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LEONARD CARMICHAEL November 9, 1898~eptember 16, 1973 BY CARL PFAFFMANN LEONARD CARMICHAEL was born in the Germantown section of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He was the only chilc] of Thomas Harrison Carmichael, a successful physi- cian, and Emily Henrietta Leonard Carmichael, an active volunteer worker on many charitable boarcis. At the time of her death, she was chief of the Bureau of Recreation of Philadelphia. His maternal grandfather, Charles Hall Leonard, D.D., LL.D., was Dean of the Crane Theological School of Tufts University for many years. Leonard attenclec! the Germantown Friends School, although his parents were not Quakers. He further cemented the family traditions with Tufts when he entered the Uni- versity in ~ 917. Not only was his grandfather a dean at Tufts, but his uncles attencied college there. Leonard was elected to Phi Beta Kappa in his junior year, and received a B.S. degree summa cum laude in 1921. He was much influencer! by his senior research project on the embryology of the eye muscles of the shark, which aroused his interest in the sense organs as directors of animal behavior. His interest in sensory psy- chology ant! physiology became a dominant theme in his later scientific career. As an undergraduate, he was much influ- encect by the books of Jacques Loeb, the biologist ultra- mechanist, and C. Lloyd Morgan, the proponent of emergent 25

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26 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS evolution. After reacting Howard C. Warren's Human Psy- chology, however, Leonard decided that psychology (rather than anatomy or physiology) was the discipline in which he could best stucly the senses with a view to their functional, as well as biological, setting. He entered Harvard as a graduate student on a fellowship provicled by the eclucational psychologist, Professor Walter F. Dearborn, with whom he developed an especially close as- sociation. He was assignee! a fine office and adjoining labora- tory, and was able to work in the Harvarc! shop, rebuilding an improved mode! of the famous Dodge-Dearborn eye move- ment recorcling camera. Carmichael was encouraged to satisfy his interest in biology, as well as psychology, and he did so with a number of zoology courses. His first piece of gracI- uate laboratory research was a quantitative study of the reac- tion of the meal worm (Tenebrio molitor ) to light, uncler the direction of G. H. Parker, professor of zoology. Carmichael regardecl Parker's lectures on the nervous system and the sense organs as models of clarity and scholarship. Among his psychology professors were E. G. Boring, I,. T. Troland, and William McDougall. Carmichael's continuing interest in the sensory control of, or release of, inborn patterns of behavior led Dearborn to recommend a theoretical ant! historical Ph.D. dissertation on the psychology ant! biology of human and animal instincts. A summary of the conclusions was published in an article entitled "Hereclity and Environment: Are They Antitheti- car?" William Preyer's studies of signs of life in the fetus before birth pointed the way for Carmichael to investigate morphological growth of receptors and the nervous system in relation to behavior released at various stages of early onto- genetic development in mammals before learning begins, or is important. After receiving his Ph.D. degree, he was awarded a Sheldon Fellowship, which permitted travel and

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LEONARD CARMICHAEL 27 study abroad. "Report of a Sheldon Fellow," published in the Harvard Alumni Bulletin (1925), describes his visits to the University of Berlin and other German universities. In ~ 924 he joined the faculty of Princeton to teach physio- logical psychology and the history and systems of psychology. There he began his research on the development of behavior with larval amblystoma and frog tadpoles. It hac! previously been shown that their physical development proceeded normally in laboratory Petri dishes when immobilized with a mild concentration of the anesthetic, chioretone. Carmichael focussecI upon behavioral development when presumably all sensory input was reduced, and clearly all motor movement inhibited, so that no practice was possible. In the strongly antihereditarian point of view that dominates! American behavioral psychology at that time, the outcome of this experiment arousal widespread interest. Carmichael found that when the anesthetic was removed, the experimentally treated organisms swam with vigor and coordination equal to that of the undrugged controls, who were allowed to move throughout development. As he stated in his autobi- ography: . These studies supported a hereditary rather than an environmentalistic theory of the determination of the growth of organized behavior. At the time, the results of these experiments surprised me and almost shocked me. They did not support my then strongly held belief in the determining influence of the environment at every stage in the growth of behavior.* Carmichael's reports of these experiments inPsycho~ogzvcai Review (1926, 1927, and 1928) seemed to dodge the obvious conclusion. He continued to speak of the intimate inter- relation of heredity and environment and the difficulties of i- e e ulsentang log t nelr Interaction. *Leonard Carmichael, "Leonard Carmichael," in A History of Psychology in Autob'- ography, ed. E. G. Boring and Gardner Lindzey, vol. 5 (N.Y.: Appleton-Century Crofts, 1967), p. 37.

