conductivity of glass. J. Franklin Inst., 194:231-40. 1923 Transmission line transients. Trans. Am. Inst. Electr. Eng., 42: 878-93. 1924 Note on operational analysis. l. Math. Phys., 3:95-107. 1925 With R. D. Booth. Power system transients. Trans. Am. Inst. Electr. Eng., 44:80-103; l. Am. Inst. Electr. Eng., 44:229~0.

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110 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1926 The force between moving charges. l. Math Phys., 5: 129-57. 1927 With F. D. Gage and H. R. Stewart. A continuous integraph. I. Franklin Inst., 203:63-84. With King E. Gould. Temperature distribution along a filament. Phys. Rev., 29:337~5. With P. H. Moon. A precision measurement of puncture voltage. J. Am. Inst. Electr. Eng., 46: 1007-14. With H. L. Hazen. Integraph solution of differential equations. I. Franklin Inst., 204:575-615. 1928 Mechanical solution of engineering problems. Tech. Engr. News, 9:52-53. 1929 Transient stability: the analytical solution by point-by-point meth- ods, M.I.T. Proceedings of Colloquium on Power-Circuit Anal- ysis, June. Operational Circuit Analysis. N.Y.: John Wiley & Sons. x + 392 pp. 1931 The Differential Analyzer: a new machine for solving differential equations. T. Franklin Inst., 212:447-88. Edith S. H. Caldwell. Thomas-Fermi equation solution by the differ- ential analyzer. Phys. Rev., 38:1898-1902. 1933 Critical analysis of the examination system of American engineering schools. (Presented at meeting of Society for the Promotion of Engineering Education, Univ. of Maine, Orono, Oct. 8, 1932~. J. Eng. Educ., 23~5~:322-36.

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VANNEVAR BUSH 1934 111 Structural analysis by electric circuit analogies. l. Franklin Inst., 217:289-329. 1935 John Ripley Freeman. In: Biographical Memoirs, 17: 171-87. N.Y.: Columbia Univ. Press for the National Academy of Sciences. 1936 Instrumental analysis. Bull. Am. Math. Soc., 42:649-69. 1937 The engineer and his relation to government. Electr. Eng., 56: 928-36. 1939 The professional spirit in engineering. Mech. Eng., 61: 195-98. 1940 Arthur Edward Kennelly. In: Biographical Memoirs, 22:83-119. N.Y.: Columbia Univ. Press for the National Academy of ~ - ~clences. 1941 The case for biological engineering. In: Scientists Face the World of 1942, pp.33-45. New Brunswick, N.~.: Rutgers Univ. Press. Science and National Defense. l. of Appl. Phys., 12:823-26. 1943 Research and the war effort. Electr. Eng., 62:96-102. The Kilgore bill. Science, 98:571-77. 1944 The American tradition of opportunity. Electr. Eng., 63:82-84. 1945 Statement. In: Surplus Material Research and Development (Hear- ings before select committee on post-war military policy, House

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112 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS of Representatives, on H. Res. 465), pp. 237-59. Wash., D.C.: U.S. Govt. Print. Off. The builders. Technol. Rev., 47:162. (Reprinted in seventeen publi- cations.) Statement. In: Research and Development (Hearings before com- mittee on military affairs, House of Representatives, on H. R. 2946, authorizing permanent program of scientific research in the interest of national security), pp. 2-29. Wash., D.C.: U.S. Govt. Print. Off. Science the Endless Frontier: Report to the President on a Program for Postwar Scientific Research. Wash., D.C.: U.S. Govt. Print. Off.x + 184 pp. As we may think. Atlantic Monthly, 176: 101-8. Statement. In: Atomic Energy (Hearings before committee on mili- tary affairs, House of Representatives, On H. R. 4280, for development and control of atomic energy), pp. 35-51. Wash., D.C.: U.S. Govt. Print. Off. Testimony. Hearings on Science Legislation (Hearings before a sub- committee of the committee on military affairs, Senate, pursuant to S. Res. 107 and S. Res. 146, authorizing a study of possibilities of better mobilizing national resources), pp. 199-227. Wash., D.C.: U.S. Govt. Print. Off. With Samuel H. Caldwell. A new type of differential analyzer. J. Franklin Inst., 240:255-326. Statement. In: To Increase Compensation of Officers and Employees of the Federal Government (Hearings before a subcommittee of the committee civil service, Senate, on S. 1414), pp. 223-36. Wash., D.C.: U.S. Govt. Print. Off. Statement. In: Atomic Energy (Hearings before a special committee on atomic energy, Senate, pursuant to S. Res. 179, Creating a special committee to investigate problems relating to the develop- ment, use and control of atomic energy), pp. 145-83. Wash., D.C.: U.S. Govt. Print. Off. Research and the war. Army Navy Journal, 83: 1 10, 139. Letter to H. M. Kilgore. In: Hearings on Science Legislation (Hear- ings before a subcommittee of the committee on military affairs, Senate, pursuant to S. Res. 107 and S. Res. 146 authorizing a study of the possibilities of better mobilizing the national re- sources), pp. 1118-19. Wash., D.C.: U.S. Govt. Print. Off.

