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WILLIAM MAURICE EWING May 12, 1906~Iay 4, 1974 BY EDWARD C. BOLLARD* CHILDHOOD. 19~1922 W1~lAM MAURICE EWING was born on May ~ 2, ~ 906 in Lockney, a town of about 1,200 inhabitants in the Texas panhandle. He rarely used the name William and was always known as Maurice. His paternal great-grandparents mover! from Kentucky to Livingston County, Missouri, at some date before IS50. Their son John Andrew Ewing, Maurice's grandfather, fought for the Confederacy in the Civil War; while in the army he met two brothers whose family hac} also come from Kentucky to Missouri before IS50 ant! were living in De Kalb County. Shortly after the war he marries! their sister Martha Ann Robinson. Their son Floyd Ford Ewing, Maurice's father, was born in CIarkciale, Mis- souri, in IS79. In 1889 the family followecl the pattern of the times and mover! west to Lockney, Texas. Floyd Ewing was a gentle, handsome man with a liking for literature and music, whom fate had cast in the unsuitable roles of cowhand, drylanc! farmer, and dealer in hardware and farm implements. Since he kept his farm through the *This memoir is a corrected and slightly amplified version of one published by the Royal Society in their BiographicalMemoirs (21:269-311, 1975). The main changes are that more detail is given in the first section and that numerous trivial errors in the bibliography have been corrected. The Royal Society has given permission for the republication. 119

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120 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS years of the depression, he must have been a farmer of per- sistence and ability. He is spoken of with great affection by all who knew him; he was a marvelous storyteller and an ac- complished violinist who played the old hoedown pieces with enthusiasm. His daughter Rowena has "such vivid memories of him playing, always standing so straight and tall." Ewing's mother, Hope Hamilton Ewing, was born at Breckenricige, Stephens County, Texas, in ISS2. She was the daugher of Isaac Hamilton of Illinois and Martha Ann Carnahan of Arkansas, ant! she and her family mover! to Lockney in ~ 892. The Ewings ant! the Hamiltons were among the earliest settlers along the edge of the high plains of northern Texas. In 1901 she marries! Floyd Ewing; she was nineteen and he was twenty-two. In 1902 they set out on a homesteading venture in eastern New Mexico near Por- tales. They traveled in the traditional way with a wagon, two mules, a horse and a cow; they dug a well, set up a wincimill, and constructed a "half dug-out" with a sod roof. A few months later they returned to Texas and drove a herd of fifty cattle to their ranch. Unfortunately, they tract mover! into an arid area in the worst year of a five-year drought. The story of the ensuing disasters has been told with great skill and sympathy by Maurice's brother Floyd, who was a professor of history at Midwestern University, Wichita Falls, Texas (F. F. Ewing, 1963~. In 1904 they returnee! to 'reXaS. Maurice was the fourth of ten children. The three oldest hack cried very young in New Mexico so that he grew up as the eldest of seven. Mrs. Ewing was determinecl that her children should receive a goof! education ant] shouic] have a wicIer choice of careers than was to be found in a small west Texas town. All but one, the eldest daughter Ethel, went to a uni- versity and had professional or academic careers. Ethel mar- riec! very young ant] for many years was a successful teacher of the piano in Tulia, Texas. Bob became a naval captain and

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WILLIAM MAURICE EWING 121 now works at the Marine Science Institute at Galveston, Texas. Rowena married J. A. Peoples, a geophysicist and an early colleague of Ewing's; Lucy married C. H. CIawson, a professor of psychology at Amarillo, Texas; John, the young- est, worker! for many years with Ewing at Lamont ant! is now at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution where he was, for a while, Chairman of the Department of Geology and Geophysics. It is remarkable that so many of Maurice's brothers and sisters shouIc! have followed careers which in- tertwined, in different ways, with his own. Maurice enjoyed telling stories of his father's farm at Lockney. No doubt the stories improved with the passage of time, as when he said that he spent much of each spring killing rattlesnakes with a hoe while chopping cotton. The family was not well off, but he remembered his childhood as a happy time and all his life kept the slow speech, the self- conficlence, ant] the kindliness of the rural Texas of his youth. At public school in Lockney he at first preferrer] grammar and languages to other subjects; later, in high school, he cleveloped an interest in science and mathematics. He as- cribed the change to the excellence of the teaching in the Lockney high school. In 1922, when he was sixteen, he was awarcled the Hohenthal Scholarship to the Rice Institute in Houston, Texas. A STUDENT AT THE RICE INSTITUTE, 19221929 The journey to Houston hac] to be done in the most eco- nomical way. On one occasion, probably in his sophomore year, he started off on a motorcycle which he bought for $12 from a man who hac} taken it to pieces and conic} not get it together again. He hac! a $10 bill in his pocket ant! a blanket roll strapped behind] him. On the first clay the chain of the motorcycle broke ant} he ran out of gasoline; he abandoned

