The subcommittee assesses the health risk associated with ZnCdS exposures in various U.S. locations by conducting an in-depth review of the toxicity and toxicokinetic data on ZnCdS and its most toxic component—cadmium—by estimating the maximal concentration of cadmium in each test location and by characterizing the risk associated with the estimated maximal cadmium exposures. The subcommittee considered total exposures to cadmium as a consequence of exposure to ZnCdS from all routes—inhalation and ingestion of food and water—in relation to known background exposures to cadmium. The effect of ZnCdS and cadmium on potentially susceptible groups in the human population was also considered. In addition, the subcommittee assessed the environmental fate of ZnCdS and determined the utility and feasibility of conducting an epidemiologic study of populations exposed to it.
Chapter 2 presents the information gathered from the public meetings. Chapter 3 reviews the toxicity and related data on ZnCdS, and Chapter 4 evaluates the toxicity, environmental fate, and epidemiology data of cadmium compounds. Chapter 5 evaluates the exposures to ZnCdS and cadmium, and Chapter 6 contains the subcommittee's risk assessments of ZnCdS for noncancer and cancer effects. Chapter 7 discusses the feasibility of conducting epidemiologic studies of ZnCdS-exposed persons. Chapter 8 contains the subcommittee's conclusions and recommendations. Appendix A reviews the historical background of the U.S. Biological Warfare Program. Appendix B summarizes the doses and concentrations of ZnCdS particles from the Army's dispersion tests. Appendix C contains correspondence with the U.S. Army. Appendix D discusses the interaction of zinc and cadmium and the toxicity of copper and silver. Appendix E provides information concerning public meetings. Appendix F reviews sampling and analytic methods for ZnCdS. Appendix G contains a review of the Army Environmental Hygiene Agency's risk-assessment reports on ZnCdS, and Appendix H reviews the comments of EPA, ATSDR, and CDC on the Army's risk-assessment reports. Appendix I discusses the exposure assessment for cadmium. The final section of the report—the glossary—provides brief descriptions of technical terms used in the report.