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--> J. ROBERT OPPENHEIMER April 22, 1904-February 18, 1967 BY H. A. BETHE J. ROBERT OPPENHEIMER died on 18 February 1967 in Princeton, N.J. More than any other man, he was responsible for issuing American theoretical physics from a provincial adjunct of Europe to world leadership. Robert Oppenheimer was born on 22 April 1904 in New York. His father, who had come to the United States from Germany at the age of 17, was a prosperous textile importer. By inheritance, Robert was well-to-do all his life. The father was quite active in many community affairs, and much interested in art and music. He had a good collection of paintings, including three Van Goghs. Oppenheimer's mother, Ella Freedman, came from Baltimore. She was a painter who had studied in Paris, and was a very sensitive person. Robert had one younger brother, Frank, who also became a physicist; he is Professor of Experimental Physics at the University of Colorado, Boulder, Colo. Oppenheimer had close ties both with his parents and his brother. As a boy, Robert was already most interested in matters of Reprinted from Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of The Royal Society (14:391-416) with permission of The Royal Society.
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--> the mind. He attended the Ethical Culture School in New York, one of the best in the city. He was more interested in his homework, in poetry and in science than in mixing with other boys. He has said, 'It is characteristic that I do not remember any of my classmates.' Already at the age of 5, Robert collected mineralogical specimens, some of which came from his grandfather in Germany. By the time he was 11 years old his collection was so good and his knowledge so extensive that he was admitted to membership in the Mineralogical Club in New York. He entered Harvard in 1922 intending to become a chemist, but soon switched to physics. It was characteristic of him not to abandon a subject once he had become interested. Familiarity with chemistry was very useful to him in his Los Alamos days when purification of fissionable materials was one of the main problems of the laboratory. He also retained a lifetime affection for Harvard University, where he was a Member of the Board of Overseers from 1949 to 1955. At Harvard he was strongly influenced by Professor Percy W. Bridgman, a great and very original experimental physicist. Apart from this, he kept much to himself and devoured knowledge. 'I had a real chance to learn,' he said. 'I loved it. I almost came alive. I took more courses than I was supposed to, lived in the library stacks, just raided the place intellectually.' In addition to studying physics and chemistry, he learned Latin and Greek and was graduated summa cum laude in 1925, having taken three years for the normal four-year course. His work for the Ph.D. was even more astonishingly rapid: two years sufficed while the present average time required in the United States is four to five years. After his B.A. degree he travelled for four years to the great centres of physics in Europe. The year 1925 to 1926
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--> he spent at Cambridge University, where he was exposed to the great personality of Lord Rutherford. It was the time when Heisenberg, Born and Schroedinger were developing quantum mechanics. Robert was fascinated and immediately accepted when an invitation came from Max Born to work with him at Gottingen. Here he took his Ph.D. in the spring of 1927. Next he became a Fellow of the National Research Council, first at Harvard University, then at the California Institute of Technology. In the year 1928 to 1929, he was a Fellow of the International Education Board and visited Leiden and Zurich. He worked with Professor Pauli, an association which greatly influenced his further scientific life. On his return to the United States in 1929, Oppenheimer received many offers of positions. He accepted two and became an Assistant Professor in Physics, simultaneously at the University of California in Berkeley and at the California Institute of Technology. In the ensuing 13 years, he 'commuted' between the two places, spending the fall and winter in Berkeley, and the spring term, beginning in April, in Pasadena. Many of his associates and students commuted with him. It was here, in Berkeley, that he created his great School of Theoretical Physics. The majority of the best American theoretical physicists who grew up in those years were trained by Oppenheimer at one stage of their lives. Many were his graduate students, others came to him as Post-doctoral Fellows. They affectionately called him 'Oppie'. His teaching, his style and his example formed the scientific attitude of all of them. EARLY SCIENTIFIC WORK Oppenheimer was most fortunate to enter physics in 1925, just when modern quantum mechanics came into being.
