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WILLIAM BARRY WOOD, JR. May 4, l910~arch 9, 1971 BY JAMES G. HIRSCH BARRY WOOD was born May 4, 1910 in Milton, Massachu- setts, of parents from established Boston families. His father was a Harvard graduate and a business man. Little information is available about Barry's early childhood, but it was apparently an enjoyable and uneventful one; he grew up along with a sister and a younger brother in a pleasant subur- ban environment. He was enrolled as a- clay student in the nearby Milton Academy, where one finds the first records of his exceptional talents as a star performer in several sports, a brilliant student, and a natural leacler. Young Wood had no special interest in science or medicine. He took a science course as a part of the standard curriculum his senior year at Milton and somewhat to his surprise won a prize as the best student in the course. This event signaled the start of his . . . Interest In a career In science. In view of his family background and his prep school record! it was a foregone conclusion that he would attend Harvard, but Barry was only seventeen years old when he graduated from Milton, and his parents decided he might profit from an opportunity to broaden his outlook and ma- ture further before entering college. He was sent to The Thatcher School in California, an experience he recalled - 387

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388 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS later as highly enjoyable and successful, with much exposure to outdoor sports and activities. The record Woos! macle at Harvard (192~1932) was truly phenomenal, leacling understandably to national fame at the time. He was a star athlete, winning nine letters in three major sports (football, baseball, and hockey) and a tenth letter in tennis. He was namer} to the All-American football team as quarterback in 1931 and was captain of the football team in his senior year. So much time was taken with his football play, his position as center of the hockey squad, and as first baseman of the baseball team, that he clicin't partic- ipate in track, one of the sports he excellec! in at Milton. He did, however, make time for a little tennis, achieved national ranking, ant] was chosen on one occasion as a member of the Davis Cup squad. In the face of this record of athletic accomplishments, which obviously consumed a good deal of time, Barry some- how managed not to neglect his academic work. He grad- uated summa cum laucle and did honors thesis research in biochemistry as ~ shall discuss in a moment. Barry was asker! time ant! again in later life how he manager! to do both sports and schoolwork and clo both so well in prep school and in college. His answer was deceptively simple, namely that he devoted all of his time to these two activities and organized himself so as to avoid incursions on his time by anything else. This undoubtedly was true or nearly true, but nevertheless his record of accomplishments in both fields is likely never to be equalled. Barry's experience in chemistry at Harvard was influ- enced by a chance encounter with James Conant, describer! by Barry as follows: I can still remember vividly coming out of the chemistry library . . . walking down the hall one day, and Mr. Conant met me and asked me what I was doing in the biochemistry field, whether I was having a good time, and

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WILLIAM BARRY WOOD, JR. 389 whether I planned to write an honors thesis. I told him I really hadn't made any plans.... Mr. Conant was then chairman of the department, and I was just an undergraduate student . . . but as was so typical of Mr. Conant he still knew that I was there and that I was trying to concentrate in biochemis- try. He said that he knew just where I ought to work on my honors thesis, with Professor L. }. Henderson. Well, I had read Henderson's Fitness of the Environment, which was a book that anyone concentrating in biochemistry would read, and I had also read his monograph on the blood, which was his great work as a scientist, and the idea of working with L. I. Henderson just seemed too good to be true. As a result of Mr. Conant's efforts, I was introduced to L. I. and went to work with him in the fatigue laboratory, which was located in the basement of the Harvard Business School across the river.* Barry's description of L. I. Henderson was also of some interest. He was not a laboratory scientist. As a matter of fact, he used to tell me that he was no good in the lab; he broke all the test tubes! He stayed in a room above the laboratory. L. }. took the data that came out of the laboratory, he would work with his slide rule and put it together and write it up. He really was one of the first theoretical biologists, who didn't do a lick of work with his own hands. And later he became a philosopher, interested in Plato. Of all the people on the Harvard faculty at that particular tirade, he had more influence over President Lowell than anyone else. Lowell went to him, consulted him about every major decision. To be allowed to work in his laboratory was a tremendous privilege." Barry's honors thesis work was selectecl to take advantage of his athletic as well as his academic activities. The laboratory had studied previously changes in certain physiological or biochemical parameters in athletes such as marathon run- ners. Henderson advised Wood to study changes in the white blood cell count during strenuous physical exercise. The study thus involves! obtaining from his teammates blood sam- *"Leaders in American Medicine," audiovisual memoir T/V2107, W. Barry Wood, Jr., 1971; Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Medical Society and National Library of Medicine/National Medical Audiovisual Center. timid.