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28 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS It was also at Princeton that he became interested in the history of research on reflex action, and published two papers, one on Robert Whytt ant! the second on Sir Charles Bell. Carmichael made frequent mention of Bell as an early contributor to physiological psychology. Indeed, Carmichael and his graduate students ant! colleagues former! the Sir Charles Bell Society and met together for clinner and general reports of one's doings cluring the Annual Meetings of the American Psychological Association. Carmichael's paper on Bell (Psychological Review, 1926) was a careful review of Bell's contributions, such as his recog- nition in IS} ~ of many of the facts that Johann Muller later included in his IS38 Handbook uncler the doctrine of specific nerve energies. Bell clearly understood that the same stim- ulus will give two different sensations, depencling upon the nerves affected. He noted that a sharp steel-point applied to one type of papilla on the tongue would cause a feeling of sharpness by way of the sense of touch. When a taste papilla was touched, he perceives! a metallic taste but no touch. Bell also gave a treatment of the five senses, reciprocal innerva- tion of antagonistic muscles, and wrote on the expression of the emotions. On Bell's controversial priority for the demon- stration of the separate functions of the dorsal ant! ventral roots of the spinal cord, Carmichael supported Bell's priority on the law that bears his name. Carmichael noted: "Magendie perhaps independently gave the principle a more exact form- ulation and a clear physiological proof."* More recent his- torical (documentary evidence has become available and is interpreted by Cranefielc} (1974) to give the priority to Magendie.! * Leonard Carmichael, "Sir Charles Bell: A Contribution to the History of Physio- logical Psychology," Psychological Review, 33: 196. t Paul Frederic Cranefield, The Way In and the Way Out, Franco?s Mag~rutie, Charles Bell arm the Roots of the Spinal Nerve (Mount Kisco, N.Y.: Futura, 1974).

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LEONARD CARMICHAEL 29 Carmichael moved to Brown University in 1927 as one of the youngest full professors on the Brown faculty, still in his twenties at the time of his appointment. He hac! been recruited to built! a new laboratory and graduate department and to strengthen the undergraduate program in psy- chology. Carmichael was an excellent and popular lecturer. His elementary psychology lecture sections filled the largest lecture hall on campus. He personally gave all the lectures in the three successive sections every Monday ant! Friday morn- ing. He enlivener! his lectures with dramatic, but clear, demonstrative material, slides, ant} film strips. junior faculty and graduate student teaching assistants conducted the quiz sections cluring the week. Leonard was voted the most popular teacher at the University a number of times by the students. ~ was an undergraduate student at Brown when ~ first met L,eonarcI. He was then a young bachelor, whose (lashing campus image was reinforced by a bright red Buick roadster. The ridclle of his numerous trips to Cambridge was solver! by his marriage to Pear! L. Kidston of Hudson, Massachusetts, on June 30, ~ 932. After graduation from college, she worked at Harvard's Graduate School of Eclucation. They had one child, Martha, born during Leonard's last year at Brown. Martha married S. Parker Oliphant, and their first chilc! was named Leonard Carmichael Oliphant. Although Carmichael was busily involvecl in organizing the new laboratory and department, equipping it for re- search and for graduate training in experimental and physio- log~cal psychology, ant! carrying out his own research, he personally taught undergraduate and graduate courses and guided the research of honor undergracluates ant! several graduate students. While ~ was an unclergracluate at Brown, any doubts on my own career plans were settled after com- pletion of Carmichael's elementary psychology course. In-

