was born they had achieved sufficient success to purchase a home on Long Island and to give him the opportunity to attain the education they never had. Carl, in turn, did well enough in school to qualify for rapid advancement and to graduate from high school with honor grades at the age of sixteen.

Next came college at Brown. As a freshman Carl undertook an ambitious schedule of earning tuition money, participating in sports and concert tours, and working hard at his studies. During his sophomore year he discovered the academic field that was to dominate his whole future career. This came about because of a young and enthusiastic professor, who in Carl's words (1989) “had been recruited from Princeton to head and modernize the development of a psychology department at Brown." Listening to lectures and observing experiments performed by Carmichael persuaded Carl that here was an exciting new field for his own future career. Furthermore, on consultation with Carmichael, he found that a good opportunity to get personally involved was to enroll in the honors program. Carmichael suggested, in fact, that Carl do experiments and write an honors thesis on the subject of human taste sensitivity. This subject was selected because relatively little was known about it in comparison, say, with vision or hearing. It appealed to Carl's pioneering spirit that he could open up new findings in an uncharted field.

On graduating from Brown, Carl considered various options for continuing work on the chemical senses. He chose to stay at Brown because Carmichael had been successful in building up a graduate program and had offered him a teaching assistantship. Furthermore, he could go with a research assistantship to the nearby laboratory of Herbert Jasper, who was doing pioneering work with the recording of human brain waves. Jasper's electrophysiological record-



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