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390 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS pies for white counts before, during, and after the height of physical exertion in football or in hockey contests. The find- ings were impressive: white counts in a football game or after a period on the ice would go from a normal of 5000 to 24,000, a change as great as that seen in pneumonia or acute appen- dicitis. This thesis work, properly evaluated and written up, was published in a German physiology journal and was the first of a long series of publications by W. Barry Wood, Jr., nearly all of which had to do directly or indirectly with the same white cells that were the subjects of this college project. Barry also described with some relish his experience in writing for publication this first research work, an experience strikingly similar to that recalled by many of us in similar circumstances. The thing I can remember most clearly about this experience was that I had to write this honors thesis, and I worked very hard on it. I tried to make every sentence perfect. When I got through I thought I had a masterpiece to give to L. J. to read. Well, he called me back about three days after I had given it to him. It was there on his desk, and it was just covered with red markscorrections starting with the title. He began by pointing out that the title didn't say what was in the paper, that when you give a title to a paper it should tell the reader what is in the paper. He must have spent hours correcting the manuscript, every single word. My first reaction was one of anger. But it was a wonderful lesson to me in writing. I did the whole thing over again, taking into consideration all of his corrections. And then, of course, he liked it a little better. That had a lasting impression on me. I always tried later on to do the same thing, to help junior faculty or students write scientific papers properly.* Two important decisions were made by Barry in 1932 when he gracluatect from Harvard. The first was the decision that he and Mary Lee ("deal") Hutchins wouIcl be married. Barry and Leal had been close friends since chilclhood; the Woods ant! the Hutchins shared with several other Boston families a summer camp in southern Maine. Secondly, Barry *ibid.

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WI LLI A M B A RRY WO O D, J R. 391 decider! to enter meclical school at Johns Hopkins. He remi- nisced about the choice between Harvarc! and Hopkins as follows: I decided after college that it would be a good thing to get away from Boston. After all, I'd been there nearly all my life, and it seemed to me wise to go somewhere else. I had just been married, and my wife's father was a physician who had been trained at Johns Hopkins. I heard him talk about it, what a wonderful place it was. He had been there in the days of Osler and Welch and Kellyhe was Kelly's first resident on the gynecology service. I also looked at the Hopkins catalogue and noticed that they had a lot of free time for special studies and research. I was interested in the idea of doing research, so it seemed to me that I ought to go to Johns Hopkins. So I went to talk to some of the Boston Brahmin physicians. And they told me I was crazy! They said that John Hopkins was a second-rate place, that there was no medical school that could measure up to Harvard Medical School. But despite that advice I decided to go to Hopkins, and I never regretted it.* Barry and Leal lived in a boarding house near The Hop- kins. Leal went to Coucher and then to The Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, for her graduate work. Both Barry and Leal often spoke of these happy days, commenting that it was a great experience to go through graduate school to- gether. They kept careful records of expenses; total costs, including tuition, room and board, and maintenance on a secondhand car, were Al 100 for the first year, for both! The medical school curriculum was a demanding one, but Barry found some time to spend in the laboratory of W. Mansfield Clark, working in biochemistry and metab- olism, in particular on pH and oxiciation-reduction poten- tials. One summer during medical school was spent at the University of Wisconsin working in microbiology and visiting with Polly Bunting, a close Vassar College friend of Leal's who was a graduate student at Wisconsin. The following summer Barry took a clerkship at The Boston City Hospital, *IBM.

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392 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS where he was exposed to interesting clinical material and stimulating teachers: Soma Weiss, William Castle, and Chester Keefer. As Barry put it, he was "bitten by the clinical bug" that summer. When graduation from meclical school drew near, Barry found himself facing a cliff~cult choice in terms of postdoc- toral training. He was interested in everything ranging from clinical medicine through clinical research to the basic sci- ences ant! pure laboratory work. Mansfield Clark urged Barry to go straight into biochemistry ant! start his scientific career, but Barry finally decided, after considerable debate and soul-searching, to pursue his clinical bent. He went on to internship and assistant resident appointments at Hopkins on the meclical service directecl by Warfield Longcope. Longcope encouraged each of his resident physicians to select a speciality for clinical and laboratory study in depth cluring their stay. Barry wanted the metabolism and biochem- istry speciality, but it had been taken by someone else. Long- cope suggested as an alternate the fielcl of immunity and gave Barry recent issues of The Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research annual reports, directing his attention to the work of Oswald Avery. Wood was utterly fascinated with these reports. Longcope arranged for Barry to visit Avery in New York. Barry described his visit as follows: I can still remember to this day going into Avery's office. He sat me down at a table.... He was a tiny little man, and he had on a long white coat, and he paced the floor. He told me the whole story of the pneumococcus capsule and the polysaccharides in such a way that I was just entranced by it, and I went back with great enthusiasm for getting into this infectious disease field.* Barry had little time for lab research during his clinical resiclency, but as soon as this had been completed he re- turned to Boston as a National Research Council Fellow in *Ibid.