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--> While he was too young to take part in its formulation, he was one of the first to use it for the exploration of problems which had been insoluble with the old quantum theory. In 1927, he wrote with Born a famous paper on the 'Quantum theory of molecules'. In this they showed how to separate the problem into one describing the motion of the electrons around fixed nuclei, and another to describe the motion (vibrations and rotation) of the nuclear skeleton. Their method still forms the basis of any treatment of molecules. Oppenheimer's main interest until 1929 was the theory of continuous spectra. This was unexplored territory. He had to develop the method to normalize the eigen-functions in the continuous spectrum, and to do calculations of transition probabilities. Here as well as later in his work, his great knowledge of mathematical tools was most useful. He calculated the photoelectric effect for hydrogen and for X-rays. Even today this is a complicated calculation, beyond the scope of most quantum mechanics textbooks. Naturally, his calculations were later improved upon, but he correctly obtained the absorption coefficient at the K edge and the frequency dependence in its neighbourhood. It was disturbing that his theory, while agreeing well with measurements of X-ray absorption coefficients, did not seem to be in accord with the opacity of hydrogen in the sun. This, however, was the fault of the limited understanding of the solar atmosphere in 1926. It was then believed that the sun consisted mostly of heavy elements from oxygen on up, like the earth. Many years later, Strömgren suggested that the main constituent was hydrogen. This brought Oppenheimer's calculations of opacity into agreement with astrophysical data. Nowadays the opacity, calculated essentially on the lines of 'Oppie's' theory, is one of the main ingredients of all understanding of stellar interiors. In the course of his calcula-
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--> tion of opacity, he also calculated the bremsstrahlung from electrons in the field of nuclei. His work with the nuclear physicists at Cambridge motivated him to calculate the capture of electrons by ions from other atoms, i.e. such charge exchange processes as He2+ + H = He+ + H+ (1) For this work he had to develop a method for the treatment of collision processes involving non-orthogonal save functions. This work led him on to a treatment of the ionization of the hydrogen atom by electric fields, probably the first paper describing the penetration of a potential barrier, well before the theory of the alpha disintegration. Discussions with Millikan and Lauritsen at CalTech who had just observed the extraction of electrons from metal surfaces by very strong electric fields, motivated him to extend his theory to a description of this effect (1928). Studying collisions between electrons and atoms, using the Born approximation, he pointed out that the incident electron can exchange with the atomic electron. This effect is indeed important for the understanding of the scattering of low energy electrons from such atoms as helium, as well as in high energy collisions. He could also make mistakes: he believed that exchange could explain the Ramsauer effect while actually this effect is due to the fact that an integral number of half-waves fit into the atom. THE BERKELEY PERIOD Pauli, who all his life emphasized the problems at the very frontier of physics, exerted a lasting influence on Oppenheimer. As the frontier shifted from ordinary quantum mechanics to the relativistic quantum mechanics of
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--> Dirac, and the theory of electromagnetic fields, the work of Oppenheimer and his great school in Berkeley became chiefly devoted to these subjects. As early as 1930, Oppenheimer wrote a fundamental paper which essentially predicted the positive electron. One year before, Dirac had reinterpreted the negative energy solutions of his relativistic equation for the electron as indicating the existence of positive charges. Dirac had believed that these were protons. Oppenheimer showed, by very cogent arguments involving symmetry, that the positive charges could not have the mass of the proton, but must have the same mass as the electron. This implicitly predicted the existence of the positron which was discovered three years later. Unfortunately Oppie was prevented from drawing this conclusion by his skepticism concerning the validity of the Dirac equation, a skepticism which had been engendered by another calculation (with Harvey Hall, his student) on the photoelectric effect at high energies, which appeared to