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122 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS the machine and boarclec! a freight train where he shared a car with two hoboes. The brakeman found them and took Ewing's watch and money; he persuacled him to return them by explaining that he was on his way to college and needed them. Later he was attacked by the hoboes. He got away from the train by pretending to be a homicicial maniac, was hit with a blackjack, and after a long cross-country chase, hick in some brambles in a churchyard and escaped. He lost his blanket roll ant] most of his clothes, but still had his $l O and his watch. He felt he was too scantily cIac! to board a street car but persuaded the police to drive him to Rice.* The ingenuity, the persuasiveness, the physical toughness, and the courage are typical of the mature Ewing. Clearly the boy was the father to the man. In his early days at Rice, Ewing earned money by working in an all-night drugstore; he used to say that his main duties were to take coffee and sandwiches to the call girls who lived in the hotels around the oIc] Humble Builcling. Later he left the drug store and took part-time jobs assisting with classes ant! in the library. This brought in about $34 per month. It must have been a hard life, but at the beginning of his third year at Rice he was able to say, in a letter to his parents: "Well, because of the grades ~ made last year, ~ was invited to a banquet of the Houston Philosophical Society . . . and ~ sure aim to go." It was, ~ suppose, at Rice that he acquired his lifelong habit of working most of the night as well as all clay. He also showed his interest in teaching and gave much time to coach- ing fellow students. His sister Lucy has described how during vacation he would stanch over her while she played the piano, insist that she do it right, and explain the background of the piece. event. * This story is taken from a letter M. Ewing wrote to his parents just after the

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WILLIAM MAURICE EWING 123 At the Rice Institute he at first majored in electrical engi- neering but later changed to physics and mathematics. Not surprisingly, he found physics, then in the great formative period of quantum mechanics, more exciting than contempo- rary engineering. He also founct physicists more congenial than engineers (the Rice professors of engineering he cle- scribed as "sarcastic Yankees"~. In physics he was greatly in- fluenced by H. A. Wilson, an Englishman and a well-known but unorthodox physicist, who claimed that he was the only one of his contemporaries in the Cavenclish Laboratory who clic! not get a Nobel Prize (it would be interesting to look again at his ideas on nuclear systematics and see if they still look as implausible as they clic! at the time). Wilson ran a weekly colloquium at which the papers on the "new physics" were discusser! as they came out, ant] where occasionally there would be a talk by a distinguished visitor ("Men," said Ewing, "whom ~ would otherwise have thought hardly mortar". At Rice in the ~ 920's Ewing became a physicist. He learned not only the subject but also the attitude of mind. All his life he preferrer! simple arguments; his theory was set out in detail, well understoocI, ant! carefully explained; his in- struments were ingenious ant} often made by himself without regard for current fashions. He told me that when he was in his late forties he heart! a graduate stuclent complaining to another that "Doe" expected him to use a galvanometers "Never mind," replied the other, "all these old men will soon be dead." During the vacations at Rice he worked in a grain elevator and later with an of! prospecting crew in the shallow lakes of Louisiana; this was his first introduction to underwater geo- physics. It was an exciting time, when gravity and seismic measurements were revealing the salt-domes against whose sicles the of! of the Gulf Coast fielcis is trapped. While still an undergraduate he wrote his first scientific paper (1926), en-

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124 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS titled "Dewbows by Moonlight," which describes a rainbow seen on the dew-covered grass of the campus. While at Rice he played the trombone in the marching bancI. There he was seen by a fellow. student, AvarilIa Hilclen- brancI; as she afterwards told it: "When he came stricling clown the street working his trombone slide in and out, my heart stood still. He was my man." They were marries! in 1928. Ewing obtained his B.A. in 1926. It is curious that H. A. Wilson then advised him that he had no aptitude for experi- mental work and should stick to theoretical physics. Rarely has a professor given worse advice. Ewing started graduate work in the Physics Department at Rice in the fall of ~ 926 and obtained an M.A. in 1927 and a Ph.D. in 1931. His Ph.D. thesis, entitled "Calculation of Ray Paths from Seismic Gravely rime Curves," was reported in two papers with Don Leet (1930, 1932a). The topic is central to much of Ewing's later work. Refraction seismology was not, at that time, well understoocI; there was, for example, a curious controversy as to whether the refracted! ray went straight up ant! down or was refracted along the interface at the critical angle. A sound and detailed knowleclge of the ray theory of propaga- tion in a layered] medium was critical for the seismic investiga- tions of the next twenty years, and it was a fortunate chance that led Ewing so early in this direction. Regrettably, the collaboration with Leet, who was Director of the Harvard seismological station, broke down with bitter feelings on both sides. Ewing regarded this quarrel as having an adverse effect on his career in the thirties. However, jobs ant! grants were scarce for everyone, and ~ was never convinced that Leet's disparagement had as much effect as Ewing believed. THE 1930 S SEISMOLOGY AT SEA In 1929 Ewing became an Instructor in Physics at the University of Pittsburgh, but a year later moved to a similar

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WILLIAM MAURICE EWING 125 position at Lehigh where he remained till 1940. He had a heavy teaching loac] in elementary physics but at once started to clevelop research in geophysics. The work of the next few years is not of great interest; it consists of a variety of projects, some of them suggested by local industry; for example, the paper on prospecting for anthracite (1936a) and one on locating a buried power shove] (193ScI). The main theme, however, is the understancling of the methods of small-scale seismology with explosive sources ~ ~ 932b, ~ 934a,b,c,d, 1935, 1936c). The change came in November ~ 934, on the clay on which he was visitec! in his seismic truck at Lehigh by Dick Field ant} William Bowie. They came to suggest that he might interest himself in applying the seismic method of prospecting to the study of the continental shelf. Bowie was Chief of the Division of Geodesy of the Coast and Geodetic Survey, very much a member of the Establishment and something of a southern gentleman. R. M. Fielc! was a Harvard man ant! a professor of geology at Princeton. He was a major eccentric, but he was also the man whose vision and enthusiasm started the band- wagon of marine geology on its triumphant course (for brief accounts of his life see Hess 1962 ant! Bullard 1962~. He hac! largely founded and was Chairman of the American Geo- physical Union's "Committee on the Geophysical Study of the Ocean Basins." He had a pretty clear idea of what he wanted clone and why, as can be seen from the first report of his committee (Field 1933~. ~ can easily visualize the meeting with Ewing, since ~ was taken by Fielct to see Bowie on a similar errand in 1937. Field wouIc! have been persuasive, persistent, talkative, and irrepressible, while Bowie wouic} have lent an air of soliclity and charm; together they would have been irresistible, particularly when they offered funds ant! ships. ~ do not know what made Field approach Ewing; it is likely that Field had heard him talk at the American Geophysical Union ~ ~ 93 I, ~ 934a). For Ewing it was what he wantec! above all else,