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WILLIAM BARRY WOOD, JR. 393 the bacteriology department of Hans Zinsser. Wood had macle a choice between A. Baird Hastings in biochemistry and Zinsser and selectee! the latter because he was still capti- vated by the pneumococcus and wantec! to do research on this organism. It is somewhat surprising that Barry die! not seek a position with Avery, the acknowledged pneumococcus ex- pert who had stimulated his interest, but there is no evidence that he considered! this course of action. Zinsser was in the terminal stages of leukemia during Barry's stay in the department, so arrangements were made for him to work with John Enders, who was then studying pneumococcal infections. Wood ant! Enders cleveloped a laboratory mode! of pneumococcal pneumonia in rats, basest on earlier work done by Nungester at Michigan. This mocle} allowed them to study in a fruitful manner several experi- mental aspects of the infection. They demonstrates! that leu- kocytes played a primary role in recovery from pneumo- coccal pneumonia and were not merely scavenger cells that cleaned up the damage after antibodies or other agencies had killed the microbes. They studied the effects of antiserum on the recovery process and confirmed! the earlier reports that antibody promoted phagocytosis, although they also noted that some phagocytosis occurred before demonstrable anti- bocly was present. These experiments laid the groundwork for continuing studies on relationships between pathogenic microorganisms anct phagocytic cells, studies that occupied Barry for approximately half of his scientific career. After only one year at Harvard, Barry returned to Hop- kins, accepting a junior staff position in the department of medicine. It was wartime and he was busy with clinical and administrative duties, including service with a special com- mission on primary atypical pneumonia of the Armec! Forces Epiclemiology Board. During his second year on the staff at Hopkins, Wood was

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394 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS offered the position of professor and chairman of the depart- ment of medicine at Washington University in St. Louis. Barry was only thirty-two years of age. He was, in his own words, "flabbergasted" at the offer. He was only two years beyond house-officer training, and he felt a distinct uneasi- ness about his ability to handle the professional responsibili- ties. Furthermore, St. Louis was far outside the Boston- Baltimore axis he had been on his entire life, and all of his Hopkins friends and mentors advisect against taking it be- cause it would preclude any chance to develop a research program. Despite these negative aspects, the challenge and the attraction of the offer were too great to resist, and he accepted. He started slowly in St. Louis, watching and learning the ropes from Harry Alexander and other experienced clini- cians. His success in the early phases of the new job was helpec! in no small measure by his strict adherence to the admonition of his wife, Leal, that he never mention Johns Hopkins! Within a few years Barry had established one of the best teaching and research medical services in the world at Washington University. The service was small, by today's standards, with an unusual degree of intimate and stimulat- ing contact between professors and house staff. Wood was determined to continue his laboratory research in his new position. He enjoyed clinical medicine and teach- ing and was extraordinarily talented in both of these activi- ties, but basic research was his first love. He devised an unusual plan for sharing the clinical and administrative leaci- ership of the department with his close friend and colleague, Car! Moore. Each was the professor in charge of clinical and administrative duties for six months of the year, during which the time available for research was nil, or at best catch- as-catch-can, and each enjoyed six months of the year for fulI- time research, uninterrupted! save by emergencies. Such a

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WlI.I.lAM RARRY WOOD, JR. 395 plan can be expecter! to work only if the two men are com- pletely compatible ant! trusting of one another; it worker! very well indeed for more than a decade with Barry Woos! and Car' Moore sharing the captain's role. Although limiter! to half-time for research activities, Wood was remarkably productive during his thirteen years in St. Louis. His laboratory published cluring this period ap- proximately thirty papers reporting new findings on mech- anisms involved in the pathogenesis of diseases produced by the pneumococcus or closely related microorganisms. He studies! the mechanisms by which the outcome of experi- mental pneumococcal pneumonia was altered by various agencies: coexisting influenza virus infections, various drugs and antibiotics,-and serum antibodies. Perhaps the most important contribution was the discov- ery of the phenomenon of surface phagocytosis. This discov- ery grew out of observations maple on lungs of animals in- fected with encapsulated pneumococci early in the course of the disease, before the animals were able to produce antibody to render the microorganisms susceptible to phagocytosis. It was noted that consiclerable phagocytosis was occurring even at these early time points. Further study on interactions be- tween encapsulated pneumococci and phagocytes in vivo and in several situations in vitro established the fact that the na- ture of the environment was important to the outcome. On smooth surfaces the phagocytes were unable to engulf the bacteria, whereas on rough surfaces they were often able to wedge the slippery microbes in a blind alley or a corner and accomplish phagocytosis. This phenomenon of surface phagocytosis contributed to understanding of the early events of infection; more important in theoretical terms was the demonstration that physical as well as chemical param- eters influenced the phagocytic process. Toward the end of his stay in St. Louis, Wood embarked