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VANNEVAR BUSH 1946 113 Endless Horizons. Wash., D.C.: Public Affairs Press. ix + 182 pp. The scientist and his government. In: Inauguration, Arthur Holly Compton as Ninth Chancellor, pp. 59-66. St. Louis: Washington Univ. Public opinion concerning the patent system. American Patent Law Assoc. Bull. (March-April-May):40~6. Research, organization and national security. J. Am. Soc. of Nav. Eng., 58:179-87. Letter to Hugh B. Mitchell. In: To Establish a National Air Policy Board (Hearings before a subcommittee on interstate commerce, Senate, on S. 1639, a bill to establish a national air policy board), p. 270. Wash., D.C.: U.S. Govt. Print. Off. Planning in science. In: Science and Civilization: The Future of atomic Energy, vol. 1, pp. 47-69. N.Y.: Whittlesey House/ McGraw-Hill. Statement. In: National Science Foundation Act (Hearings before a subcommittee of the committee on interstate and foreign com- merce, House of Represenatives, on H. R. 6448, a bill to promote the progress of science and the useful arts; to secure the national defense; to advance the national health, prosperity and welfare), pp. 47-55. Wash., D.C.: U.S. Govt. Print. Off. New methodology of war. Army Ordance, 31:336. 1947 Statement. In: Navy Department Appropriation Bill for 1948 (Hear- ings before the subcommittee of the committee on appropria- tions, House of Representatives, on the Navy appropriation bill), pp. 133-52. Wash., D.C.: U.S. Govt. Print. Off. The scientific way. In: Modern Minds, An Anthology of Ideas, ed. Howard Mumford Jones et al., pp. 300-05. Boston: D. C. Heath. Statement. In: National Science Foundation (Hearings before the committee on interstate and foreign commerce, House of Rep- resentatives, on H. R. 942, H. R. 1815, H. R. 1830, H. R. 1834, and H. R. 2027), pp. 231-54. Wash., D.C.: U.S. Govt. Print. Off. Letter and Statement. In: National Defense Establishment (Unifica- tion of the Armed Services) (Hearings before the committee on armed services, Senate, on S. 758, a bill to promote the national

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114 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS security by providing for a national defense establishment which shall be administered by a secretary of national defense), pp. 643- 48. Wash., D.C.: U.S. Govt. Print. Off. Letter to George D. Aiken. In: Technical Information and Services Act (Hearings before the committee on expenditures in the execu- tive departments, on S. 493, a bill to provide for the coordination of agencies disseminating technological and scientific informa- tion), pp. 20-21; 200-22. Wash., D.C.: U.S. Govt. Print. Off. Statement. In: National Security Act of 1947 (Hearings before the committee on expenditures in the executive departments, House of Representatives, on H. R. 2319, a bill to promote the national security), pp. 549-70. Wash., D.C.: U.S. Govt. Print. Off. Statement relative to aeronautical research and development and government policy with respect thereto. In: Stenographic Report of Proceedings, President's Air Policy Commission. Wash., D.C.: Department of Commerce. 1948 Research and strategy. Reserve Officer, 25:4-5, 22. Trends in American science. Physics Today, 1:~-7, 39. Introduction. In: Palmer C. Putnam, Power from the Wind, pp. xi- xiii. N.Y.: D. Van Nostrand. 1949 Richard Chace Tolman. Science, 109:20-21. Panel discussion. Men against nature: the problem of world produc- tion. In: Mid-Century, the Social Implications of Scientific Progress: Discussions at the Massachusetts Institute of Technol- ogy at the Mid-Century Convocation, ed. John Ely Burchard, pp. 87-95. Cambridge: Technology Press. Modern Arms And Free Men: A Discussion of the Role of Science in Preserving Democracy. N.Y.: Simon & Schuster. xiii + 273 pp. 1950 Frederick Gardner Cottrell. In: Biographical Memoirs, 27:1-11. N.Y.: Columbia Univ. Press for the National Academy of Sciences.

