Wood in Our Future

Proceedings of a Symposium Environmental Implications of Wood as a Raw Material for Industrial Use

Board on Agriculture

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.
1997



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Wood in Our Future Proceedings of a Symposium Environmental Implications of Wood as a Raw Material for Industrial Use Board on Agriculture National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1997

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NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. This study was supported by the Forest Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, under Cooperative Agreement No. FP-94-2341. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project. A limited number of copies is available from: Board on Agriculture National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 Additional copies are available for sale from: National Academy Press Box 285 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20055 800-624-6242 202-334-3313 http://www.nap.edu Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 97-66726 International Standard Book Number 0-309-5745-0 Copyright 1997 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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STEERING COMMITTEE ON ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS OF WOOD AS A RAW MATERIAL FOR INDUSTRIAL USE ERIC ELLWOOD, Chair, Dean Emeritus, North Carolina State University JOHN ANTLE, Montana State University GREGORY EYRING, Energy and Materials Consultant, Washington, D.C. PETER SCHULZE, Austin College, Sherman, Texas Staff CHARLOTTE KIRK BAER, Program Officer SHIRLEY THATCHER, Senior Project Assistant

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BOARD ON AGRICULTURE DALE E. BAUMAN, Chair, Cornell University JOHN M. ANTLE, Montana State University SANDRA S. BATIE, Michigan State University MAY R. BERENBAUM, University of Illinois LEONARD S. BULL, North Carolina State University WILLIAM B. DELAUDER, Delaware State College ANTHONY S. EARL, Quarles & Brady Law Firm, Madison, Wisconsin ESSEX E. FINNEY, JR., U.S. Department of Agriculture, Mitchellville, Maryland CORNELIA FLORA, Iowa State University GEORGE R. HALLBERG, University of Iowa RICHARD R. HARWOOD, Michigan State University T. KENT KIRK, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Madison, Wisconsin HARLEY W. MOON, Iowa State University WILLIAM L. OGREN, University of Illinois GEORGE E. SEIDEL, JR., Colorado State University JOHN W. SUTTIE, University of Wisconsin JAMES J. ZUICHES, Washington State University PAUL GILMAN, Executive Director MICHAEL J. PHILLIPS, Director

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PREFACE At the request of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Forest Service, the Board on Agriculture convened a symposium on "Environmental Implications of Wood as a Raw Material for Industrial Use" in March 1996 to explore issues related to the use of life-cycle analysis methodologies. Ten symposium papers are included in this report and they address several major topics: critical analysis of strengths and weaknesses of life-cycle methodologies; emerging issues related to life-cycle assessments of environmental impacts of wood used as a raw material; global perspectives, including methodologies used in other countries; and potential impacts of methodologies on public policy and international standardization. The ten papers in this report, as well as the round table rapporteur's perspectives, reflect the authors' viewpoints and do not represent general overall opinions or findings of the symposium steering committee and symposium participants. ERIC ELLWOOD JOHN ANTLE GREGORY EYRING PETER SCHULZE SYMPOSIUM STEERING COMMITTEE

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The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is acting president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and interim vice-chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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CONTENTS Overview Eric Ellwood, Symposium Steering Committee   1 Proceedings     1   Life-Cycle Thinking for Wood and Paper Products Bernard Yaros   11 2   Committee on Renewable Resources for Industrial Materials: a Look Back and Consideration of the Future James Bethel and James Bowyer   17 3   Assessing Environmental Impacts of Wood Used As a Raw Material in North America Derek R. Augood   27 4   European Assessment Methodologies Jacques Besnainou   36 5   International Organization for Standardization: Environmental Management Systems Standards Lynne Anderson   47

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6   Industrial Marketplace Product Decision Making Mark Eisen   52 7   Life-Cycle Assessment for Paper Products Richard A. Denison   54 8   Consumer Acceptance of Environmental Labeling on Wood Products Stanley P. Rhodes   69 9   Environmental Impact Assessment Applied to Decision Making Sergio F. Galeano   77 10   Policies Today and for the Future William F. Hyde   92 11   Working Group Summary and Round Table Discussion   101     Working Group Discussion Summary   101     Round Table Discussion   103     Seventh American Forest Congress William Bentley   104     Certification and Standards Frederick W. Cubbage   105     Life-Cycle Assessment and Certification Bob Glowinski   111     Implications of Life-Cycle Concepts Joseph Fiksel   112 Appendixes     1   Annex 1: Life-Cycle Stressor Effects Assessment   117 2   Symposium Program   124     Moderators   124     Breakout Group Leaders   124     Round Table Panel   124     Program   125

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TABLES AND FIGURES Tables 1-1   Typical composition of wood   12 1-2   Typical ranges for wood calorific values   14 2-1   Net U.S. imports of selected materials as a percentage of apparent consumption, and by major foreign sources   23 3-1   Impact categories and chains   31 3-2   Sample impact matrix   32 3-3   Hazard potential   32 3-4   Hypothetical valuation structure   34 4-1   Environmental problem types   44 7-1   Environmental parameters examined for the recycled- and virgin-fiber-based systems   58 7-2   Energy, air emissions, solid waste outputs, waterborne wastes, and water use associated with component activities of three methods for managing newsprint   67 8-1   ISO Type III label performance indicators   76 9-1   Assessment methods for elements in the product system model   82 9-2   Enhancements to the life-cycle inventory   89 Figures 1-1   Materials flows in the wood and paper products system   13 3-1   Flow of materials and products associated with lumber   29 3-2   Equivalence factors for acid gas emissions impacts in the continental United States   33 4-1   System boundaries   38 4-2   Steps in the forest system boundary   39 4-3   A tree and its environment: main physical inflows and outflows   40 7-1   Total, purchased, and fossil fuel energy use for component activities of paper production and management   61 7-2   Average energy use and environmental releases for managing newsprint by recycled production + recycling vs. virgin production + waste management (landfilling and incineration)   62 8-1   Forest Conservation Program label   74 8-2   Eco-Profile label   75 9-1   Model for the product system   81 9-2   Product stewardship   88 9-3   Expanded product responsibility within the sustainable development structure   89 A-1   Useful components of a life-cycle inventory   119

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THE STEERING COMMITTEE ACKNOWLEDGES the outstanding contributions of all symposium speakers and participants representing academia, industry, environmental organizations, professional societies, and other associations throughout North America and Europe. Special thanks is extended to Frank Beall and Joseph Fiksel for their service and coordination of the symposium program.

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