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396 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS on a new line of research, leaving pneumococcal disease in favor of experiments dealing with what appeared to be quite a different area, the pathogenesis of fever. When asked to comment on the factors that accounted for this change in direction of his research, Wood began his reply with another comment on his visit, during his house-officer days at Hop- kins, with Oswald Avery at The Rockefeller Institute. When I went to visit Avery that time I mentioned earlier, he pointed out that there are two kinds of investigators. There are investigators who go around picking up surface nuggets, and wherever they spot a surface nugget of gold, they grab it and put it in their collection. And, he said, there is another kind of investigator who is not interested in these surface nug- gets, but rather is interested in digging a deep hole in one place, hoping to hit a vein. Of course, if he strikes a vein of gold he makes a tremendous advance. Dr. Avery was such a wonderful example of this second type of investigator.... If you look at his bibliography essentially everything was on the pneumococcus I think there was one paper on the streptococcus, which is a sort of cousin of the pneumococcus. And yet Avery was the father of modern molecular genetics. Avery made the extraordinary dis- covery that the molecule important in heredity is DNA, in the course of studying his dear old pneumococcus, which he stayed with all of his life.* Wood continued, Having been so impressed by Avery's doctrine and his career, I was very hesitant to leave the pneumococcus. But I rationalized by saying that I was just as much interested in the leukocyte that I started working with in college. This double interest also seemed justified because the leukocyte, after all, is the thing that destroys the pneumococcus and makes the patient recover. One of the things that commonly happens to patients sick with infections or other diseases is that they develop fever. And I was impressed as a clinician with how little we know about fever. This became particularly fascinating when it was found that the leukocyte is the cell that makes pyrogen, which is a hormone that acts on the hypothalamus to reset the body thermostat so that the temperature goes up. So it was really a logical progression to get involved in this area.t *Ibid. tIbid.

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408 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS BIBLIOGRAPHY 1932 With H. T. Edwards. A study of leukocytosis in excercise. Arbeits- physiologie, 6:73. 1935 A preliminary physicochemical study of the reducing action of glu- cose. ~ . Biol. Chem., 110 :219~32. With Mary Lee Wood and I. L. Baldwin. The relation of oxidation- reduction potential to the growth of an aerobic microorganism. T. Bacteriol., 30:593~02. J 1938 With Charles A. Janeway. Change in plasma volume during recov- ery from congestive heart failure. Arch. Intern. Med., 62: 151-59. Anemia during sulfanilamide therapy. I. Am. Med. Assoc., 111: 191~19. 1939 Treatment of pneumococcic pneumonia with concentrated anti- pneumococcus rabbit serum. l. Am. Med. Assoc., 113:74~49. With Perrin H. Long. Observations upon the experimental and clinical use of sulfapyridine. II. The treatment of pneumococcal pneumonia with sulfapyridine. Ann. Intern. Med., 13 :487-512. With Perrin H. Long. Observations upon the experimental and clinical use of sulfapyridine. III. The mechanism of recovery from pneumococcal pneumonia in patients treated with sulfa- pyridine. Ann. Intern. Med., 13:612-17. 1940 The control of the dosage of antiserum in the treatment of pneu- mococcal pneumonia. I. A study of the mechanism of the skin reaction to type of specific polysaccharide. II. The clinical appli- cation of the Francis skin test. J. Clin. Invest., 19:95-104, 10~21. With W. Halsey Barker. Severe febrile iodism during the treatment of hyperthyroidism. J. Am. Med. Assoc., 114: 1029~38.

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WILLIAM BARRY WOOD, JR. 409 With Edward Matthews. Cardiac arrhythmia during Cheyne-Stokes respiration. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 66:335-52. The action of type-specif~c antibody upon the pulmonary lesion ot experimental pneumococcal pneumonia. Science, 92:15. Action of sulfapyridine upon pulmonary lesion of experimental pneumococcal pneumonia. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 45: 348-50. 194 Studies on the mechanism of recovery in pneumococcal pneumo- nia. I. The action of type specific antibody upon the pulmonary lesion of experimental pneumonia. l. Exp. Med., 73:210. With F. T. Billings. Studies on sulfadiazine. III. The use of sulfa- diazine in the treatment of pneumococcal pneumonia. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 69:314-26. 1942 With Charles R. Park. p-Aminobenzoic acid as a metabolite essen- tial for bacterial growth. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 70: 19-25. Studies on the antibacterial action of sulfonamide drugs. I. The relation of p-Aminobenzoic acid to the mechanism of bacterio- stasis. J. Exp. Med., 75:369~81. With Robert Austrian. Studies on the antibacterial action of the sulfonamide drugs. II. The possible relation of drug activity to substances other than p-Aminobenzoic acid. I. Exp. Med., 75: 383-94. With Henry Aranow, Jr. Staphylococcic infection simulating scarlet fever. l. Am. Med. Assoc., 119:1491-95. With Bernard D. Davis. Studies on the antibacterial action of sul- fonamide drugs. III. The correlation of drug activity with bind- ing to plasma proteins. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 51:283-85. 1943 With John H. Dingle, Theodore l. Abernathy, George F. Badger, G. John Buddingh, A. E. Feller, Alexander D. Langmuir, James M. Ruegsegger. Primary atypical pneumonia, etiology un- known. War Med., 3 :223~8. With C. S. Keefer, F. G. Blake, E. K. Marshall, Tr., and }. S. Lock- wood. Penicillin in the treatment of infections. J. Am. Med. Assoc., 127:1217-24.