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126 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS a problem worth tackling and the possibility of support and ,% . . . tea sties. It was decided that the first project would be to shoot as many refraction seismic lines as possible spaced out between Cape Henry on the east coast of Virginia and the edge of the continental shelf 120 km out to sea, where the depth of water was about 100 m This line was to be extended inland by measurements on land between the coast and the outcrop of basement rocks 120 km inland. The start was not propitious; the Coast and Geodetic Survey allowed Ewing and his two assistants (A. Crary and H. M. Rutherford) to embark in their ship Oceanographer (the yacht Corsair given to the survey by H. P. Morgan). Immediately before sailing, the captain was injured in a motor car accident, and an assistant, who was to have helped Ewing, was killed. The ship was fully occupied with surveying, and Ewing's work had to be fitted in while she was anchored at night. Shots were fired with seismographs on the bottom; this gave experience in handling the gear at sea, but no geological information was obtained. In the time avail- able only reflection shooting could be attempted, and not surprisingly, no identifiable reflections were received from the basement. The work convinced Ewing that the job could be done. On ~ July 1935 he wrote home: "I got proof that the measure- ments can be made at sea . . . the people sponsoring the work . . . think they can get the ship of the Scripps Oceanographic Institute for our exclusive use. If so we can clean up an important job in a few months This is hv far the most imnor- --r - tant project with which ~ have yet been connected. It is so arranged that ~ see no possibility of anyone stealing the credit from me." The anxiety about the credit for the work is typical of one side of his character; he was having a hard struggle to get established and could hardly believe that something would not go wrong.

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WILLIAM MAURICE EWING 127 When Oceanographer returned to port, Ewing set about the observations on the land section of the line. This was a task that his previous experience hac! made familiar. Meanwhile Field exercised his persuasive powers on Henry Bigelow, the Director of the Woocis Hole Oceanographic Institution. He obtained the use of the R. V. Atlantis for two weeks. She was a steel-hulled ketch, 43 m in length over all and with a dis- placement of about 380 tonnes. She hac! sails and a diesel engine; the sails were often used, not only for propulsion but also to reduce her tendency to roll. 'rhe crucial work was done in this vessel in October 1935. Her Master was Fred McMurray, a very skilled and experienced seaman. On the first day Field, Columbus Tselin, and Henry Stetson accom- panied Ewing's party on a short trip to test the gear. Four days later Ewing, Crary, ant! Rutherforc! set off for a two- week cruise. At each station a seismograph measuring the vertical component of the motion was lowered! to the sea floor from the anchored ship on an insulated electric cable. Signals from the instrument were transmitted up the cable to a re- corcler in the ship. Charges of explosive were lowered from the ship's boat at distances of up to 11 km from the ship. The instant of explosion was transmitter! to the ship by raclio; the time of transmission of the wave traveling through the water gave the distance. Four refraction lines were shot on the Cape Henry section ant! three on a line running south from Woods Hole. The object of the investigation was to study the nature of the transition from the ocean to the continent. Is the "shelf break," where the sea floor suddenly turns down from the shallow water of the continental shelf to oceanic depths, a fault in the basement, or is it the edge of a rubbish tip of sediments built out from the lane! over sunken continent or, perhaps, over ocean floor? Where is the true edge of the continent? In what sense has it an ecige? These questions are

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128 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS fundamental for geology, and it is remarkable that they had never seriously been approached before. There were, of course, speculations based on the results of drilling on the exposed part of the shelf, but no one had had the skill or the enterprise to attempt what Ewing did. He discovered a pile of sediments 3800 m thick. The work is a classic example of a discovery of great practical importance made in searching for knowledge. All the of! obtained from the sea floor comes from sedimentary basins like that discovered by Ewing. He told me that about ~ 936 he had approached an executive of a large of! company and asked for support for the work. He was told that there was no shortage of oil and that the company was not in the least interested in looking for it at sea. Ewing's reputation was made he had done something new and of first rate importance. The work was, of course, preliminary. It was open to the criticism that too little shoot- ing had been done; the time~istance curve at the outermost station hac! only two points on it through which two lines were drawn by using seismic velocities extrapolated from stations nearer shore. To most people these were details which time and further work would remedy. Ewing's own reply to enqui- ries about how he could be sure with so few data was: "That's how you tell the men from the boys." To Leet however it was not so; he published a slashing attack on the whole operation and its conclusions (l 937~. Ewing had expected that Field and his geological friends would seize on the information and produce interpretations in terms of structure and history. It did not happen, though his first paper (1937) was followed by one by B. I. Miller (1937) which was supposed to discuss and explain the results; it is a rather dull piece of work which sets out possible views and leaves the main questions undecided. Ewing, whose own paper was strictly factual, was surprised and perhaps a little

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WILLIAM MAURICE EWING 183 In: The Earth Beneath the Continents, ed. l. S. Steinhart, et al., Geophys. Monogr. no. lo, pp.595~10. Wash., D.C.: Am. Geo- phys. Union. q. M. Ewing and J. Ewing. Geology of the Gulf of Mexico. In: Exploiting the Ocean (Suppl. Trans. 2nd annual marine technol- ogy society conference and exhibition), pp. 145~4. Wash., D.C.: Marine Technology Society. 1967 a. E. M. Thorndike and M. Ewing. Light scattering in the sea. Society of photo-optical instrumentation engineers, seminar proceedings Oct. 1~11, 1966, A IV 1-7. b. I. Ewing, M. Talwani, M. Ewing, and T. Edgar. Sediments of the Caribbean. Stud. Prop. Oceanog., 5:88-102. c. M. Ewing, J. L. Worzel, and A. C. Vine. Early development of ocean bottom photography at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and Lamont Geological Observatory. In: Deep-Sea Photography, ed. J. B. Hersey, pp. 13~1. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press. d. R. E. Wall and M. Ewing. Tension recorder for deep-sea winches. Deep-Sea Res., 14:321-24. e. M. Ewing, D. E. Hayes, and E. M. Thorndike. Corehead camera for measurements of currents and core orientation. Deep-Sea Res., 14:253-58. f. I. R. Conolly and M. Ewing. Sedimentation in the Puerto Rico trench. I. Sediment. Petrol., 37:4~59. g. M. Ewing, T. Saito, and X. Le Pichon. Reply to "Comments on mantle convection and mid-ocean ridges" by Peter R. Vogt and Ned A. Ostenso. J. Geophys. Res., 72:2085. h. E. T. Bunce, M. G. Langseth, R. L. Chase, and M. Ewing. Struc- ture of the western Somali basin. I. Geophys. Res., 72:2547-55. i. L. H. Burckle, T. Saito, and M. Ewing. A Cretaceous (Turonian) core from the Naturaliste plateau southeast Indian Ocean. Deep-Sea Res., 14:421-26. j. I. Ewing and M. Ewing. Sediment distribution on the mid-ocean ridges with respect to spreading of the sea floor. Science, 156: 159~92. k. M. Ewing and R. A. Davis. Lebensspuren photographed on the ocean floor. In: Deep-Sea Photography, ed. l. B. Hersey, pp. 25~94. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press.

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184 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1. R. Houtz, l. Ewing, M. Ewing, and A. G. Lonardi. Seismic reflec- tion profiles of the New Zealand plateau. J. Geophys. Res., 72: 47 13-29. m. G. V. Latham, R. S. Anderson, and M. Ewing. Pressure varia- tions produced at the ocean bottom by hurricanes. I. Geophys. Res., 72:5693-5704. n. E. M. Thorndike and M. Ewing. Photographic nephelometers for the deep sea. In: Deep-Sea Photography, ed. J. B. Hersey, pp. 1 13-16. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press. O. I. I. Groot, C. R. Groot, M. Ewing, L. Burckle, and I. R. Conolly. Spores, pollen, diatoms and provenance of the Argentine basin sediments. In: The quaternary history of the ocean basins. Prog. Oceanog., 4:17~217. 1968 a. A. A. Nowroozi, M. Ewing, I. E. Nafe, and M. Fliegel. Deep ocean current and its cc~rrelation with the ocean tide off the coast of northern California. J. Geophys. Res., 73:1921-32. b. M. Ewing, l. I. Ewing, R. E. Houtz, and R. Leyden. Sediment distribution in the Bellinghausen basin. In: Symposium on Antarc- tic Oceanography (held at Santiago, Chile, 1966), ed. R. I. Currie, pp. 8~100. Cambridge, Eng.: W. Heffer for S.C.A.R. c. J. Ewing, M. Ewing, T. Aitken, and W. J. Ludwig. North Pacific sediment layers measured by seismic profiling. In: The Crust and Mantle of the Pacific Area, ed. L. Knopoff et al., Geophys. Monogr. no. 12, 147-73. Wash., D.C.: Am. Geophys. Union. d. I. L. Worzel, R. Leyden, and M. Ewing. N-ewly discovered diapirs in Gulf of Mexico. Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 52: 1191- 1203. e. W. R. Bryant, I. Antoine, M. Ewing, and B. Jones. Structure of Mexican continental shelf and slope, Gulf of Mexico. Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 52:1204 28. f. W. l. Ludwig, I. I. Ewing, and M. Ewing. Structure of the Ar- gentine continental margin. Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 52: 2337~8. g. M. Ewing and F. Mouzo. Ocean bottom photographs in the area of the oldest known outcrops, North Atlantic Ocean. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 61:787-93. h. M. Ewing and J. L. Worzel. Geophysical oceanographic studies at Lamont Geological Observatory. In: Selected Papers from the

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WILLIAM MAURICE EWING 185 Governor's Conference on Oceanography, pp. ~35. N.Y.: State Science and Technology Foundation. W. L. Donn and M. Ewing. The theory of an ice-free Arctic Ocean. Meterol. Monogr., 8:10~5. j. I. Ewing, M. Talwani, and M. Ewing. Sediment distribution in the Caribbean Sea. In: Transactions of the Fourth Caribbean Geological Conference, 1965, ed. I. B. Saunders, pp.317-324. Arima, Trini- dad: Caribbean Printers. k. M. Ewing, A. G. Lonardi, and I. I. Ewing. The sediments and topography of the Puerto Rico trench and outer ridge. In: Transactions of the Fourth Caribbean Geological Conference, 1965, ed. I. B. Saunders, pp. 325-34. Arima, Trinidad: Caribbean Printers. 1969 a. M. Ewing, K. Hunkins, and E. M. Thorndike. Some unusual photographs in the Arctic Ocean. I. Mar. Tech. Soc., 3:41~4. b. I. Ewing, R. Leyden, and M. Ewing. Refraction shooting with expendable sonobuoys. Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 53: 174 81. c. M. B. Jacobs and M. Ewing. Suspended particulate matter: con- centration in the major oceans. Science, 163:38~83. d. A. A. Nowroozi, J. Kuo, and M. Ewing. Solid earth and oceanic tides recorded on the ocean floor off the coast of northern California. J. Geophys. Res., 74:605-14. M. B. Jacobs and M. Ewing. Mineral source and transport in waters of the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea. Science, 163: 805-9. f. E. M. Thorndike and M. Ewing. Photographic determination of ocean-bottom current velocity. I. Mar. Tech. Soc., 3:45-50. g. R. E. Sheridan, R. E. Houtz, C. L. Drake, and M. Ewing. Struc- ture of the continental margin off Sierra Leone, West Africa. l. Geophys. Res., 74:2512-30. h. M. Ewing, R. Houtz, and }. Ewing. South Pacific sediment distri- bution. J. Geophys. Res., 74:2477-93. i. W. B. F. Ryan, E. M. Thorndike, M. Ewing, and D. A. Ross. Suspended matter in the Red Sea brines and its detection by light scattering. In: Hot Brines and Recent Heavy Metal Deposits in the Red Sea, ed. E. T. Degens and D. A. Ross, pp. 153-57. N.Y.: Springer-Verlag.

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186 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS j. A. Miyashiro, F. Shido, and M. Ewing. Diversity and origin of abyssal tholeiite from the mid-Atlantic ridge near 24 and 30 north latitude. Contr. Mineral. Petrol., 23:3~52. k. A. Miyashiro, F. Shido, and M. Ewing. Composition and origin of serpentenites from the mid-Atlantic ridge near 24 and 30 north latitude. Contr. Mineral. Petrol., 23:117-27. 1. M. Ewing, S. Eittreim, M. Truchan, and }. E. Ewing. Sediment distribution in the Indian Ocean. Deep-Sea. Res., 16:231~8. m. G. Latham, M. Ewing, F. Press, and G. Sutton. The Apollo passive seismic experiment. Science, 165:241-50. n. C. A. Burk, M. Ewing, J. L. Worzel, A. O. Beall, W. A. Berggren, D. Bukry, A. G. Fischer, and E. A. Pessagno. Deep-sea drilling into the Challenger Knoll, central Gulf of Mexico. Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 53:1338~7. O. M. Ewing, J. L. Worzel, and C. A. Burk. Introduction. In: Initial Reports of the Deep-Sea Drilling Project, Orange, Texas to Hoboken, N.~., 1 :3-9. Wash., D.C.: National Science Foundation. p. M. Ewing, J. L. Worzel, A. O. Beall, W. A. Berggren, D. Bukry, C. A. Burk, A. G. Fischer, and E. A. Pessagno. Sites 1-7. In: Initial Reports of the Deep-Sea Drilling Project, Orange, Texas to Hoboken, N.J., 1 :1~317. Wash., D.C.: National Science Founda- t~on. q. M. Ewing, }. L. Worzel, and C. A. Burk. Regional aspects of deep-water drilling in the Gulf of Mexico, east of the Bahama platform and on the Bermuda rise. In: Initial Reports of the Deep- Sea Drilling Project, Orange, Texas to Hoboken, N.J., 1:62~1 40. Wash., D.C.: National Science Foundation. r. S. Eittreim, M. Ewing, and E. M. Thorndike. Suspended matter along the continental margin of the North American basin. Deep-Sea Res., 16:613-24. s. M. Ewing and D. Hayes. Some problems of safe navigation of deep draft vessels. In: 14th Annual Tanker Conference, pp. 212-25. Wash., D.C.: American Petroleum Institute. 1970 a. G. V. Latham, M. Ewing, F. Press, G. Sutton, }. Dorman, Y. Nakamura, N. Toksoz, R. Wiggins, I. Derr, and F. Duennebier. Passive seismic experiment. Science, 167:455-57. b. A. Miyashiro, F. Shido, and M. Ewing. Petrologic models for the mid-Atlantic ridge. Deep-Sea Res., 17: 10~23.

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WILLIAM MAURICE EWING . . 187 c. A. Miyashiro, F. Shido, and M. Ewing. Crystallization and differ- entiation in abyssal tholeiites and gabbros from mid-ocean ridges. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 7:361-65. d. E. J. W. Jones, M. Ewing, J. I. Ewing, and S. L. Eittreim. Influ- ences of Norwegian sea overflow water on sedimentation in the northern North Atlantic and Labrador Sea. l. Geophys. Res., 75: 1655~0. e. M. Ewing, L. V. Hawkins, and W. I. Ludwig. Crustal structure of the Coral Sea. J. Geophys. Res., 75:1953-62. f. R. W. Embly, J. I. Ewing, and M. Ewing. The Vidal deep-sea channel and its relationship to the Demerara and Barracuda abyssal plains. Deep-Sea Res., 17 :53~52. g. M. Ewing and S. D. Connary. Nepheloid layer in the North Pacific. In: Geological investigations of the North Pacific. Geol. Soc. Am. Mem., 126:41~2. h. }. R. Conolly and M. Ewing. Ice-rafted detritus in northwest Pacific deep-sea sediments. In: Geological investigations of the North Pacific. Geol. Soc. Am. Mem., 126:219~31. i. G. V. Latham, M. Ewing, F. Press, G. Sutton, I. Dorman, Y. Nakamura, N. Toksoz, R. Wiggins, J. Derr, and F. Duennebier. Apollo 11 passive seismic experiment. Proc. Apollo 11 Lunar Sci. Conf. (Supplement 1 to Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta), 3: 230~20. i. J. T. Kuo, R. C. Jachens, M. Ewing, and G. White. Transconti- nental tidal gravity profile across the United States. Science, 168:96~71. k. J. r. Kuo, R. C. Jachens, G. White, and M. Ewing. Tidal gravity measurements along a transcontinental profile across the United States. In: Sixth Symposium of Earth Tides, pp. l-11. Stras- bourg, Germany: Univ. of Strasbourg. 1. I. Ewing, C. Windisch, and M. Ewing. Correlation of Horizon A with Joides borehole results. J. Geophys. Res., 75:5645-53. m. G. Latham, M. Ewing, I. Dorman, F. Press. N. Toksoz, G. Sut- ton, R. Meissner, F. Duennebier, Y. Nakamura, R. Kovach, and M. Yates. Seismic data from man-made impacts on the moon. Science, 170:620-26. n. D. E. Hayes and M. Ewing. North Brazilian ridge and adjacent continental margin. Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol.,54:212() 50. O. I. Ewing and M. Ewing. Seismic reflection. In: The Sea, ed. M. N. Hill, Apt. 1~: 1-51. N.Y.: Interscience.

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188 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS p. D. E. Hayes and M. Ewing. Pacific boundary structure. In: The Sea, ed. M. N. Hill, 4 (pt. 2~:2~72. N.Y.: Interscience. 1971 a. J. I. Ewing, W. J. Ludwig, M. Ewing, and S. L. Eittreim. Struc- ture of the Scotia Sea and Falkland plateau. I. Geophys. Res., 76:71 18-37. b. D. E. Hayes and M. Ewing. The Louisville Ridge a possible extension of the Eltanin fracture zone. In: Antarctic Oceanology I, ed. I. L. Reid. Antarctic Res. Ser., 15:223-28. c. G. Wollin, D. B. Ericson, and M. Ewing. Late Pleistocene climates recorded in Atlantic and Pacific deep sea sediments. In: The Late Cenozoic Glacial Ages, ed. K. K. Turekian, pp. 19~214. New Haven: Yale Univ. Press. d. The late Cenozoic history of the Atlantic basin and its bearing on the cause of the ice ages. In: The Late Cenozoic Glacial Ages, ed. K. K. Turekian, pp. 565~73. New Haven: Yale Univ. Press. Foreworcl. Physics Chem. Earth, 8:vii-viii. f. X. Le Pichon, M. Ewing, and M. Truchan. Sediment transport and distribution in the Argentine basin. 2. Antarctic bottom current passage into the Brazil basin. Physics Chem. Earth, 8:29 48. g. M. Ewing, S. L. Eittreim, J. I. Ewing, and X. Le Pichon. Sediment transport and distribution in the Argentine basin. 3. Nepheloid layer and processes of sedimentation. Physics Chem. Earth, 8: 4~77. h. A. G. Lonardi and M. Ewing. Sediment transport and clistribu- iion in the Argentine basin. 4. Bathymetry of the continental margin, Argentine basin and other related provinces. Canyons and sources of sediment. Physics Chem. Earth, 8:7~121. i. M. Ewing and A. G. Lonardi. Sediment transport and distribu- tion in the Argentine basin. 5. Sedimentary structure of the Argentine margin, basin, and related provinces. Physics Chem. Earth, 8:123-25 1. j. A. G. Lonardi and M. Ewing. Sediment transport and distribu- tion in the Argentine basin. 6. Exploration and study of the Argentine basin. Physics Chem. Earth, 8:253~3. k. A. Miyashiro, F. Shido, and M. Ewing. Metamorphism in the mid-Atlantic ridge near 24 and 30. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, A268:58~603.

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WILLIAM MAURICE EWING 189 1. D. R. Horn, M. Ewing, M. N. Detach, and B. M. Horn. Turbidites of the northeast Pacific. Sedimentology, 16:5~69. m. R. Leyden, M. Ewing, and E. S. W. Simpson. Geophysical recon- naissance on African shelf: 1. Cape Town to East London. Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 55:651-57. n. R. Leyden, W. l. Ludwig, and M. Ewing. Structure of conti- nental margin off Punta del Este, Uruguay, and Rio de ~aneiro, Brazil, Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 55:2161-73. o. M. Ewing, G. Latham, F. Press, G. Sutton, l. Dorman, Y. Naka- mura, R. Meissner, F. Duennebier, and R. Kovach. Seismology of the Moon and implications on internal structure, origin and evolution. In: Highlights of Astronomy, ed. De lager, 2:15~72. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Reidel (for the Int. Astron. Union). p. F. Shido, A. Miyashiro, and M. Ewing. Crystallization of abyssal tholeiites. Contr. Mineral. Petrol., 31:251-66. q. D. Kent, N. D. Opdyke, and M. Ewing. Climate change in the North Pacific using ice-rafted detritus as a climatic indicator. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 82:2741-54. r. W. I. Ludwig, R. E. Houtz, and M. Ewing. Sediment distribution in the Bering Sea: Bowers Ridge, Shirshov Ridged and enclosed basins. I. Geophys. Res., 76:6367-75. ~ , s. G. Latham, M. Ewing, I. Dorman, D. Lammlein, F. Press, N. Toksoz, G. Sutton, F. Duennebier, and Y. Nakamura. Moon- quakes. Science, 174 :687-92. t. D. R. Horn, M. Ewing, B. M. Horn, and M. N. Detach. Turbidites of the Hatteras and Sohm abyssal plains, western North Atlan- tic. Mar. Geol., 11 :287-323. u. M. Ewing, D. Horn, L. Sullivan, T. Aitken, and E. Thorndike. Photographing manganese nodules on the ocean floor. Ocean- ology Intern. Offshore Technol., 6(Dec.~:26-32. v. N. Den, W. ]. Ludwig, S. Murauchi, M. Ewing, H. Hotta, T. Asanuma, T. Yoshii, A. Kubotera, and K. Hagiwara. Sediments and structure of the Eauripic-New Guinea rise. I. Geophys. Res., 76:4711-72. w. W. J. Ludwig, S. Murauchi, N. Den, M. Ewing, H. Hotta, R. E. Houtz, T. Yoshii, T. Asanuma, K. Hagiwara, T. Sato, and S. Ando. Structure of Bowers Ridge, Bering Sea. I. Geophys. Res., 76:635~66. x. W. L. Donn, I. Dalins, V. McCarty, M. Ewing, and G. Kaschak. Air-coupled seismic waves at long range from Apollo launch- ings. Geophys. J., 26:161-71.

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190 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS y. Columbus Iselin. Oceanus, 16 :14-15. z. I. I. Ewing, W. J. Ludwig, M. Ewing, and S. L. Eittreim. Structure of Scotia Sea and the Falkland Plateau. J. Geophys. Res., 76: 71 18-37. 1972 a. O. Wilhelm and M. Ewing. Geology and history of the Gulf of Mexico. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 83:575-99. b. R. Leyden, G. Bryan, and M. Ewing. Geophysical reconnaissance on African shelf: 2. Margin sediments from Gulf of Guinea to Walvis Ridge. Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 56:682-93. c. D. R. Horn, M. Ewing, B. M. Horn, and M. N. Delach. World- wide distribution of manganese nodules. Ocean Industry, 7(Jan.~:2~29. d. S. Eittreim, A. L. Gordon, M. Ewing, E. M. Thorndike, and P. Bruchhausen. The nepheloid layer and observed bottom cur- rents in the Indian-Pacific Antarctic Sea. In: Studies in Physical Oceanography, ed. A. L. Gordon. on. 1~35. London: Gordon & Breach. e. S. Eittreim and M. Ewing. Suspended particulate matter in the deep waters of the North American basin. In: Studies in Physical Oceanography, ed. A. L. Gordon, pp. 123~7. London: Gordon & Breach. f. S. D. Connary and M. Ewing. The nepheloid layer and bottom circulation in the Guinea and Angola basins. In: Studies in Phys- ical Oceanography, ed. A. L. Gordon, pp. 16~84. London: Gordon & Breach. g. R. Leyden, P. Sheridan, and M. Ewing. Continental drift empha- sizing the history of the South Atlantic area, UNESCO/lUGS sym- posium, Montevideo, Uruguay, 1~19 October 1967, pp. 165-71. ~ This was never printed but was issued by Am. Geophys. Union as a microfilm; see Trans. Am. Geophys. Union, 53 [ 19721: 164-851. h. S. Eittreim, P. M. Bruchhausen, and M. Ewing. Vertical distribu- tion of turbidity in the South Indian and South Australian basins. In: Antarctic Oceanology II, the Australian-New Zealand Sec- tor, ed. D. E. Hayes, Antarctic Res. Ser., 19:51-58. Wash., D.C.: Am. Geophys. Union. i. D. R. Horn, l. I. Ewing, and M. Ewing. Graded-bed sequences emplaced by turbidity currents north of 20 in the Pacific, Atlan- tic and Mediterranean. Sedimentology, 18:247-75.

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WILLIAM MAURICE EWING 19 j. M. N. Toksoz, F. Press, K. Anderson, A. Dainty, G. Latham, M. Ewing, }. Dorman, D. Lammlein, G. Sutton, F. Duennebier, and Y. Nakamura. Lunar crust: structure and composition. Science, 176:1012-16. k. M. N. Toksoz, F. Press, K. Anderson, A. Dainty, G. Latham, M. Ewing, I. Dorman, D. Lammlein, Y. Nakamura, G. Sutton, and F. Duennebier. Velocity structure and properties of the lunar crust. The Moon, 4:49~504. 1. G. Latham, M. Ewing, I. Dorman, D. Lammlein, F. Press, N. Toksoz, G. Sutton, F. Duennebier, and Y. Nakamura. Moon- quakes and lunar tectonism. The Moon, 4:373-82. m. G. Latham, M. Ewing, I. Dorman, D. Lemmlein, F. Press, N. Toksoz, G. Sutton, F. Duennebier, and Y. Nakamura. Moon- quakes and lunar tectonism results from Apollo passive seismic experiment. In: Proceedings of the third lunar science confer- ence, ed. D. R. Criswell. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, Suppl. 4, 3:251~26. n. W. L. Donn and M. Ewing. Resonant coupling of ocean Rayleigh waves to atmospheric shock waves from Apollo rockets. }. Geo- phys. Res., 77:701~21. O. M. N. Toksoz, F. Press, A. Dainty, K. Anderson, G. Latham, M. Ewing, J. Dorman, D. Lammlein, G. Sutton, and F. Duennebier. Structure, composition and properties of lunar crust. In: Pro- ceedings of the third lunar science conference, ed. D. R. Cris- well. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, Suppl. 3, 3:2527-44. p. G. Latham, M. Ewing, F. Press, G. Sutton, }. Dorman, Y. Naka- mura, N. Toksoz, D. Lammlein, and F. Duennebier. Comments on "Lunar seismograms for LM and ~IVB impacts interpreted as modulation mirage" by E. Strick. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 15:212-14. 1973 a. M. Ewing, G. Carpenter, C. Windisch, and }. Ewing. Sediment distribution in the oceans: the Atlantic. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull., 84:71-87. b. M. B. Jacobs, E. M. Thorndike, and M. Ewing. A comparison of suspended particulate matter from nepheloid and clear water. Mar. Geol., 14:1 17-28. c. W. J. Ludwig, S. Murauchi, N. Den, P. Buhl, H. Hotta, T. Asa- numa, T. Yoshii, N. Sakajiri, and M. Ewing. Structure of east

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192 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS China Sea-west Philippine Sea margin off southern Kyushu, Japan. J. Geophys. Res., 78:2526-36. d. T. Yoshii, W. }. Ludwig, N. Den, S. Murauchi, M. Ewing, H. Hotta, P. Buhl, T. Asanuma, and N. Sakajiri. Structure of south- west Japan margin off Shikoku. J. Geophys. Res., 78:2517-25. R. Houtz, M. Ewing, D. Hayes, and B. Naini. Sediment isopachs in the Indian and Pacific Ocean sectors (105E to 70W). In: Antarctic Map Folio Series, Folio 17, Sediments 9-12 and Plate 5. Wash., D.C.: Am. Geogr. Soc. f. R. Leyden, M. Ewing, and S. Murauchi. Sonobuoy refraction measurements in east China Sea. Bull. Am. Assoc. Petrol. Geol., 57 :2396-2403. g. G. Latham, M. Ewing, l. Dorman, Y. Nakamura, F. Press, N. Toksoz, G. Sutton, F. Duennebier, and D. Lammlein. Lunar structure and dynamics-results from the Apollo passive seismic experiment. The Moon, 7:396~21. h. M. Ewing, R. W. Embley, and T. H. Shipley. Observations of shallow layering utilizing the pingerprobe echo-sounding sys- tem. Mar. Geol., 14:M55-M63. i. Y. Nakamura, D. Lammlein, G. Latham, M. Ewing, }. Dorman, F. Press, and N. Toksoz. New seismic data on the state of the deep lunar interior. Science, 181:49-51. G. Latham, l. Dorman, F. Duennebier, M. Ewing, D. Lammlein, and Y. Nakamura. Moonquakes, meteoroids, and the state of the lunar interior. In: Proceedings of the fourth lunar science con- ference, ed. W. A. Gose. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, Suppl. 4, 3:251~27. k. G. Latham, M. Ewing, }. Dorman, Y. Nakamura, F. Press, N. Toksoz, G. Sutton, F. Duennebier, and D. Lammlein. Lunar structure and dynamics-results from Apollo passive seismic ex- periment. The Moon, 7:396 420. . J- 1974 a. F. Shido, A. Miyashiro, and M. Ewing. Compositional variation in pillow lavas from the mid-Atlantic ridge. Mar. Geol., 16: 177-90. b. F. Shido, A. Miyashiro, and M. Ewing. Basalts and serpentinite from the Puerto Rico Trench, I. Petrology. Mar. Geol., 16: 191-203. c. S. D. Connary and M. Ewing. Penetration of Antarctic bottom

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WILLIAM MAURICE EWING 193 water from the Cape basin into the Angola basin. }. Geophys. Res., 79:463~9. d. Y. Nakamura, I. Dorman, F. Duennebier, M. Ewing, D. Lamm- lein, and G. Latham. High frequency lunar teleseismic events. In: Proceedings of the fifth lunar science conference. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, Suppl. 5, 3:2883-90. e. Y. Nakamura, G. Latham, D. Lammlein, M. Ewing, F. Duen- nebier, and l. Dorman. Deep lunar interior inferred from the latest seismic data. Geophys. Res. Lett., 1:137~0. f. C. Urien and M. Ewing. Recent sediments and environments of southern Brazil, Uruguay, Buenos Aires and Rio Negro conti- nental shelf. In: The Geology of Continental Margins, ed. C. A. Burk and C. L. Drake, pp. 157-77. N.Y.: Springer-Verlag. g. S. K. Addy and M. Ewing. A new box corer designed for the investigation of manganese-nodule distribution in a sediment column. Mar. Geol., 17 :M 1 7-M25. h. D. R. Lammlein, G. Latham, }. Dorman, Y. Nakamura, and M. Ewing. Lunar seismicity, structure and tectonics. Rev. Geophys. Space Phys., 12: 1-2 1 . i. L. Eittreim and M. Ewing. Turbidity distribution in the deep waters of the western Atlantic trough. In: Suspended Solids in Water, ed. R. I. Gibbs, pp. 213-25. N.Y.: Plenum Press. 1975 a. J. S. Watkins, J. L. Worzel, M. H. Houston, M. Ewing, and J. B. Sinton. Deep seismic reflection results from the Gulf of Mexico: Part I. Science, 187 :834-36. b. G. Latham, Y. Nakamura, J. Dorman, F. Duennebier, M. Ewing, D. Lammlein. Rezul'taty passivnogo seismicheskogo eksperi- menta po programme "Apollon." In: Trudy Sovetsko-Amer~kanskoi konferentsii po kosmoLhimii Luny i planet, pp. 29~310. Moscow: Izdatel'stvo Nauka. 1977 G. Latham, Y. Nakamura, I. Dorman, F. Duennebier, M. Ewing, and D. Lammlein. Results from the Apollo passive seismic ex- periment. In: Proceedings of Soviet-American conference on cosmochemistry of the moon and planets, ed. }. H. Pomeroy and N. I. Hubbard, NASA Spec. Publ., SP-370:389 401.