disagree with experiment. Also in 1930, Oppenheimer investigated radiative transitions, making use of the newly developed quantum electrodynamics of Pauli and Heisenberg. He had hoped that the infinite perturbations which Heisenberg and Pauli had found in their theory would not occur in observable processes like the scattering of light. To his disappointment they did. Only the mass renormalization of the late 1940's permitted physicists to eliminate these troubles. His association with the CalTech experimenters stimulated him to calculate the energy loss of relativistic electrons (1932, with his student Carlson). Their result has proved correct but, at the time, it was believed in contradiction with the evidence from cosmic radiation. In 1933, cosmic radiation yielded the first new particle: Carl Anderson at CalTech discovered the positron which Oppie had almost
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--> predicted three years earlier. Oppie immediately proceeded to calculate the cross section for production of positrons at low energy, with his student Milton Plesset. His great knowledge of the continuous spectrum wave functions in the Coulomb field was most useful for this purpose. A more thorough theory with Nedelsky followed. A little later, he extended the theory of electron pair production to a theory of the showers which are such a prominent phenomenon in cosmic radiation. It had been pointed out by Nordheim, Heitler and Bhabha that these showers could be explained as follows: electrons emit electromagnetic radiation (gamma rays) and these gamma rays in turn produce electron pairs in the electric field of atomic nuclei. Oppenheimer, with his associates Carlson and H. Snyder, developed a most elegant mathematical theory of the multiplicity of air showers, a masterpiece of mathematical treatment of a physical phenomena. All the time, however, Oppenheimer was worried about the likely breakdown of quantum electrodynamics at energies above 137 mc2. Indeed, laboratory experiments on the penetration of cosmic ray particles through slabs of lead and similar substances seemed to indicate this breakdown very clearly, provided the particles were electrons. It was only in 1937 that it was discovered that the particles were in fact not electrons but mesons. While most physicists were troubled by the supposed breakdown, it dominated Oppie's thoughts, more than anybody else's and he impressed his worries on his students. A number of his papers deal with this problem. We know now that there is no such breakdown and that in fact quantum electrodynamics holds at least up to about a hundred times this energy, probably higher. Oppie was also very active in other aspects of fundamental quantum theory. In 1931, he attempted to get a first-
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--> order differential equation for light quanta, similar to Dirac's equation for the electron. He failed, but in the process recognized the fundamental difference between particles of spin one-half and of integral spin. This was later a basis of Pauli's theory of the relation between spin and statistics. In 1934, with Furry, he developed a field theory of the Dirac equation, treating electrons and positrons as of equal status. This paper contains essentially the modern form of the electron-positron theory. He was much concerned with other consequences of the existence of the positron. He and his collaborators found that the observable charge of the electron is not the true charge, foreshadowing charge renormalization. They pointed out the effect of vacuum polarization by virtual pairs of electrons and positrons being formed in strong electric fields. Similar ideas were simultaneously discussed by Dirac and others, but the most explicit calculation of vacuum polarization was made by Oppenheimer's student, Uehling. In 1937 Anderson and others discovered the meson which had been predicted two years earlier by Yukawa in an effort to explain nuclear forces. Making use of Yukawa's theory, Oppie had suggested that the 'hard component' of cosmic rays, i.e. that which penetrates to sea-level, might consist of mesons which, being much heavier than electrons, would have greater penetrating power, while the soft component was interpreted as electrons and positrons, on the basis of the success of shower theory. Now, after Anderson's discovery, he immediately turned his attention to the properties of mesons. Oppenheimer and two of his students, Christy and Kusaka, showed that the meson could not have a spin of 1 or greater, because otherwise it would radiate too fast when penetrating underground. Oppie carefully discussed why he believed the theory of radiation to be valid in this case.