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410 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Weil's disease. In: A Textbook of Medicine, ed. R. L. Cecil, pp.36~69. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders. 1944 With John H. Dingle, Theodore J. Abernathy, George F. Badger, G. John Buddingh, A. E. Feller, Alexander D. Langmuir, and James M. Ruegsegger. Primary atypical pneumonia, etiology unknown (Part I). Am. J. Hyg., 39:67-128. With John H. Dingle, Theodore J. Abernathy, George F. Badger, G. John Beddingh, A. E. Feller, Alexander D. Langmuir, and James M. Ruegsegger. Primary atypical pneumonia, etiology unknown. Am. J. Hyg., 39:197-268 (Part II); 269~336 (Part III). With Joseph E. Moore,J. F. Mahoney, Comdr. Walter H. Schwartz, and Lt. Col. Thomas H. Sternberg. The treatment of early syph- ilis with penicillin. J. Am. Med. Assoc., 126:67-73. With John H. Stokes, Lt. Col. T. H. Sternberg, Comdr. Walter H. Schwartz, John F. Mahoney, and J. E. Moore. The action of penicillin in late syphilis. J. Am. Med. Assoc., 126:73. 1945 With Carl G. Harford, S. Martin, and Paul Hagemann. Treatment of staphylococcic, gonococcic and other infections with penicil- lin. J. Am. Med. Assoc., 127:253, 325. 1946 With Carl G. Harford, Mary Ruth Smith, and C. McLeod. Infection of rats with the virus of influenza. J. Immunol., 53: 163-69. With Carl G. Harford and Mary Ruth Smith. Sulfonamide chemo- therapy of combined infection with influenza virus and bacteria. J. Exp. Med., 83:505-18. With M. R. Smith and B. Watson. Surface phagocytosis- its relation to the mechanism of recovery in pneumococcal pneumonia. Science, 104:2~29. With Carl G. Harford and Mary Ruth Smith. The effect of super- imposed bacterial pneumonia on the severity of sublethal infec- tion with influenza virus. I. Lab. Clin. Med., 31 :463-64. With E. Irons. Studies on the mechanism of recovery in pneumo- coccal pneumonia. II. The effect of sulfonamide therapy upon

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WILLIAM BARRY WOOD, JR. 411 the pulmonary lesion of experimental pneumonia. l. Exp. Med., 84:36~76. With C. McLeod and E. Irons. Studies on the mechanism of recov- ery in pneumococcal pneumonia. III. Factors influencing the phagocytosis of pneumococci in the lung during sulfonamide therapy. J. Exp. Med., 84:377~6. With M. R. Smith and B. Watson. Studies on the mechanism of recovery in pneumococcal pneumonia. IV. The mechanism of phagocytosis in the absence of antibody. J. Exp. Med., 84: 387-402. 1947 With M. R. Smith. Intercellular surface phagocytosis. Science, 106: 86-87. The mechanism of recovery in acute bacterial pneumonia. Ann. Intern. Med., 27:347-52. With L. Sale, fir. Studies on the mechanism of recovery in pneumo- nia due to Friedlander's bacillus. I. The pathogenesis of experi- mental Friedlander's bacillus pneumonia. I. Exp. Med., 86: 239~8. With L. Sale, Jr., and M. R. Smith. Studies on the mechanism of recovery in pneumonia due to Friedlander's bacillus. II. The effect of sulfonamide chemotherapy upon the pulmonary lesion of experimental Friedlander's bacillus pneumonia. J. Exp. Med., 86:249-56. With M. R. Smith. Studies on the mechanism of recovery in pneu- monia due to Friedlander's bacillus. III. The role of "Surface Phagocytosis" in the destruction of the microorganisms in the lung. l. Exp. Med., 86:257-66. The use of antibiotics in the treatment of bacterial infections. Laryngoscope, 57:657~3. With Robert Sylvester. Edema. In: Signs and Symptoms, ed. C. M. MacBryde, pp. 221-~14. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott. With Mary Ruth Smith. Surface phagocytosisits relation to the mechanism of recovery in acute pneumonia caused by encapsu- lated bacteria. Trans. Assoc. Am. Physicians, 60:77. 1948 The internist looks at anesthesia. I. Am. Assoc. Nurse Anesth.. 16:141- 48. Editorial. Penicillin and glutamic acid. Am. I. Med., 4:627-28.