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30 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS deecI, Carmichael was my first ant] most important mentor and guided my honors and master's research in physiological sensory psychology. He urgent me to apply for a Rhodes Scholarship to study physiology at Oxford. The Rhodes Scholarship was awarclec! to me, and following my studies at Oxford, ~ went on to Cambridge University. After two years of graduate work under the late Lord Adrian, ~ received my Ph.D. degree. Throughout the years, my strong personal ties with Leonard and Pear] Carmichael prospered. At Brown University, Carmichael achiever! his long- cherished goal of studying the development of behavior in fetal mammals. His study began with the fetal cat, and he developed an especially clesigned cradle in which the preg- nant cat couch be supported, so that after Cesarean section, the fetus; with fetal circulation intact, floated in a bath of warmed saline solution. A high cervical section of the maternal spinal cord permitted discontinuance of anesthetic, and thus the fetus could be studied in a normal physiological state, free of anesthetic. lames Coronius and Harold SchIosberg participated with Carmichael in the first study of the fetal cat. Verbal records of descriptions of the behavior were dictatecI, ant] motion pictures were taken. Interest was focussed on the responses to well-controllec! sensory stimulation. In addition to fetal cats, Carmichael and his students subsequently made a pro- longed series of studies on the development of behavior of the fetal guinea pig. More than 100 cutaneous pressure reflexogenous zones were studied throughout the entire active prenatal life of sixty-eight days. Carmichael noted in The Experimental Embryology of Mind ( ~ 94 ~ ): Thus it is not the physical character ot the stimulus, but rather that it shall be above the threshold of some of the complex of skin receptors and in a specific locus, that determines the response. Such typical patterns of behavior remain amazingly constant in an organism that is rapidly grow-

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LEONARD CARMICHAEL 31 ing, and, conversely but similarly, growth may suddenly alter such re- sponses, and such alterations of behavior may easily be confused with learned responses, especially in postnatal life. I have never seen any responses in the late fetus which, in their elements, have not appeared as a typical patterned reaction to isolated stimuli many times before. In the late guinea pig fetus the hair coat is well grown, the teeth are erupted, eyes and ears are functional, and adaptive integrated behavior is well established. At this time such an animal will, to use the language of teleology, attempt in a most effective and even inge- nious way to deal with a factual stimulus applied to its lip. First, it may be, it will attempt to remove the stimulus by curling the lip; then, if the stimulus remains, it is brushed by the forepaw on the stimulated side. If the stimulus still persists, the head is turned sharply. Finally, a general struggle is resorted to which involves movements of all four limbs and all trunk muscles. In a late fetus this final maneuver is sometimes so quick and effective that the experimenter is often thwarted and the offending stim- ulus is removed by a guinea pig fetus that is having its own willful and annoying way in spite of anything the experimenter can do. Each of these special responses, however, may be seen as an old one to the person who has watched the growth of fetal behavior. Complex patterns of behavior emerge as a result of maturation. Such behavior is possibly as truly end-seeking and purposeful as is any behavior in the world which does not involve the use of language. I see no reason to believe that this emergent purposeful behavior is not as natural a result of the processes of growth as is the length of the fetal whiskers, and quite as independent of learning. The growing animal functions in a way that is in general adaptive at every stage. When I wrote my first papers in this field, dealing with the development of drugged amblystoma, I was so under the domination of a universal conditioned reflex theory of the development of adaptive re- sponses that I denied categorically the truth of the statement just made. But every experiment that I have done in the field of the early growth of behavior has forced me to retreat from this environmentalist hypothesis. Now, literally almost nothing seems to me to be left of this hypothesis so far as the very early development of behavior is concerned. The classical work of Preyer and Coghill on the sequence of motility in the developing amphibian larvae showed the first movement to be a C shaper! or reversed C curvature. This was followed by an S or sigmoid form of reaction. The

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32 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS S movement was funciamental to swimming, which consisted! of a succession of sigmoid movements before the limbs clevel- oped. When they did appear, both sets of limbs moved only as part of the larger trunk movement. Independent limb action gradually began to indivicluate out of the dominant trunk movements. Movement of the trunk in walking was regarded as nothing more nor less than swimming move- ments at a generally reduced speed. Development, from the very beginning, was a progressive expansion of a perfectly integrated total pattern from which partial patterns incli- viduated with various degrees of discreteness. Carmichael saw something different in fetal mammals. He gave more importance to the early indivicluation of quite specific responses, which later became parts of integrated behaviors. Rather than debate the pros and cons of a wholistic versus specific development, Carmichael cautioned that the researcher would clo better to record! as unambiguously as possible the responses made by a fetus at any stage rather than to fit all clevelopmental changes into one formula. He agreed with William James's statement that: "Psychology must be writ both in synthetic and analytic terms."* Carmichael's work began at a time when the advances in ethology documenting the release of species-specific be- havior by patterned stimuli were not well known to the Amer- ican biological and psychological communities. The regular occurrence of these species-specific behaviors, ant! their occurrence in vacua, that is, where animals were rearer! in isolation so that postnatal experience did not occur, led Konrad Lorenz and Nikko Tinbergen to argue for the instinctive basis of much of animal behavior that occurred under natural circumstances. Such "releaser stimuli" were *William James, Principles of Psychology, vol. ~ (N.Y.: Dover, IS90), p. 487.

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LEONARD CARMI CHAEL 33 often perceptually complex, for example, a sequence of movements by another animal, coloring and size of an egg, or particular location and size of a rec! bill spot. Psychologists as a group even now tend to be cautious in attributing behavior patterns to genetically (letermine(1 pro- cesses or propensities. Still, increasing interaction among students of animal behavior and psychology is reacting to a souncler appreciation of the role of genetic determinants in behavior, both in their own right and as setting the stage upon which experience and learning can interact. Car- michael's influence on thought regarcling the development of behavior and its serisory control was, in a sense, premoni- tory of such changing views on the heredity-environment issue. His two editions of the Manual of Child Psychology ( I st ecl., 1946; 2nd ea., 1954), and a more recent third edition (1970) of Carmichael's Manual of Child Psychology, under Paul Mussen's editorship, are witness to his never flagging interest in behavioral clevelopment. Carmichael left Brown University in 1936 to become Dean of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences and professor of psychology at the University of Rochester. Two years later, he accepted the presidency of Tufts University with the un- derstanding that he be allowed to continue his scientific work. However, he was less able to elevate his energies to his past scientific interests, since World War I! efforts overlapped with his Tufts years. The Laboratory of Sensory Physiology ant! Psychology at Tufts turned to war-related projects which inclucled the improvement and application of new techniques to the stucly of eye movements and visual fatigue. Electronic, rather than ocular photography proved more suitable for long time reading fatigue studies, an oic! interest from his clays with Dearborn. To this method of registration couIcl be addled the simul- taneous registration of brain waves, the electrical signs of

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34 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS oscillatory neural activity in different brain regions through- out the reading and other visual tasks. A book, Reading and Visual Fatigue (co-authored with Dearborn), appeared in 1947. He had pioneered with H. H. Jasper at Brown and the Bradley House some of the first EEG (elect~roencephalo- graphic) registration of brain waves in humans ant! animals (1935~. He contributed in many other ways to the war effort. He was particularly proud of his role as director of the National Roster of Scientific and Specialized Personnel, which dicI in- valuable work in the recruitment ant! assignment of scientists for the atomic energy and racier projects, among others. In the period from 1939 to 1945, he commuter! between Tufts and Washington once or twice weekly, as he mentioned in his autobiography, "spencling more than a year of nights on a sleeping car between Boston and Washington."* He also served on a number of advisory committees and boards at the national level. in 1947 and 1948, he was chairman of the American Council on Education. Carmichael was elected to the American Acaclemy of Arts and Sciences in 1932 and to the American Philosophical Society in 1942. He was electec! to the National Academy of Sciences in ~ 943 and served as the chairman of its Section on Psychology from 1950 to 1953. He was president of the American Philosophical Society from ~ 970 to ~ 973. For almost a quarter of a century, he was a member, and for much of the time chairman, of the Boarc! of Scientific Directors of the Yerkes Laboratories of Primate Biology. I,ater he served on a similar board for the Delta Regional Primate Research Center ant! for many years was on the * Leonard Carmichael, "Leonard Carmichael," in A History of Psychology in Autobi- ography, ed. E. G. Boring and Gardner Lindzey, vol. 5 (N.Y.: Appleton-Century Crofts, 1967), p. 48.