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--> With Serber, he discussed the production of mesons from primary cosmic rays in the upper atmosphere. With Christy, he postulated that together with the penetrating, charged mesons, other particles should be produced in the upper atmosphere which have a short life and then decay into gamma rays, thus giving rise to the soft component of cosmic rays. In 1947 he postulated that these intermediate particles are neutral mesons (π°), well before the discovery of that particle. Both at Berkeley under Ernest Lawrence, and at Pasadena under Lauritsen, experimental nuclear physics was developing rapidly. Oppenheimer and his students turned their attention to this field from 1933 on. He calculated the excitation function for collisions between protons and nuclei, thus helping much in the interpretation of experiments. His most important contribution was the 'Oppenheimer-Phillips process' in which a deuteron, entering a heavy nucleus, is split into proton and neutron, one of these particles being retained by the nucleus while the other is re-emitted. He gave the first quantitative description of this very prominent process which after the war became an important tool in the study of nucleon energy levels and their properties. He also calculated the density of nuclear energy levels, the nuclear photo-effect and the properties of nuclear resonances. When Lauritsen observed that fluorine, bombarded with protons, gave electron pairs, Oppenheimer contributed much to the explanation: the nuclear reaction is 19F + H = 16O* + 4H (2) 16O is formed in an excited state of angular momentum 0. By selection rules a transition from such a state to the ground
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--> state can most easily be accomplished by converting a virtual gamma ray into a pair of electrons. At Pasadena one of the most important activities was astronomy, through the Mount Wilson Observatory. Richard Tolman worked on general relativity. Oppenheimer became interested in neutron stars, and with Snyder, in the gravitational contraction of massive stars until they disappear from observability. In 1940 and 1941, Oppenheimer's attention was turned to meson theory and the attempt to explain nuclear forces by mesons. He attempted to deal with strong coupling, using his own theories as well as that of Wentzel. He predicted the existence of nucleon isobars with an excitation energy slightly below the rest energy of the meson. In addition to this massive scientific work, Oppenheimer created the greatest school of theoretical physics that the United States has ever known. Before him, theoretical physics in America was a fairly modest enterprise, although there were a few outstanding representatives. Probably the most important ingredient he brought to his teaching was his exquisite taste. He always knew what were the important problems, as shown by his choice of subjects. He truly lived with these problems, struggling for a solution, and he communicated his concern to his group. In its heyday, there were about eight or ten graduate students in his group and about six Post-doctoral Fellows. He met this group once a day in his office, and discussed with one after another the status of the student's research problem. He was interested in everything, and in one afternoon they might discuss quantum electrodynamics, cosmic rays, electron pair production and nuclear physics. In his classroom teaching he always applied the highest standards. He was much influenced by Pauli's article in the Handbuch de Physik, which provided the deepest understanding
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--> of quantum mechanics then and even now. Among his students was Leonard Schiff who incorporated much of Oppenheimer's spirit into his excellent textbook on quantum mechanics. New problems were constantly introduced into the quantum mechanics lectures. The lectures were never easy but they gave his students a feeling of the beauty of the subject and conveyed his excitement about its development. Almost every student went through his course more than once. Oppie saw much of his students and associates after working hours. He would frequently treat them to an exquisite dinner in San Francisco, or to a less ambitious one in a Mexican restaurant in Oakland. His most constant collaborator of these years, Serber, writes of these excursions: 'One should remember that these were post-depression days when students were poor. The world of good food, good wines and gracious living was far from the experience of many of them, and Oppie was introducing them to an unfamiliar way of life. We acquired something of his tastes. We went to concerts together and listened to chamber music. Oppie and Arnold Nordsieck read Plato in the original Greek. During many evening parties we drank, talked and danced until late, and, when Oppie was supplying the food, the novices suffered from the hot chilli that social example required them to eat.' The magnetism and force of his personality was such that many of his students copied his gestures and mannerisms. Among his students, in addition to those already mentioned, were Fritz Kalckar, George Volkoff, Sid Dancoff, Phil Morrison,Joe Keller, Willis Lamb, Bernard Peters, Bill Rarita, and many others. As Oppenheimer himself has written: 'As the number of students increased, so in general did their quality. The men who worked with me during those years held chairs in many of the great centers of physics in the
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--> 1930. Note on the theory of the interaction of field and matter. Phys. Rev. 35, 461-477. 1930. On the theory of electrons and protons. Phys. Rev. 35, 562-563. 1930. Two notes on the probability of radiative transitions. Phys. Rev. 35, 939-947. 1931. Selection rules and the angular momentum of light quanta. Phys. Rev. 37, 231. 1931. Note on the statistics of nuclei. Phys. Rev. 37, 232-233. 1931. (With P. Ehrenfest.) Note on the statistics of nuclei. Phys. Rev. 37, 333-338. 1931. (With Harvey Hall.) Relativistic theory of the photoelectric effect by Harvey Hall: Part II--Photoelectric absorption of ultragamma radiation. Phys. Rev. 38, 57-79. 1931. Note on light quanta and the electromagnetic field. Phys. Rev. 38, 725-746. 1931. (With J. F. Carlson.) On the range of fast electrons and neutrons. Phys. Rev. 38, 1787-1788 (1931); (Abstract) Phys. Rev. 39, 864-865. (1932.) 1932. (With J. F. Carlson.) Impacts of fast electrons and magnetic neutrons. Phys. Rev. 41, 763-792. 1933. Disintegration of lithium by protons. Phys. Rev. 43, 380. 1933. (With M. S. Plesset.) The production of the positive electron. Phys. Rev. 44, 53-55. 1933. (With Leo Nedelsky.) The production of positives by nuclear gamma-rays. Phys. Rev. 44, 948-949; (Abstract) Phys. Rev. 45, 136. (1934); (Errata) Phys. Rev. 45, 283. (1934.) 1934. (With W. H. Furry.) On the theory of the electron and positive. Phys. Rev. 45, 245-262: (Letter) Phys. Rev. 45, 343-344. 1934. The theory of the electron and positives. Phys. Rev. 45, 290. 1934. (With W. H. Furry.) On the limitation of the theory of the positron. Phys. Rev. 45, 903-904. 1934. (With C. C. Lauritsen.) On the scattering of Th C" gamma-rays. Phys. Rev. 46, 80-81. 1935. Are the formulae for the absorption of high energy radiation valid? Phys. Rev. 47, 44-52.
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--> 1935. Note on charge and field fluctuations. Phys. Rev. 47, 144-145. 1935. Notes on the production of pairs by charged particles. Phys. Rev. 47, 146-147. 1935. The disintegration of the deuteron by impact. Phys. Rev. 47, 845-846. 1935. (With M. Phillips.) Note on the transmutation function for deuterons. Phys. Rev. 48, 500-502. 1936. On the elementary interpretation of showers and bursts. Phys. Rev. 50, 389. 1936. (With Robert Serber.) The density of nuclear levels. Phys. Rev. 50, 391. 1937. (With J. F. Carlson.) On multiplicative showers. Phys. Rev. 51, 220-231. 1937. (With G. Nordheim, L. W. Nordheim & R. Serber.) The disintegration of high energy protons. Phys. Rev. 51, 1037-1045. 1937. (With R. Serber.) Note on the nature of cosmic ray particles. Phys. Rev. 51, 1113. 1937. (With F. Kalckar & R. Serber.) Note on nuclear photo effect at high energies. Phys. Rev. 45, 273-278. 1937. (With F. Kalckar & R. Serber.) Note on resonances in transmutations of light nuclei. Phys. Rev. 52, 279-282. 1938. (With R. Serber.) Note on boron plus proton reactions. Phys. Rev. 53, 636-638. 1938. (With R. Serber.) On the stability of stellar neutron cores. Phys. Rev. 54, 540. 1939. (With G. M. Volkoff.) On massive neutron cores. Phys. Rev. 55, 374-381. 1939. (With H. Snyder.) On continued gravitational contraction. Phys. Rev. 56, 455-459. 1939. (With J. S. Schwinger.) On pair emission in the proton bombardment of fluorine. Phys. Rev. 56, 1066-1067. 1939. In behaviour of high energy electrons in cosmic radiation by C. G. Montgomery and D. C. Montgomery; Discussion by J. R. Oppenheimer. Rev. Mod. Phys. 11, 264-266. 1939. Celebration of the sixtieth birthday of Albert Einstein. Science 89, 335.
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--> 1940. (With H. Snyder & R. Serber.) The production of soft secondaries by mesotrons. Phys. Rev. 57, 75-81. 1940. On the applicability of quantum theory to mesotron collisions. Phys. Rev. 57, 353. 1941. On the spin of the mesotron. Phys. Rev. 59, 462. 1941. On the selection rules in beta-decay. Phys. Rev. 59, 908. 1941. (With J. Schwinger.) On the interaction of mesotrons and nuclei. Phys. Rev. 60, 150-152. 1941. Internal conversion in photosynthesis. Phys. Rev. 60, 158. 1941. (With R. Christy.) The high energy soft component of cosmic rays. Phys. Rev. 60, 159. 1941. (With E. C. Nelson.) Multiple production of mesotrons by protons. Phys. Rev. 60, 159-160. 1941. On the internal pairs from oxygen. Phys. Rev. 60, 164. 1941. The mesotron and the quantum theory of fields. In: Enrico Fermi et al., Nuclear physics, Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press, pp. 39-50. 1942. (With E. C. Nelson.) Pair theory of meson scattering. Phys. Rev. 61, 202. 1946. (With H. A. Bethe.) Reaction of radiation on electron scattering and Heitler's theory of radiation damping. Phys. Rev. 70, 451-457. 1948. (With H. W. Lewis & S. A. Wouthuysen.) The multiple production of mesons. Phys. Rev. 73, 127-140. 1948. (With S. T. Epstein & R. J. Finkelstein.) Note on stimulated decay of negative mesons. Phys. Rev. 73, 1140-1141. 1949. Discussions on the disintegration and nuclear absorption of mesons. Remarks on j-decay. Rev. Mod. Phys. 21, 34-35. 1950. (With William Arnold.) Internal conversion in the photosynthetic mechanism of blue green algae. J. Gen. Physiology 33, 423-435. LECTURES, SPEECHES, BROADCASTS AND NEWSPAPER ARTICLES 1944a. Cosmic rays: Report of recent progress. Univ. of California. 1945a. The atomic age. N.Y. Philharmonic Symphony Hour. 1945b. Atomic weapons. American Phil. Society and National Academy of Sciences. 1945c. The bomb and the world. National Policy Comm. Conference.
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--> 1946a. The turn of the screw. F.A.S. Book, One World or None. 1946b. The atom bomb and college education. University of Pennsylvania. 1946c. Atomic explosives. Westinghouse Century Forum, pubd. N. Y. Times. 1946d. Scientific information to USAEC, UNAEC, Bibliography. 1946e. The scientist in contemporary society. Princeton Univ. Bicentennial Broadcast. 1946f. The new weapon. One World or None. (F.A.S.) 1946g. International control of atomic energy. Bulletin of Atomic Scientists; Foreign Affairs; Seven Minutes to midnight, pubd. Basic Books, Inc., N.Y. 1947a. Richtmeyer Lecture, APS and AA Physics Teachers' Meeting, pubd. Science Service Wire Report. 1947b. Scientific foundations for world order. Denver Univ. pubd. pamphlet form and in book, Foundations for world order, Univ. of Denver. 1947c. Functions of International Agency in Research and Development. Condensed version in Bulletin of Atomic Scientists. 1947d. Atomic energy as a contemporary problem. National War College. 1947e. Physics in the contemporary world. M.I.T. 1948a. Some aspects of the problems of atomic energy. N.Y. Bar Association. 1948b. Physical research in the near future. Cooper Union, N.Y. 1948c. The growth of understanding of the atomic world. Princeton University. 1948d. Multiple production of meson. Lewis-Oppenheimer-Wouthuysen, P.R. 73, 127. 1948e. Concluding remarks to cosmic ray symposium. CalTech. 1948f. Notes on science and practice. Harvard University, Lawrence Science School. 1949a. Some thoughts on the place of science in today's world. Smith College Lecture. 1949b. Statements for March of time (Movies). 1949c. Letter to Senator McMahon. Bulletin of Atomic Scientists. 1949d. Discovery and application of sources of nuclear energy. Johns Hopkins Univ.