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412 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1949 Defense mechanisms of the host in relation to chemotherapy of acute bacterial infections. In: Evaluation of Chemotherapeutic Agents, ed. C. M. MacLeod, pp. 81-91. N.Y.: Columbia Univ. Press for the N. Y. Acad. Med. Also in: Cincinnati I. Med., 30:65. With Mary Ruth Smith. The inhibition of surface phagocytosis by the capsular "slime layer" of pneumococcus type III. J. Exp. Med., 90:8~96. With Mary Ruth Smith. The relation of surface phagocytosis to the fibrinous character of acute bacterial exudates. Science, 110: 187~8. With Ralph O. Smith. Cellular mechanisms of antibacterial defense in lymph nodes. I. Pathogenesis of acute bacterial lymphade- nitis. I. Exp. Med., 90:55~56. II. The origin and filtration effect of granulocytes in the nodal sinuses during acute bac- terial lymphadenitis. I. Exp. Med., 90:567-76. With Mary Ruth Smith. The nature and biological significance of the capsular slime layer of pneumococcus type III. Reprinted from the Trans. Assoc. Am. Physicians, 62:90. 1950 Editorial. The limits of biomorphology. Reprinted from Am. I. Med., 8:137-38. With Mary Ruth Smith. Host-parasite relationships in experimental pneumonia due to pneumococcus type III. I. Exp. Med., 92: 85-100. 1951 White blood cells v. bacteria. Sci. Am., 184:4~52. Acute bacterial infections. Presented March 1951 to the Basic Sci- ence Course, Army Medical Service Graduate School, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Wash., D.C. The role of surface phagocytosis in acute bacterial infections. In: 1950 Year Book of Pathology and Clinical Pathology, ed. H. T. Karsner, pp. 13-24. Chicago: Year Book Publishers. Chapters on pneumococcal pneumonia and other forms of acute bacterial pneumonia. In: Cecil's Textbook of Medicine, pp. 100-129. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders.

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WILLIAM BARRY WOOD, JR. 413 With Mary Ruth Smith, William D. Perry, and John W. Berry. Surface phagocytosis in vivo. Reprinted from I. Immunol., 67(1):71-74. With Robert I. Glaser (with technical assistance by Alice Hamlin). Pathogenesis of streptococcal pneumonia in the rat. Am. Med. Assoc. Arch. Pathol., 52:24~52. With Robert i. Glaser and Gustave I. Dammin (with technical assis- tance by Alice Hamlin). Effect of repeated streptococcal pulmo- nary infections on the cardiovascular system in rats. Am. Med. Assoc. Arch. Pathol., 52:253-59. With Robert I. Glaser, Lenore H. Loeb, and John W. Berry (with technical assistance by Alice Hamlin). The effect of cortisone in streptococcal lymphadenitis and pneumonia. I. Lab. Clin. Med., 38:363-73. With Mary Ruth Smith, John W. Berry, and William D. Perry. Studies on the cellular immunology of acute bacteremia. Trans. Assoc. Am. Physicians, 64:155-59. With Mary Ruth Smith, William D. Perry, and John W. Berry. Studies on the cellular immunology of acute bacteremia. I. In- travascular leucocytic reaction and surface phagocytosis. J. Exp. Med., 94(6):521-34. 1952 Editorial. Microbes and Matchnikoff. Am. J. Med., 12:261-62. Acute bacterial pneumonia (Diagnostic Clinic). Postgrad. Med. 11:409-11. The "logarithmic phase" of medical progress. Presidential Address. Proceedings of the Forty-Fourth Annual Meeting of the Ameri- can Society for Clinical Investigation held in Atlantic City, N.~., May 5,1952. ]. Clin. Invest., 31:611- 13. With Mary Ruth Smith. Surface phagocytosis. Abstract of paper presented at the Autumn Meeting of the National Academy of Sciences. Science, 116:531. 1953 Teachers of medicine. I. Lab. Clin. Med., 41 :~10. Studies on the cellular immunology of acute bacterial infections. In: The Harvey Lectures, 47:72-98. N.Y.: Academic Press.