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LEONARD CARMICHAEL 37 years a better and better understancling of the mechanisms of adaptive response ant! of mental life. Leonard Carmichael as a person was formicIable. He was taller than average and had an unusually resonant voice. For over half of his career, he was extremely formal in per- sonal relations. He never called his graduate students by first names until some several years after their doctorate. He was similarly formal with his working associates. With years, however, he mellowed, as do most. Gatherings of his former students at meetings of the Sir Charles Bell Society became more relaxed, but still formal. Those meetings, hosted by Leonard and Pear! at their Georgetown home, with a superb buffet and ample libation; were a corclial exchange of aca- demic reminiscences and family doings, ant] less the inquisi- tions on research done or not clone that hac! characterized earlier meetings. The moot! was one of affectionate loyalty to the "good (loctor." Much more couIcT be said of Leonarc! Carmichael, his activities in national affairs and in the scientific and ecluca- tional domains. His memberships, off~cerships, awards, and u~st~nct~ons, too numerous to recount, include twenty-three honorary degrees, the Presiclential Citation of Merit, the Pub- lic Service Medal of the National Academy of Sciences, orders of merit from four foreign countries, fellowships, trustee- ships, and a legion of responsibilities and duties of distinc- tion. His honorary degree citation from Harvarc! best sums it up: "A psychologist who combines distinction in his science and success in administration." ~ WISH TO EXPRESS my appreciation to Mrs. Leonard Carmichael for the wealth of bibliographic and other material provided and to Leonard Mead for information on the Tufts years.

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38 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS B I B LI OGRAPH Y* 1925 With W. F. Dearborn and E. E. Lord. Special disabilities in learning to read and write. Harvard Monographs in Educ., ser. i, 2 (1~: pp. 36 49. Eidetic imagery and the Binet test. I. [:duc. Psychol., 16:251-53. An evaluation of current sensationism. Psychol. Rev., 32:192-215. A device for the demonstration of apparent movement. Am. }. Psychol., 36:446 48. Heredity and environment: Are they antithetical? I. Abnorm. Soc. Psychol., 20:245~0. The report of a Sheldon fellow (German psychological labora- tories). Harv. Alumni Bull., 27:1087~9. 1926 The development of behavior in vertebrates experimentally removed from the influence of external stimulation. Psychol. Rev., 33:51-58. Sir Charles Bell: A contribution to the history of physiological psy- chology. Psychol. Rev., 33:18~217. What is empirical psychology? Am. J. Psychol., 37:521-27. 1927 A further study of the development of behavior in vertebrates experimentally removed from the influence of external stimula- tion. Psychol. Rev., 34:31 47. Robert Whytt: A contribution to the history of physiological psy- chology. Psychol. Rev., 34:287-304. 1928 A further experimental study of the development of behavior. Psy- chol. Rev., 35:253~9. 1929 The experimental study of the development of behavior in verte- brates. In: Proceedings and Papers of the Ninth International Con- gress of Psychology, ed. E. G. Boring, pp. 11~15. Princeton, N. I.: Psychological Review. *This bibliography contains Carmichael's main scholarly and scientific works. Book reviews, reports, discussions, printed addresses, etc., were not included.

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LEONARD CARMICHAEL 39 With H. Schlosberg. Apparatus from the Brown psychological laboratory. In: Proceedings and Papers of the Ninth International Congress of Psychology, ed. E. G. Boring, pp. 381~2. Princeton, N. I.: Psychological Review. A demonstrational Masson disk. Am. I. Psychol., 41:301. 1930 A relationship between the psychology of learning and the psy- chology of testing. School Soc., 31 :687-93. With H. C. Warren. Elements of Human Psychology. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. 1931 With H. Schlosberg. A simple heat grill. Am. I. Psychol., 43:119. With H. Schlosberg. A new stylus maze. Am. l. Psychol., 43:129. With H. Schlosberg. A simple apparatus for the conditioned reflex. Am.J.Psychol.,43:12~22. A new commercial stereoscope. Am. I. Psychol., 43:644-45. 1932 With H. P. Hogan and A. A. Walter. An experimental study of the effect of language on the reproduction of visually perceived form. J. Exp. Psychol., 15:73~6. With H. Gashman. A study of mirror-writing in relation to handed- ness and perceptual motor habits. J. Gen. Psychol., 6:29~329. With L. D. Marks. A study of the learning process in the cat in a maze constructed to require delayed response. l. Genet. Psy- chol., 40:955 68. Scientific psychology and the schools of psychology. Am. J. Psy- chiatry, 11 :955 68. 1933 Origin and prenatal growth of behavior. In: A Harutbook of Child Psychology, Ed ea., rev. C. Murchison, pp. 31-159. Worcester, Mass.: Clark Univ. Press. 1934 The psychology of genius. Phi Kappa Phi }., Sept., pp. 149 64. The genetic development of the kitten's capacity to right itself in the air when falling. Pedag. Seminary I. Genet. Psychol., 44:453-58.

