REVIEW OF THE RESEARCH PROGRAM OF THE PARTNERSHIP FOR A NEW GENERATION OF VEHICLES

THIRD REPORT

Standing Committee to Review the Research Program of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles

Board on Energy and Environmental Systems

Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems

Transportation Research Board

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.
1997



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Review of the Research Program of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles: Third Report REVIEW OF THE RESEARCH PROGRAM OF THE PARTNERSHIP FOR A NEW GENERATION OF VEHICLES THIRD REPORT Standing Committee to Review the Research Program of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles Board on Energy and Environmental Systems Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems Transportation Research Board National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1997

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Review of the Research Program of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles: Third Report NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, DC 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is interim president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and interim vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. This report and the study on which it is based were supported by Contract No. DTNH22-94-G-07414 from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for the project. Library of Congress Catalog Number: 97-66882 International Standard Book Number: 0-309-05776-0 Available for sale from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Box 285 Washington, DC 20055 800-6242 or 202-334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area) http://www.nap.edu Copyright 1997 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America

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Review of the Research Program of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles: Third Report STANDING COMMITTEE TO REVIEW THE RESEARCH PROGRAM OF THE PARTNERSHIP FOR A NEW GENERATION OF VEHICLES TREVOR O. JONES (chair), NAE,1 Echlin, Incorporated, Cleveland, Ohio R. GARY DIAZ, formerly with Case Corporation, Racine, Wisconsin DAVID E. FOSTER, University of Wisconsin, Madison DAVID F. HAGEN, Michigan Center for High Technology, Detroit SIMONE HOCHGREB, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge FRITZ KALHAMMER, Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, California JOHN G. KASSAKIAN, NAE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge HAROLD H.C. KUNG, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois CRAIG MARKS, NAE, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor JOHN SCOTT NEWMAN, University of California, Berkeley JEROME G. RIVARD, NAE, Global Technology and Business Development, Harrison Township, Michigan VERNON P. ROAN, University of Florida, Palm Beach Gardens SUPRAMANIAM SRINIVASAN, Texas A&M University, College Station F. BLAKE WALLACE, (retired), Allison Engine Company, Indianapolis, Indiana Subgroup on Nonelectrochemical Storage Devices DAVID HAGEN (chair) CRAIG MARKS JEROME G. RIVARD Subgroup on Electrical Systems and Systems Analysis JEROME G. RIVARD (chair) R. GARY DIAZ JOHN G. KASSAKIAN Subgroup on Batteries and Ultracapacitors SUPRAMANIAM SRINIVASAN (chair) FRITZ KALHAMMER JOHN NEWMAN VERNON P. ROAN 1    NAE = National Academy of Engineering.

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Review of the Research Program of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles: Third Report Subgroup on Fuel Cells SUPRAMANIAM SRINIVASAN (chair) SIMONE HOCHGREB FRITZ KALHAMMER HAROLD H.C. KUNG JOHN NEWMAN VERNON P. ROAN Subgroup on Compression Ignition Direct Injection (CIDI) Engines CRAIG MARKS (chair) DAVID E. FOSTER DAVID HAGEN SIMONE HOCHGREB HAROLD H.C. KUNG Subgroup on Gas Turbines VERNON P. ROAN (chair) R. GARY DIAZ CRAIG MARKS F. BLAKE WALLACE Subgroup on Stirling Engines CRAIG MARKS (chair) TREVOR O. JONES JEROME G. RIVARD Project Staff JAMES ZUCCHETTO, director, Board on Energy and Environmental Systems (BEES) NAN HUMPHREY, senior program officer, Transportation Research Board SUSANNA E. CLARENDON, senior project assistant, BEES

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Review of the Research Program of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles: Third Report BOARD ON ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS ROBERT L. HIRSCH (chair), Energy Technology Collaborative, Incorporated, Washington, D.C. RICHARD MESERVE (vice chair), Covington & Burling, Washington, D.C. JAN BEYEA, consultant, National Audubon Society, and Consulting in the Public Interest, Islip, New York E. GAIL DE PLANQUE, former commissioner of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Potomac, Maryland LINDA C. DOLAN, Martin Marietta Electronics and Missiles, Orlando, Florida WILLIAM FULKERSON, (retired), Oak Ridge National Laboratories, and University of Tennessee, Knoxville JACQUES GANSLER, The Analytical Sciences Corporation, Arlington, Virginia ROY G. GORDON, Harvard University. Cambridge, Massachusetts FRANCOIS E. HEUZE, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California LAWRENCE T. PAPAY, NAE, Bechtel Group, Inc., San Francisco, California RUTH A. RECK, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois JOEL SPIRA, NAE, Lutron Electronics Company, Inc., Coopersburg, Pennsylvania JAMES SWEENEY, Stanford University, Stanford, California IRVIN WHITE, UTECH, Inc., Fairfax, Virginia Liaison Members from the Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems RICHARD A. CONWAY, NAE, Union Carbide Corporation, South Charleston, West Virginia JERRY SCHUBEL, New England Aquarium, Boston, Massachusetts Staff JAMES ZUCCHETTO, director JILL WILSON, senior program officer TRACY WILSON, senior program officer SUSANNA CLARENDON, administrative assistant

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Review of the Research Program of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles: Third Report Acknowledgments The committee wishes to thank all the members of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles who contributed significantly of their time and effort to this National Research Council study, whether by giving presentations at meetings, providing responses to committee requests for information, or hosting site visits. The committee also acknowledges the valuable contributions of organizations outside the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles, including those from outside the United States, who provided information on advanced vehicle technologies and development initiatives. Finally, the chairman wishes to recognize the committee members and the staff of the Board on Energy and Environmental Systems of the National Research Council for their hard work during the meetings and for their individual efforts in gathering information and writing sections of the report.

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Review of the Research Program of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles: Third Report Acronyms Ah ampere hour ARPA Advanced Research Projects Agency ATP Advanced Technology Program CIDI compression ignition direct injection CNG compressed natural gas CO carbon monoxide CO2 carbon dioxide CRADA cooperative research and development agreement DISI direct injected spark ignited DME dimethyl ether DOC U.S. Department of Commerce DOD U.S. Department of Defense DOE U.S. Department of Energy DOT U.S. Department of Transportation EGR exhaust-gas recirculation EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency GREET greenhouse gases, regulated emissions and energy in transportation HC hydrocarbons HEUI hydraulic electronic unit injection

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Review of the Research Program of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles: Third Report HEV hybrid electric vehicle HSDI high speed direct injection HVAC heating, ventilation, and air conditioning kWh kilowatt hour LEV low-emission vehicle MPFI multi-port fuel injection mV millivolt NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NDE nondestructive evaluation NOx nitrogen oxides NSF National Science Foundation NRC National Research Council OBD on-board diagnostics OEM original equipment manufacturer PEBB power electronic building block PEM proton exchange membrane PEMFC proton exchange membrane fuel cell PM particulate matter PNGV Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles ppm parts per million R&D research and development SIDI spark ignition direct injection SOx oxides of sulfur SWRI Southwest Research Institute TACOM Tank Automotive Command ULEV ultra-low emission vehicle USABC U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium USCAR United States Council for Automotive Research VOCs volatile organic compounds VW Volkswagen ZEV zero emission vehicle

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Review of the Research Program of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles: Third Report Contents     HIGHLIGHTS   1     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   8 1   INTRODUCTION   31     References,   36 2   GOALS 1 AND 2   37     Goal 1,   37     Goal 2,   40     References,   43 3   SYSTEMS ANALYSIS   44     Program Description and Requirements,   44     Current Status,   45     Adequacy of the Program,   47     Recommendations,   48     References,   49 4   POWERTRAIN DEVELOPMENTS   50     Candidate Systems,   50     Four-Stroke Compression Ignition Direct Injection Engines,   51     Gas Turbines,   58     Stirling Engines,   62     Fuel Cells,   64

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Review of the Research Program of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles: Third Report     Batteries,   69     Flywheels,   76     Ultracapacitors,   78     Electrical and Electronic Power-Conversion Devices,   80     References,   84 5   MAJOR MANUFACTURING CONSIDERATIONS FOR GOAL 3   86     Plans for 1996,   86     Progress in 1996,   86     Plans for 1997,   88     Assessment,   88     Recommendation,   89 6   OUTSTANDING PROGRAM ISSUES   90     Infrastructure,   90     Technology Downselect Process,   95     Post-Downselect Issues,   96     Leverage of Foreign Technology Developments,   98     Major Technical Achievements and Barriers,   101     Adequacy and Balance of the PNGV Program,   106     References,   110 7   PNGV RESPONSE TO PHASE 2 REPORT   111     References,   114     APPENDICES         A Biographical Sketches   117     B Committee Meetings and Other Activities   123     C Recommendations from the Phase 2 Report   131     D Letters from PNGV and the U.S. Department of Transportation regarding Phase 2 Report   135     E Brief Background on Powertrains   143

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Review of the Research Program of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles: Third Report List of Tables H-1   Potential of PNGV Candidate Technologies and Assessment of Research Progress,   2 ES-1   Potential of PNGV Candidate Technologies and Assessment of Research Progress,   24 ES-2   PNGV's Presentation to Committee on Assessment of Major Barriers and Program Needs,   26 3-1   Systems Analysis Benchmarking Configurations,   46 4-1   CIDI Engine Critical Characteristics versus PNGV Milestone Targets,   53 4-2   PNGV Emission Targets and Standards,   54 4-3   Battery Target Comparison,   69 4-4   PNGV Design Targets for Short-Term Energy Storage,   70 6-1   Potential of PNGV Candidate Technologies and Assessment of Research Progress,   102 6-2   PNGV's Presentation to Committee on Assessment of Major Barriers and Program Needs,   104 7-1   Potential of PNGV Candidate Technologies in the Committee's Second Report,   112

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