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414 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1954 With William D. Sawyer and Mary Ruth Smith. The mechanisms by which macrophages phagocyte encapsulated bacteria in the ab- sence of antibody. I. Exp. Med., 1 00:4 1 7-24. 1955 With Elisha Atkins, Fred Allison, fir., and Mary Ruth Smith. Studies on the antipyretic action of cortisone in pyrogen-induced fever. J.Exp.Med.,101:353-66. Medical progress since 1900. Int. Forum, 3: 104 6. Editorial. Pathogenesis of fever. Am. i. Med., 1 8 :35 1-53. With Elisha Atkins. Studies on the pathogenesis of fever. I. The presence of transferable pyrogen in the blood stream following the injection of typhoid vaccine. I. Exp. Med., 101:519-28. (chapters on pneumococcal pneumonia and other forms of acute bacterial pneumonia. In: A Textbook of Medicine, ed. R. L. Cecil and R. F. Loeb, pp. 12~46. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders. With Elisha Atkins. Studies on the pathogenesis of fever. II. Identi- fication of an endogenous pyrogen in the blood stream follow- ing the injection of typhoid vaccine. J. Exp. Med., 102:499-516. With Fred Allison, fir., and Mary Ruth Smith. Studies on the patho- genesis of acute inflammation. I. The inflammatory reaction to thermal injury as observed in the rabbit ear chamber. I. Exp. Med., 102:655~8. With Fred Allison, Jr., and Mary Ruth Smith. Studies on the patho- genesis of acute inflammation. II. The action of cortisone on the inflammatory response to thermal injury. J. Exp. Med., 102: 669-76. 1956 With Mary Ruth Smith. An experimental analysis of the curative action of penicillin in acute bacterial infections. I. The relation- ship of bacterial growth rates to the antimicrobial effect of peni- cillin. I. Exp. Med., 103:487-98. With Mary Ruth Smith. An experimental analysis of the curative action of penicillin in acute bacterial infections. II. The role of phagocytic cells in the process of recovery. J. Exp. Med., 103: 499-508.

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WILLIAM BARRY WOOD, jR. 415 With Mary Ruth Smith. An experimental analysis of the curative action of penicillin in acute bacterial infections. III. The effect of suppuration upon the antibacterial action of the drug. l. Exp. Med., 103:509~22. 1957 Fever. Sci. Am., 196~6~:62-68. 1958 With Mary Ruth Smith. Surface phagocytosis. Further evidence of its destructive action upon fully encapsulated pneumococci in the absence of type-specific antibody. I. Exp. Med., 107~1~: 1-12. With M. K. King. Studies on the pathogenesis of fever. III. The leucocytic origin of endogenous pyrogen in acute inflammatory exudates. I. Exp. Med., 107~2~:279~90. With M. K. King. Studies on the pathogenesis of fever. IV. The site of action of leucocytic and circulating endogenous pyrogen. J. Exp. Med., 107~2~:291-304. With M. K. King. Studies on the pathogenesis of fever. V. The relation of circulating endogenous pyrogen to the fever of acute bacterial infections. I. Exp. Med., 107~2~:30~17. The Shattuck lecture: Studies on the cause of fever. N. Engl. l. Med., 258~21~: 1023-31. The role of endogenous pyrogen in the genesis of fever. The Lan- cet, pp. 53-57. 1959 The genesis of fever in infectious disease. In: Immunity and Virus Infection, ed. Victor Naiiar, pp. 144-62. N.Y.: John Wiley & Sons. Bacterial diseasespneumonia. In: Cecal's Textbook of Medicine. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders. With Sister Marie Judith Foley and Mary Ruth Smith. Studies on the pathogenicity of group A streptococci I. Its relation to surface phagocytosis. I. Exp. Med., 1 1 0~4) :60~ 1 6. With Sister Marie Judith Foley. Studies on the pathogenicity of group A streptococci II. The antiphagocytic effects of the M protein and the capsular gel. I. Exp. Med., 110~4~:617-28.

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416 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS With Robert D. Collins. Studies on the pathogenesis of fever. VI. The interaction of leucocytes and endotoxin in vitro. I. Exp. Med., 110(6):1005-16. With Gale W. Rafter and Robert D. Collins. The chemistry of leuco- cytic pyrogen. Trans. Assoc. Am. Physicians, 72:323-30. 1960 Phagocytosis, with particular reference to encapsulated bacteria. Bacteriol. Rev., 24~1~:41~9. With Gale W. Rafter and Robert D. Collins. Studies on the patho- genesis of fever. VII. Preliminary chemical characterization of leucocytic pyrogen. J. Exp. Med., 1 1 1~6) :831~0. With Donald L. Bornstein and Gale W. Rafter. Studies on experi- mental fever with particular reference to the pathogenetic role and chemical properties of leucocytic pyrogen. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 46(9):1248-55. Fever. In: Seminar Report, 5~5~:2-8. Merck Sharp & Dohme. lithe medical sciences. In: The Choice of a Medical Career, pp. 21~22. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott. 1961 From Miasmas to Molecules. N.Y.: Columbia Univ. Press. The pathogenesis of fever. Triangle, 5~2~:101~. With Gary W. Archer. Mechanism of action of antimicrobial drugs. Pediatr. Clin. North Am., 8~4~:969-80. With S. M. Gillman and D. L. Bornstein. Studies on the patho- genesis of fever. VIII. Further observations on the role of en- dogenous pyrogen in endotoxin fever. J. Exp. Med., 114~5~: 729439. 1962 With Hans Klaus Kaiser. Studies on the pathogenesis of fever. IX. The production of endogenous pyrogen by polymorphonuclear leucocytes. I. Exp. Med., 115~1~27-36. With Hans Klaus Kaiser. Studies on the pathogenesis of fever. X. The effect of certain enzyme inhibitors on the production and activity of leucocytic pyrogen. J. Exp. Med., 115~1~37~7. With Richard D. Berlin. Molecular mechanisms involved in the release of pyrogen from polymorphonuclear leucocytes. Trans. Assoc. Am. Physicians, 75:190.

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WILLIAM BARRY WOOD, JR. 1963 417 With Donald L. Bornstein and Carl Bredenberg. Studies on the pathogenesis of fever. XI. Quantitative features of the febrile response to leucocytic pyrogen. I. Exp. Med., 117 :349-64. Pneumococcal pneumonia. In: Cecil's Textbook of Medicine, pp. 14~64. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders. Pathogenesis of Fever. Hippokrates-Verlag, pp. 28~91. With M. R. Smith and D. O. Fleming. The effect of acute radiation injury on phagocytic mechanisms of antibacterial defense. I. Immunol., 90:914-24. Calling Mephistopheles. Presidential Address. Assoc. Am. Physi- cians. Arch. Intern. Med., 112:643~6. Also in: Trans. Assoc. Am. Physicians, 76:1. 1964 With Richard D. Berlin. Studies on the pathogenesis of fever. XII. Electrolytic factors influencing the release of endogenous pyro- gen from polymorphonuclear leucocytes. }. Exp. Med., 119: 697-714. With Richard D. Berlin. Studies on the pathogenesis of fever. XIII. The effect of phagocytosis on the release of endogenous pyro- gen by polymorphonuclear leucocytes. J. Exp. Med., 119: 715-26. 1966 With Gale W. Rafter, S. Fai Cheuk, and Donald W. Krause. Studies on the pathogenesis of fever. XIV. Further observations on the chemistry of leukocytic pyrogen. J. Exp. Med., 123:433-44. Die pathogenese des fiebers. Das Madizinische Prisma, C. H. Boeh- ringer Sohn, Ingelheim am Rhein. With Robert H. Drachman and Richard K. Root. Studies on the effect of experimental nonketotic diabetes mellitus on antibac- terial defense. I. Exp. Med., 124:227-40. 1967 With Helmut Hahn, David C. Char, and Wilfred B. Postel. Studies on the pathogenesis of fever. XV. The production of endoge- nous pyrogen by peritoneal macrophages. I. Exp. Med., 126: 385-94.

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418 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS With B. D. Davis, R. Dulbecco, H. Eisen, and H. Ginsberg. Micro- b~ology. N.Y.: Harper & Row. 1968 With M. S. Kozak, Helmut Hahn, and William I. Lennarz. Studies on the pathogenesis of fever. XVI. Purification and further chemical characterization of granulocytic pyrogen. J. Exp. Med., 127:341-57. Report to Metchnikoff. In: Expo '67~an and His World (Noranda Lecture), pp. 257-78. Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Press. 1969 With Mary Ruth Smith and H. S. Shin. Natural immunity to bac- terial infections: the relation of complement to heat labile opso- nins. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 63:1151-56. With M. R. Smith. Heat labile opsonins to pneumococcus. I. Partic- ipation of complement. I. Exp. Med., 130:120~27. With H. S. Shin and Mary Ruth Smith. Heat labile opsonins to pneumococcus. II. Involvement of C3 and C5. l. Exp. Med., 130:1229 ~11. 1970 With H. Hahn, S. F. Cheuk, and D. M. Moore. Studies on the pathogenesis of fever. XVII. The cationic control of pyrogen release from exudate granulocytes in vitro. I. Exp. Med., 131: 16~78. With D. M. Moore, S. F. Cheuk, J. D. Morton, and R. D. Berlin. Studies on the pathogenesis of fever. XVIII. Activation of leu- kocytes for pyrogen production. I. Exp. Med., 13 1: 179~88. With H. Hahn, S. F. Cheuk, and C. D. S. Elfenbein. Studies on the pathogenesis of fever. XIX. Localization of pyrogen in granu- locytes. J. Exp. Med., 131 :701-9. With S. F. Cheuk, H. H. Hahn, D. M. Moore, D. N. Krause, and P. A. Tomasulo. Studies on the pathogenesis of fever. XX. Sup- pression and regeneration of pyrogen producing capacity of exudate granulocytes. l- Exp. Med., 132:127-33. The pathogenesis of fever. In: Infectious Agents and Host Reactions, ed. S. Mudd, pp. 146 62. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders