Deep scientific ideas are exceedingly simple; others usually see them as trivial.

and, finally:

Choose a final project to outlast you.

For Allen, Soar was that project.


  • 1.  

    In preparing this account of Allen Newell's life I have drawn heavily on a briefer memorial (Simon, 1993) published in Artificial Intelligence and on a more complete one published by John Laird and Paul Rosenbloom (1992) in AI Magazine. Newell's papers are deposited in the Archives of Hunt Library at Carnegie Mellon University, where can also be found the transcripts of lengthy interviews with Newell by Pamela McCorduck, which were used extensively in her Machines Who Think (1979), and by Arthur L. Norberg, who interviewed Newell about his activities in connection with ARPA.

  • 2.  

    This talk was videotaped and is available by writing to University Video Communications, P.O. Box 5129, Stanford CA 94309.

  • 3.  

    Although, for reasons that are no longer obvious, Cliff Shaw was not a coauthor of this paper; he was a full partner in the entire research effort.


Ashby, W. R. 1952. Design for a Brain. New York: Wiley.

Bell, C. G., and A. Newell. 1971. Computer Structures: Readings and Examples. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Bell, C. G., W. Broadley, W. Wulf, A. Newell, C. Pierson, R. Reddy, and S. Rege. 1971. C.mmp: The CMU Multiminiprocessor Computer: Requirements, Overview of the Structure, Performance, Cost and Schedule. Technical Report, Computer Science Department, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh.

Berkeley, E. C. 1949. Giant Brains, or Machines That Think. New York: Wiley.

Bowden, B. V., ed. 1953. Faster Than Thought. New York: Pitman. (Contains Turing's description of a chess-playing program.)

Card, S., T. P. Moran, and A. Newell. 1983. The Psychology of Human-Computer Interaction. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum.

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