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VANNEVAR BUSH 1951 115 This period of transition. Electr. Eng., 70: 199-201. The atomic bomb and the defense of the free world. (Address over Mutual Broadcasting System for the Committee on the Present Danger.) Reprinted in: American Assoc. of University Professors Bull., 37:345-50. Statement. In: Weather Control and Augmented Potable Water Supply (Hearings before subcommittees of the committees on interior and insular affairs. interstate and foreign commerce, and agriculture and forestry, Senate, on S. 5, S. 22, and S. 798), pp. 148-51. Wash., D.C.: U.S. Govt. Print. Off. With l. E. Jackson. Correction of spherical error of a pendulum. I. Franklin Inst., 252:463-67. Introduction. In: Of Societies and Men, by Caryl P. Haskins. New York: W. W. Norton. pp. ix-xi. 1952 Automatic microtome. Science, 115: 649-52. Science in medicine and related fields. Med. Ann. D.C., 22: 1-6, 58. With Richard E. Hewitt. Frozen sectioning: a new and rapid method. Am. I. Pathol., 28:863-73. 1953 With Nelson A. Rockefeller, Omar N. Bradley, Milton S. Eisen- hower, Arthur S. Flemming, Robert A. Lovett, and David Sarnoff. Report of the Rockefeller Committee on Department of Defense Organization. Wash., D.C.: U.S. Govt. Print. Off. vi + 25 pp. The relation of fundamental research to engineering. American Engineer, May:13-16. Foreword. In: Algal Culture: from Laboratory to Pilot Plant, ed. John S. Burlew, pp. iii-vi. Wash., D.C.: Carnegie Institution Publication no. 600. With W. R. Duryee and J. A. Hastings. An electric micromanipu- lator. Rev. of Sci. Instrum., 24:487-89. Gano Sillick Dunn. In: Biographical Memoirs, 28:31-44. N.Y.: Columbia Univ. Press for the National Academy of Sciences.

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116 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1954 Defining the research task in government. Chemurgic Digest, 13:20. Scientific motivation. Proc. Am. Philos. Soc., 98:225-32. Testimony. In: U.S. Atomic Energy Commission: In the Matter of T. Robert Oppenheimer, pp. 560-68, 909-15. Wash., D.C.: U.S. Govt. Print. Off. Lyman J. Briggs and atomic energy. Scientific Monthly, 78:275-77. Statement. In: Organization and Administration of the Military Research and Development Programs (Hearings before a sub- committee of the committee on government operations), pp. 451- 74. Wash., D.C.: U.S. Govt. Print. Off. Science and progress? Am. Sci., 43:241-58. Karl Taylor Compton. Yearbook of the Am. Philos. Soc., pp. 409-12. 1955 Improved automatic microtome.Science, 122:119. Statement. In: Automation and Technological Change (Hearings before the subcommittee on economic stabilization of the joint committee on the economic report), pp. 604-18, 628-34. Wash., D.C.: U.S. Govt. Print. Off. Introduction. In: The World We Live In, ed. Life staff and Lincoln Barnett, pp. 1-2. N.Y.: Time, Inc. 1956 Professional collaboration. (Martin Memorial Lecture, Clinical Congress, American College of Surgeons.) Service, 125:49-54. A bandsaw for cutting thin tissue sections. J. Bone it. Surg., 38-A: 1 159-62. Proposals for Improving the Patent System (Study of the subcom- mittee on patents, trademarks, and copyrights of the committee on the judiciary, Senate, pursuant to S. Res. 167. Study No. 1~. Wash., D.C.: U.S. Govt. Print. Off. 1958 Comfort Avery Adams. In: Biographical Memoirs, 38:1-16. N.Y.: Columbia Univ. Press of the National Academy of Sciences.

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VANNEVAR BUSH 1959 117 With Dwight E. Harken, Harrison Black, Warren ]. Taylor, Wendall B. Thrower, and Harry S. Soroff. The surgical correc- tion of calcific aortic stenosis in adults. Am. J. Cardiol., 4:135~6. 1961 Testimony. Drug Industry Antitrust Act (Hearings before the sub- committee on antitrust and monopoly of the Committee on the Judiciary, Senate, pursuant to S. Res. 52 and S. Res. 1152, a bill to amend and supplant antitrust laws with respect to manufac- turing and distributing drugs). Wash., D.C.: U.S. Govt. Print. Off. 1967 Science Is Not Enough. N.Y.: William Morrow. 192 pp. 1970 Pieces of the Action. N.Y.: William Morrow. 366 pp. 1971 Scientists and their dreams. American Scientist, 59:674-77.