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40 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS With E. T. Raney. Localizing responses to factual stimuli in the fetal rat in relation to the psychological problem of space per- ception. Pedag. Seminary J. Genet. Psychol., 45:3-21. An experimental study in the prenatal guinea pig of the origin and development of reflexes and patterns of behavior in relation to the stimulation of specific receptor areas during the period of active fetal life. Genet. Psychol. Monogr., 16~6~:337~91. 1935 The response mechanism. In: Psychology, a Factual Textbook, ed. E. G. Boring, H. S. Langfeld, and H. P. Weld, pp. ~35. N.Y.: Wiley. With H. H. Jasper. Electrical potentials from the intact human brain. Science, 81:51-53. With C. S. Bridgman. An experimental study of the onset of behavior in the fetal guinea pig. J. Genet. Psychol., 47:247~7. 1936 A re-evaluation of the concepts of maturation and learning as applied to the early development of behavior. Psychol. Rev., 43:45(~70. With K. U. Smith. The post-operative effects of removal of the striate cortex upon certain aspects of visually controlled behavior in the cat. Psychol. Bull., 33:751. The development of temperature sensitivity. Psychol. Bull., 33: 777(A). The development of behavior in fetal life and the concept of the "organism-as-a-whole." Proc. 2d Biennial Conf. Washington, D. C.: Society for Research in Child Development, pp. 41~4. The problem of techniques in the study of the development of receptor mechanisms in young animals. Proc. Ed Biennial Conf. Washington, D. C.: Society for Research in Child Development, pp. 45~9. 1937 With S. O. Roberts and N. Y. Wessell. A study of the judgment of manual expression as presented in still and motion pictures. J. Soc. Psychol., 8:11~52.

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LEONARD CARMICHAEL 41 The response mechanism. Experiments 1 and 2. In: A Manual of Psychological Experiments, ed. E. G. Boring, H. S. Langfeld, and H. P. Weld, pp. 1~. N.Y.: Wiley. With G. F. I. Lehner. The development of temperature sensitivity. J. Genet. Psychol., 50:217-27. With H. H. Jasper and C. S. Bridgman. Art ontogenetic study of cerebral electrical potentials in the guinea pig. I. Exp. Psychol., 21:63-71. With Z. Y. Kuo. A technique for the motion-picture recording of the development of behavior in the chick embryo. I. Psychol., 4:343~8. 1938 Learning which modifies an animal's subsequent capacity for learn- ing. J. Genet. Psychol., 52:159 63. Pragmatic humanism and American higher education. School Soc., 48(1247):637~6. With A. F. Rawdon-Smith and B. Wellman. Electrical responses from the cochlea of the fetal guinea pig. l. Exp. Psychol., 23: 531-35. 1939 With A. C. Hoffman and B. Wellman. A quantitative comparison of the electrical and photographic techniques of eye-movement recording. I. Exp. Psychol., 24:4~53. With M. F. Smith. Quantified pressure stimulation and the specificity and generality of response in fetal life. I. Genet. Psychol., 54:42~34. With I. Warkentin. A study of the development of the air-ri~htinz reflex in cats and rabbits. l. Genet. Psychol., 55:67-80. 1940 The national roster of scientific and specialized personnel. Science. 92: 13~37. With M. H. Erickson, R. C. Tryon, E. A. Doll, D. B. Lindsley, G. Kreezer, I. R. Knott, and N. W. Shock. The physiological correlates of intelligence. In: 39th Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education, Part . Intelligence: Its Nature and Nur- ture. Bloomington, Ill.: School Publishing.

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42 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS With B. Wellman. Apparatus for producing intermittent audible impulses. l. Exp. Psychol., 26:129-31. 1941 The experimental embryology of mind. Psychol. Bull., 38:1-28. The national roster of scientific and specialized personnel: A progress report. Science, 93 :217- 19. Psychological aspects of the national roster of scientific and specialized personnel. I. Consult. Psychol., 5:253-57. Psychology, the individual, and education. Coll. Educ. Rec., Seattle, Wash., 7:33~1. The scientist in defense and recovery. Research, The Key to Progress in Defense and Recovery, 1st Nat. Bank of Boston, May 16, 1941. Some educational implications of the national roster. Educ. Rec., 23:461-73. 1942 The national roster of scientific and specialized personnel: ad progress report. Science, 95:86 89. 1943 The number of scientific men engaged in war work. Science, 98:141- 15. Man and society in war and peace. Christian Leader, 125:614~18. 1944 The national roster. Sci. Mon., 58:141. With l. G. Beebe-Center and L. C. Mead. Daylight training of pilots for night flying. Aeronaut. Eng. Rev., 3:9-34. With L. C. Mead. The electrical recording of eye movements: A film. 1944-45 Psychol. Cinema Reg., Bull. Pennsylvania State College, PCR75K, 16mm. Kodachrome, 709 ft. 1945 The nation's professional manpower resources. In: Civil Service in Wartime, pp. 97-117. Chicago, Ill.: Univ. of Chicago Press. Psychological principles in the design and operation of military equipment. Proc. Joint Army-Navy-osRD Conf. on Psychol.

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LEONARD CARMICHAEL 43 Problems Military Training, Pt. 1, pp. 4-7. Washington, D.C.: Applied Psychol. Panel, NDRC. 1946 The national roster and the science foundation. Am. Sci., 34: 10(L105. Experimental embryology of mind. In: Twentieth Century Psychology, ed. P. L. Harriman, pp. 245-75. N.Y.: Philosophical Library. The onset and early development of behavior. In: Manual of Child Psychology, ed. L. Carmichael, pp. 43-166. N.Y.: Wiley. Behavior during fetal life. In: Encyclopedia of Psychology, ed. P. L. Harriman, pp. 198-205. N.Y.: Philosophical Library. 1947 Federal aid for college students. Assoc. Am. Coll. Bull., 33 :86-95. The growth of the sensory control of behavior before birth. Psychol. Rev., 54:316-24. With W. F. Dearborn. Reading and Visual Fatigue. Boston, Mass.: Houghton Mifflin. 1948 Reading and visual fatigue. Proc. Am. Philos. Soc., 92:4~42. Growth and development. In: Foundations of Psychology, ed. E. G. Boring, H. S. Langfeld, and H. P. Weld, pp.64~9. N.Y.: Wiley. Education and social duty. Christian Leader, 130:334-37. 1949 With W. F. Dearborn and P. W. Johnston. Oral stress and meaning in printed material. Science, 110:404. With l. L. Kennedy and L. C. Mead. Some recent approaches to the experimental study of human fatigue. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 35:691-96. 1950 Perceptual assimilation in a stereoscopic illusion. Am. l. Psychol., 63:11?-13. The growth of the sensory control of behavior before birth. Psy- chol. Rev., 54:31 ~24, 1947. (Reprinted in Outside Readings in Psychol., 1950.)

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44 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1951 Ontogenetic development. In: Handbook of Experimental Psychology, ed. S. S. Stevens, vol. 11, pp. 281-303. N.Y.: Wiley. The dynamic inhibiting effect of an old habit upon new habit formation. L'Annee Psychologique, 50th year jubilee, 423-27. 1952 With W. F. Dearborn and P. W. Johnston. Psychological writing, easy and hard for whom? Am. Psychol., 7:195-96. 1953 Manpower and human talents. Sci. News Lett., 63:154. Counterrevolution in American education. Coll. Board Rev., 21 382-88. 1954 Psychology, the machine and society. Tech. Rev., pp. 141~4, 160, 162-66. Psychology, the machine, and society (7th Annual Arthur Dehon Little Memorial Lecture delivered at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Nov.17,1953~. Boston, Mass.: Arthur MacGibbon. Laziness and the scholarly life (address before graduate convo- cation, Brown Univ., May 30, 1953~. Sci. Mon., 78 :208-13. The phylogenetic development of behavior patterns. In: Genetics and the Inheritance of Integrated Neurological and Psychiatric Pat- terns, vol. 33, pp. 87-97. Research Publications, Association for Research in Nervous and Mental Disease. Baltimore, Md.: Williams & Wilkins. The onset and early development of behavior. In: Manual of Child Psychology, Ed ea., ed. L. Carmichael, pp. 6~185. N.Y.: Wiley. 1955 Review of Theories of Perception and the Concept of Structure, by F. H. Allport. U.S. Quart. Book Rev., 11 :247~8. 1956 The Smithsonian Institution today and yesterday. The Tufto- nian, 13:4-6.

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LEONARD CARMI CHAEL 45 1957 Basic Psychology. N.Y.: Random House. The Smithsonian Institution and the American Philosophical Society. Proc. Am. Philos. Soc., 101:401~. 1958 Science and human nature: Retrospect and prospect. Proc. Borden Centennial Symposium on Nutrition, pp.127-36. N.Y.: Borden Company. 1959 Comprehension time, cybernetics, and regressive eye movements in reading. Proc. XVth International Congr. of Psychol., Brussels 1957, pp. 12~27. Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing. Letter to Psychology Department. Princeton Alumni Weekly, 59:5. 1960 The challenge of safety in a changing world: The "unchanging" nature of man (Address at President's Conference on Occu- pational Safety, March 1, 1960~. News from The President's Conference on Occupational Safety, pp. 1-8. Wash., D.C.: U.S. Govt. Print. Off. Evidence from the prenatal and early postnatal behavior of organisms concerning the concepts of local sign. Symposia. Pro- ceedings of the XVIth International Congress of Psychology (organized under the auspices of the International Union of Scientific Psy- chology by the German Society of Psychology in Bonn, July 31 to August 6, 1960), pp. 85-86. Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing. 1961 Absolutes, relativism, and the scientific psychology- of human nature. In: Relativism and the Study of Man, ed. H. Schoeck and J. W. Wiggins, pp. 1-22. Princeton, N.J.: Van Nostrand. The new museum of history and technology, Smithsonian Institu- tion, Washington. Museum, 14:232-35.

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46 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Evidence from the prenatal and early postnatal behavior of organisms concerning the concepts of local sign (Symposia. XVIth International Congress of Psychology, Bonn, July 31 to August 6, 1960~. Acta Psychol., Eur. J. Psychol., 19:16~70. 1963 Psychology of animal behavior. Am. Psychol., 18: 112- 13. What role for the "modern museum?" (Condensed from "The new role of the museum in American life," 1962, Harvard Today, pp. 21 - 26.) UNESCO Newsletter, 10:3~. 1964 The early growth of language capacity in the individual. In: New Directions in the Study of Language, ed. E. H. Lenneberg, pp. l-22, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. 1965 Evaluation of certain modern techniques for the study of primate behavior in the wild. Proceedings of the 73d Annual Conven- tion of the American Psychological Association, pp. 111-12. 1966 The comparative psychology of animal infancy. XVIII Inter- national Congress of Psychology Abstracts of Communications, pp. 1~11, Moscow, 1966. (Abstract of Dr. Carmichael's address, "Animal Infancy: A Comparative Study of the On- togeny of Behavior," given in the symposium "Ecology and Ethology in Behavioral Studies" at the XVIIIth International Congress of Psychology in Moscow.) 1968 Some historical roots of present-day animal psychology. In: Hts- tor?cal Roots of Contemporary Psychology, ed. B. B. Wolman, N.Y.: Harper and Row. Some notes on the past, present, and future of scientific primatol- ogy (Presidential address, Second International Congress of Primatology). Atlanta, Gal: Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center, Emory Univ.

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LEONARD CARMICHAEL 47 1970 The onset and early development of behavior. In: Carmichael's Manual of Child Psychology, ad ea., ed. P. H. Mussen, vol. 1, pp. 447-563. N.Y.: Wiley. 1972 Man and animal, a new understanding. In: The Marvels of Animal Behavior, ed. T. B. Allen. Washington, D.C.: National Geo- graphic Society.