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--> 1950a. Response. In Fateful decision, NBC Program, pubd. Bulletin of Atomic Scientists. 1950b. The atomic age. National War College. 1950c. The age of science. Scientific American. 1950d. The encouragement of science. Westinghouse Science Talent Search. 1951a. Contemporary problems of atomic energy. N.Y. Bar Association. 1953a. The scientist in society. Princeton University Graduate Council Talk. 1953b. Contributions of computers in research. IBM Seminar. 1953c. Atomic weapons and American policy. Foreign Affairs. 1953d. Science and the common understanding, Reith Lectures. BBC, Nov. 1953, pubd. Simon & Schuster, 1953, Oxford University Press, 1954; Paper edition, 1966; Translations-French, Spanish, German, Danish. 1954a. The world we live in. Life Magazine Radio Broadcast. 1954b. Remarks at Pyramid Club Award. 1954c. A career in science. Princeton University, Career Forum. 1955a. Comments by Robert Oppenheimer. Hiroshima Diary. 1955b. Analogy in science. American Psych. Assoc. Meeting. 1955c. Science and the good old days. Princeton Old Guard Talk. 1955d. Science and public affairs. Princeton University, Woodrow Wilson School. 1955e. The open mind (Book), pubd. New York: Simon and Schuster. 1955f. The constitution of matter, Lecture—Oregon State, 1955; Goucher College, 1956; Northwestern Univ., 1956; Naval Research Lab, 1956; Wayne University, 1959 . 1956a. Einstein article. Reviews of Modern Physics. 1956b. Atomic energy for peaceful uses. Daily Princetonian. 1956c. Physics tonight. American Institute of Physics. 1956d. Where is science taking us? Saturday Review. 1956e. Dignity of Man award. Kessler Institute. 1956f. Science and our times, Roosevelt University, pubd. excerpt 'Science and modern society' in New Republic. 1956g. The growth of science and the structure of culture. American Academy of Arts and Sciences Conf. 1956h. Comment for quotation in leaflet. World Universities Service. 1956i. A study of thinking. Sewanee Review of Bruner Book.
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--> 1956j. Cosmic breakthrough and a human problem. Princeton University, Graduate College Forum. 1957a. The hope of order. Harvard University, James Lecture. 1957b. Theory versus practice in American values and performance. M.I.T., American Project Conf. 1957c. Impossible choices, pubd. Science. 1957d. Science, values and the human community. Fulbright Conference on Higher Education, Sarah Lawrence College. 1957e. The environs of atomic power. American Assembly, Arden House. 1957f. Tolman, Richard Chase (article on), Encyclopaedia Britannica. 1957g. Nuclear power and international relations. Princeton Univ., NATO Conf. 1957h. Engineers and scientists. Drexel Institute of Technology. 1958a. The tree of knowledge. International Press Institute, pubd. Harper's Magazine, Oct. 1958. 1958b. L'Arbre de La Science. University of Paris. 1958c. Concluding remarks. Rochester/CERN Conference. 1958d. The mystery of matter. Saturday Evening Post, pubd. 1960 in Adventures of the mind, Vintage Books. 1958e. La science moderne et la raison. Societe Francaise de Philosophie. 1958f. Science and the structure of culture. Rutgers University. 1958g. Knowledge and the structure of culture. Vassar College. 1958h. Science and the world today. Princeton Theological Seminary. 1958i. Knowledge and culture. Hampton Institute. 1958j. L'espoir de L'ordre. Science. 1958k. Science and statecraft. Weizmann Institute. 1958l. An inward look, foreign affairs; reprinted in Second-Rate Brains, Doubledays News Book. 1958m. Description des particles et interactions elementaires. University of Paris. 1959a. Tradition and discovery. ACLS, Rochester. 1959b. The great challenge. CBS/TV. 1959c. Freedom and necessity in the sciences. Dartmouth College. 1959d. Contemporary developments in the field of science. Lawrenceville Herodotus Club. 1959e. Remarks. Dinner for Harold Taylor.
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--> 1959f. In the keeping of unreason. Congress for cultural freedom, pubd. Prospective. 1959g. The role of the big accelerators. Think magazine. 1959h. Reflections on science and philosophy. Yale, Hoyt Lecture. 1959i. NATO and the ideal of unity. Princeton University, NATO Conf. 1959j. The need for new knowledge, Weaver Symposium; pubd. in translation in Revista de Occidente, March 1963. 1960a. Some thoughts on science and politics. Princeton Univ. Woodrow Wilson School. 1960b. Leprince-Ringuet's 'Des Atomes et Des Hommes'. Univ. of Chicago Press. 1960c. Common knowledge. Reed College. 1960d. The house of science. American Institute of Architects. 1960e. Science, culture et expression, prospective, Nr. 5. Translated abbreviated version of 'In the keeping of unreason' (see 1959f). 1960f. Sorrow and renewal. Speech at Congress for Cultural Freedom, Berlin: pubd. in Encounter. 1960g. An afternoon with Professor Oppenheimer. Society of Science and Man, Tokyo. 1960h. Speaking to one another. Univ. of Pennsylvania, Franklin Lecture. 1960i. Some reflections on science and culture. Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina. 1960j. Science and culture, International House of Japan; variation of 'Reflections on science and culture' (1962b). 1960k. Knowledge as science, action, culture. Queen's University, Canada. 1961a. Science and converse. Princeton University Graduate College Forum. 1961b. Secretary Stimson and the atomic bomb. Phillips Academy, Andover, pubd. Andover Bulletin. 1961c. Some human problems of our scientific age. Tribune Libre Universitaire, Brussels; text reprinted in review of Tribune Libre Universitaire. 1961d. Reflections on science and culture, pubd. University of Colorado Quarterly; The Mexico Quarterly Review, Spring 1962.
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--> 1962a. Freedom as an attribute of human life. Congress for Cultural Freedom, pubd. London, History and hope. 1962b. On science and culture, pubd. Encounter, 1962 (Geneva Talk); variations entitled 'Some reflections on science and culture' widely pubd. 1962c. The flyer trapeze. Whidden Lectures, McMaster University, pubd. Oxford University Press. 1963a. The added cubit. National Book Awards. Pubd. Encounter. 1963b. The scientific revolution and its effect on democratic institutions. Fund for the Republic, 10th Anniv.; pubd. Bulletin of Atomic Scientists under title 'A Talk in Chicago'. 1963c. Niels Bohr memoir for Year Book, American Philosophical Society; Niels Bohr and his times, Pegram Lectures, Brookhaven. 1963d. Communication and comprehension of scientific knowledge. National Academy of Sciences Centennial, pubd. in Science, Nov. 1963, pubd. in The Scientific Endeavour for National Academy of Sciences by Rockefeller Institute Press. 1963e. Dawn of a new age, by E. Rabinowitch, N.Y. Times, Review of Books. 1964a. Hope and foreknowledge. California Institute of Technology. 1964b. Prospects in the arts and sciences. Columbia University Bicentennial; reprinted in Man's Right to Knowledge, 2nd series 1954; reprinted in Fifty Great Essays collected by Professor Edward Huberman, Bantam Books. 1964c. Our times as Galillean times. Essay for 'Saggi su Galileo Galilei'. 1964d. L'intime et le commun. Rencontres Internationales de Geneve. 1964e. The fraternal dialogue. Universite de Paix, pubd. in From Heart to Heart. 1965a. Science in the making. U.S. Army National Junior Science and Humanities Symposium West Point, pubd. in proceedings of Symposium. 1965b. Alpha or Omega. Washington Post. 1965c. The 20th Anniversary of Trinity. Washington Post, Outlook Section. 1965d. Listen to leaders in science. Chapter, pubd. Tupper and Love, Inc.
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Representative terms from entire chapter: