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LESTER REYNOLD DRAGSTEDT October 2, 1893-July 1 6, 1 975 BY OWEN H. WANGENSTEEN AND SARAH D. WANGENSTEEN LESTER REYNOLD DRAGSTEDT, one of America s great sur- gical scientists, approaching his eighty-seconc! birthday, cried suddenly of an unexpected heart attack on July ~ 6, ~ 975 at his summer home at Wabigama, a colony he and other University of Chicago scientists had founded on Elk Lake, Michigan, in ~ 95 ~ . Dragste~lt had been active and apparently well up until the very encI. Dragstedt was born in Anaconda, Montana, on October 2, 1893, of Swedish immigrant parents. In his early life, Lester was encouraged by his father to memorize poetry with a special appeal to him, as well as Biblical passages and frag- ments of famous speeches. These he frequently reciter! from memory at various gatherings in Anaconda, a talent which founct ready favor with many audiences and served him well in informal presentations throughout his professional life. Young Dragstedt graduated valedictorian of his high school class and was offered scholarships at the University of Chi- cago and other institutions. At this juncture, A. I. CarIson, a long-time friend of the Dragstedts who had defected from the ministry to become an internationally renowned profes- sor of physiology at the University of Chicago, intervened and wisely advised the senior Dragstedt, "Senct the boy to Chicago. They will find out in three months if he has any 63

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64 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS brains and, if he does not, you can bring him back to Ana- conda and put him to work in the copper smelter."* In the beginning, Dragstedt entertained the idea of becoming a physicist, having enjoyed the privilege of hearing lectures by Professor Robert Millikan. He was greatly in- fluenced, however, by the inquiring and critical mind of A. I. CarIson, and upon graduation with a Bachelor of Science degree in 1915, enrolled in the graduate program at the University of Chicago as a student in ohYsiolo - . Lester ac- , _ . ~ , O' qu~rec~ a plaster ot Science degree in 1916 and a Doctor of Philosophy degree in physiology in 1920. An M.D. degree from Rush Medical College followed in 1921. During his graduate studies, Dragstedt became a talented operating surgeon, having acquired skills operating upon animals in pursuit of physiological experiments. Though attracted to surgery, he was convinced that a career in phys- iology held out greater promise for innovative accomplish- ments. Lester's first academic appointment was instructor of pharmacology at the State University of Iowa in 1916; the following year he became assistant professor of physiology of_ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ . . . . . . . . . there, a position to which he returned In 1919 alter military service in World War I. It was at Iowa that Lester met Gladys Shoesmith, then a student at the University. Four years later, in ~ 922, they were married, by which time this talented young lady was not only a teacher of English, but principal of a school. She gave up her own career for another for which she was eminently suited becoming Lester's constant com- panion and devoted supporter, in fair and stormy weather, throughout his illustrious life. Dragstedt returned to the University of Chicago in 1920 as assistant professor of physiology and in ~ 923 became pro- * John H. Landor, "~.R.D. Recollections and Reminiscences," Surgery, ~ (1977): 443.

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LES rER REYNOLD DRAGS rED r 65 fessor and chairman of the Department of Pharmacology and Physiology at Northwestern University. He maintained throughout his career a very close association with CarIson, his loyal mentor and advisor. Dragstecit's second career began in 1925 when Dallas Phemister was appointed the first full-time professor and chairman of the new Department of Surgery at the Univer- sity of Chicago. Prior thereto, Phemister had been in active surgical practice but had exhibited strong academic leanings. Before taking up his new duties, Phemister went to London and Europe to work and observe in preclinical science departments and to ready himself for the new opportunities and responsibilities at the University. Phemister appointed Dragstecit consultant to the architect to design suitable re- search facilities for members of the Department of Surgery. At the conclusion of this service, Phemister remarked to Dragstecit, "I am interested in teaching physiology to sur- geons."* Phemister was convinced that Dragstedt, with his strong background} in physiology and pharmacology, could make an important contribution to the new Department of Surgery, and he persuacled Lester in 1925 to abandon a promising career in physiology to become a physiologist- surgeon. Already skilled in the performance of technically difficult operations upon clogs, Dragstedt emerged as one of the great surgeons of the alimentary tract of his generation. As a Rockefeller Fellow, Dragstedt went abroad! in ~ 925 to gain experience in surgical pathology and clinical surgery. This was a clozen years before the development of the Amer- ican Board of Surgery, which uncloubtecIly wouIc! not have lent its seal of approval to Dragstedt's unorthodox scheme of acquiring training in clinical surgery for the academic arena. Lester was accompanies} by his mother; his wife, Gladys; and (1976): 3. *E. R. Woodward, "Lester R. Dragstedt, M.D., Ph.D.," Gastroenterology, 70

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66 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS their daughter, Charlotte. Carol was born during the two- year stay in Europe. Following temporary stops in Paris, at de Quervain's sur- gical clinic in Bern, Switzerland, and in Vienna with Eisels- berg, Dragstecit spent several months performing post- mortem examinations at the AlIgemeines Krankenhaus under the tutelage of Jakob Erc~heim, whom Dragstedt came to admire greatly. He then proceeded to Budapest and worked under the direction of the famed gastric surgeon, Eugen Polya, and later with Professor Humer HultI at St. Rochus Hospital. Lester fell heir to a rich experience in oper- ative surgery uncler these teachers for a fee of $150 a month. When Dragstedt returned, Phemister gave him an appoint- ment as associate professor of surgery at the University of Chicago. Phemister was unquestionably correct in his belief that Dragstedt could be persuacled to become a clinician. In fact, the titles of Dragstecit's papers- from his first publication in 1916 up to the time he accepted Phemister's proposal in 192~suggest that here was a clinician in spirit, employing physiologic approaches in the resolution of clinical problems, a practice that Dragstedt continued throughout his great career. Concerning Dragstedt's unusual training for clinical sur- gery, it may be recalled that Harvey Cushing remarked, con- cerning his own years in the laboratory with Hugo Kronecker in Bern and with Charles Sherrington at Liverpool, "I ac- quired more of real value for my surgical work than in my previous six years' service as a hospital intern."* Apart from native talent, it was Dragsteclt's prior training in physiology and consistent use of scientific methods that accounted for his unusual success as a clinical surgeon. * Harvey Cushing, "Instruction in Operative Medicine," Yale Medical.Journal, 12 (1906): 879.

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LES rER REYNOLD DRAGS rED r DRAGSTED r'S VIEWS OF SURGICAL TRAINING AND HOW HE BECAME A SURGEON 67 Brief reference has been made to DragstecIt's preparation to become a surgeon, but who can speak better to the point than Dragstedt himself? In response to a letter of October 20, 197 I, complaining of the rigidity of the training program of the American Board of Surgery, Dragstedt replied with a long letter on December 29, in which he outlined his own unconventional scheme of surgical training. His letter is so unique and tells so much about Dragstedt that it deserves to be quoted as written: I enjoyed reading your letter of October 20 very much indeed. Like you, I believe there should be more than one road to Rome. I have an idea that there is actually more than one road to Rome, but at present there seems to be only one road to certification by the American Board of Surgery. I have long felt that the rigid program of the Board tends to stifle creative work. When I was in charge of surgery at Chicago I required that the applicants for residency in general surgery spend a full year in labora- tory research before entering upon the clinical part of their training in the residency. We maintained this full-time research year as an integral part of the residency training all during my tenure. I am not certain, however, that it is being maintained at the present time. During this year of research many of our prospective residents worked with me in my laboratory. I endeavored to get them to start thinking about research problems that were both important and practical for the limited time period. For the most part, however, when they began their research they worked with me on problems that I had already started, but not finished. On the way they learned the method of research and thought about problems of their own. I believe this method valuable for most of the young men who enter upon a research career. A few men had original ideas and some notion as to how to go about solving them. Usually after a year of work each of the residents has a fair concept of the method of research and how to go about it. Now you are interested in my own training and experience. Here is a brief rundown of my medical career. At the end of my second year in the medical school at the University of Chicago I received a B.S. in Science. I then entered upon the training for a Ph.D. in Physiology with Dr. A. J. Carlson. At the end of one year of this training, I secured a Masters Degree

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68 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS in Physiology with a minor degree in Pathology. I then went on to the University of Iowa as Instructor in Pharmacology. After one year there I was promoted to Assistant Professor of Physiology at the University of Iowa. While at Iowa I introduced mammalian work in both physiology and pharmacology and continued my research on intestinal obstruction and succeeded in keeping dogs alive after complete removal of the duodenum. I was gratified many years later to get a letter from Dr. [Allen] Whipple telling me that it was this paper that suggested to him his radical operation for cancer of the pancreas. While I was in Iowa City the United States got into World War I and I joined the Army. I went first to Washington, D.C. to the Army Medical School and was assigned to work on typhoid vaccine with Colonel Vedder. I was a private second class at this time. After several months I got tired of this activity and requested a transfer. I was thereupon sent out to Fort Leavenworth, Kansas to get training in the Army Medical corps. When they found out that I had training in Pathology I was made a second lieutenant and sent to Yale. While I worked at Yale under Col- onel Winternitz in the toxicity laboratory I was assigned to teach toxicology to the officers of the medical corps stationed at Yale. The Spanish influenza became epidemic at that time and I was transferred to Camp Merritt, New Jersey as the camp pathologist. This was my best experience in the Army as I had to do autopsies from morning until night for about eight months. When the Armistice was signed I got the Dean at the Medical School in Iowa to request my return to teaching. After about half of a year of teaching at Iowa I decided to return to Rush Medical College and get my M.D. degree. While taking my last two years of medicine at Rush I also finished up the requirements for the Ph.D. degree at the University of Chicago. During this time I presented several papers on intestinal obstruc- tion, removal of the duodenum and parathyroid tetany for the Chicago Surgical Society. Dr. Phemister was one of my teachers at Rush and was apparently impressed by the papers that I gave at the Chicago Surgical Society. When I finished my medicine Dr. Phemister urged me to take an internship in the Presbyterian Hospital with a view to becoming a surgeon. At that time there was no regular residency of the present type available and one became a surgeon by becoming an apprentice to an operating surgeon. I was reluctant to give up research, and in this frame of mind Dr. Carlson persuaded me to come back to his Department of Physiology as an Associate Professor. I stayed there for two years and then became Profes- sor of Physiology and Pharmacology and Chairman of the Department at Northwestern University Medical School. Mrs. Montgomery Ward gave a large amount of money for the erection of a new medical school and this

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LES rER REYNOLD DRAGS rED r 69 activity kept me quite busy. Along about this time the Rockefeller Founda- tion became interested in establishing a new type of medical school on the campus at the University of Chicago. They chose Dr. Phemister to be the first chairman of the department of surgery. Dr. Phemister wanted a department of surgery characterized by research activity. He prevailed upon me to give up my appointment at Northwestern and join the Depart- ment of Surgery as an associate professor of surgery. He said he thought it would be easier for a scientist to learn to be a surgeon than for a surgeon to learn to be a scientist. I was very happy at the appointment and taking his advice went to Europe for clinical training. I had no luck in Paris and then went on to Berne, Switzerland. I served as a voluntary assistant to Professor DeQuervain for three months. The work there was mostly thy- roid surgery. I wanted training in abdominal work and so went on to Vienna. While in Vienna I took advantage of the opportunity to work with Jacob Erdheim, one of the greatest teachers that I have ever met. I worked all morning in pathology with Erdheim and in the afternoon with a young surgeon named Goldsmith at the Rothschild Hospital. While I was working at the Rothschild Hospital with Goldsmith I got acquainted with Fritz Silverstein, Head of the Department of Experimental Pathology at the University of Vienna. Silverstein knew of my work on the duodenum and asked me if the dogs from whom I'd removed the duodenum developed pernicious anemia. I had to admit to my chagrin that I had not made any measurements of the blood to see if this was the case so I embarked on a program of taking out the duodenum for Fritz Silverstein in Paltauf~s old laboratory. While there I got acquainted with a number of the active research men at the University of ViennaPineles, Frolich, Winternitz, and many others. I was urged to go over and work with Professor von Eiselsberg which I did as a voluntary assistant for a short period. I was anxious to get to do some operating myself by this time and so took advantage of the economic conditions in this post-war period to go on to Budapest. I went immediately to Polya and told him that we knew about his fine work in America, that I would like to be his assistant and that I could pay him $150 a month for the privilege. All this was said in one breath. He readily assented and took me on as his first assistant. After he did a gastric resection for a duodenal ulcer he invited me to do the next one. I had done a lot of these, of course, in dogs, but had never done a gastric resection in man. I did the resection in the way that I customarily did in the dogs and he was apparently very pleased. I had been taught to close the duodenal stump by an ingenious method that I believe originated with Halsted. I had been taught this during my student period in the physiology laboratory in

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70 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Chicago by Dr. James J. Morehead EMoorhead], a local surgeon. More- head had taught me how to do gastroenterostomies, gastric resections, Pavlov pouches and so on during the course of our collaboration on the problem of intestinal obstruction. Of course I didn't say anything to Polya about this work on the dogs. He apparently thought I was a safe operator and told me to go ahead and do all the operating I wanted. After a short period with Polya, however, I heard that Professor Humer Hultl at the St. Rochus Hospital was a much better surgeon. Accordingly I went on to see Professor Hultl and used the same formula that had gotten me a place with Polya. Hultl accepted and again took me on as his first assistant. Again I helped him with one operation and the next one was a partial gastrectomy for duodenal ulcer. He asked me if I would like to do that operation. I agreed, did the operation the way I had done it on the dog, Hultl was pleased and told me to go on and do all the operating I wanted. I realized, however, that his assistants were there for that kind of work so I assured them I would not do all the operating but that I would like to assist each one of them so that I would learn the methods that they used. This proved to be a good formula and I had a happy time in this hospital for a period of about eight months. I then returned to Chicago and became an assistant to Dr. Phemister in the Presbyterian Hospital in the mornings and a volunteer resident in the Cook County Hospital in the afternoons. After about six months of this work Billings Hospital was completed and we moved over there. When the hospital was opened I started by serving as Dr. Phemister's assistant and began my research work in the laboratory. As soon as patients began to come in sufficient numbers Dr. Phemister wanted me to take my own service with a resident and an intern. At first I tried to send my big cases to Dr. Phemister, but he refused to take them and insisted that I do them. He was in the operating room next door so I was comforted by the thought that I could always call on him if I should get in a tight spot. Well, Owen, this is the way I became a surgeon. It is a road to Rome that I do not believe is practical anymore. It was made possible by the economic conditions in Vienna and Budapest and by the desire of the Rockefeller Foundation to build a department of surgery where some of the surgeons were investiga- tors. However, I think some sort of modification of this road to Rome might be possible in our modern world. DRAGS rED r'S GAS rRIC SECRETORY S rUDIES It is not the intent of the authors to examine every publi- cation by the subject of this memoir, but rather to look briefly

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LESTER REYNOLD DRAGSTED r 71 at his main works. Dragstedt's most important work in a long and productive career concerned aspects of gastric secretion and digestion. It is entirely appropriate, therefore, to trace briefly the long story of theories and early experiments con- cerning the stomach's behavior. 'theories of the nature of gastric secretion are as old as Hippocrates (460 - 370 B.C.), who thought of that process as cookingwhich he termed "pepsis." rrheodor Schwann in 1936 confirmed the presence of William Beaumont's "chemical principle" in gastric juice, which he observed was destroyed by heating; being a student of Hippocratic writings, Schwann named the proteolytic en- zyme "pepsin." In an essay brought before London's Royal Society in 1686, Edward 'Dyson hacl established that the gas- tric juice container! a corrosive menstruum. In studies on the ostrich, the Italian Antonio Vallisnieri (1713) had ascertained the presence of an active digestive agent in the juice. In ~ 752, Rene Reamur had birds, ~logs, and a sheep swallow sponges placed in perforated spheres, permitting direct contact with the gastric juice. He definitely established the solvent power of juice, as did Edwarc] Stevens of Edinburgh in 1777 in similar studies on man, dogs, and sheep. Lazaro SpalIanzani, in 1780, experimented on fish, cats, dogs, and man, also affirming the presence of an active digestive agent within the gastric juice. In 1786, John Hunter performed experiments on fish, lizards, and frogs, confirming the findings of prior investigators. He established the idea of the "living princi- ple," concluding that gastric juice floes not digest living things, a thesis that Claude Bernard disproved in 1844. in his significant monograph of 1833, following studies extending back to 1825, Beaumont, a pioneer American mili- tary surgeon far removed from academic halls, concluder! his extentlecl studies on Alexis St. Martin, who had suffered a shotgun shell injury at close range (~822) to the lower left thorax and upper abdomen. Beaumont was able to close the thoracic wound, but throughout St. Martin's long life the

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72 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS gastric fistula persistent. Beaumont completed his studies on the secretory behavior of St. Martin's stomach with fifty-one observations, two of which were original ant! fundamental. In conclusion #24, he established the presence of a "chemical principle," antedating by three years the observations of Johannes Muller and Schwann. In conclusion #25, Beau- mont demonstrated that the empty stomach contains no hy- drochIoric acid; that it takes the stimulus of ingested! food to provoke secretionan observation with which many dis- tinguished physiologists (lisagreecl. They failed to recognize that only patients with duodenal ulcer, one of the strongest manifestations of the ulcer diathesis, actually ctid have free hydrochloric acid in their stomachs, devoid of food.* GASTRIC FIS rULA S rUDIES With James Ellis, Dragstedt (1930) observed that total loss of gastric juice through a gastric fistula or total pyloric ob- struction was uniformly fatal, and as the New York surgeons I. A. Hartwell and I. P. Hoguet (1912) had demonstrated in cluodenojejunal obstructions in dogs, responded well to liberal intravenous administration of saline solution. Loss of the other gastrointestinal ion, potassium (K), W. B. O'Shaughnessy (~831) hac! recognized and successfully re- medied by intravenous infusions of both the K and Na ions for the severe diarrhea of cholera patients, deficits he re- placed in the amounts lost. James Gamble (1925) confirmed the importance of replacement of the K ion in high intestinal obstructions in animals ant! man. Dragste(lt's gastric secre- tory studies began in ~ 924, investigations he continued throughout the remainder of a long and creative career. * O. H. Wangensteen, "Claude Bernard's Work on Digestion," in Claude Bernard and Experimental Medicine, ed. Francisco Grande and M. B. Visscher (Cambridge, Mass.: Schenkman, 1967), pp. 45-74.

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LESTER REYNOLD DRAGSTED-r 85 life's work in a commencement adctress in June 1975, to which his audience of students, faculty, anti friends re- sponcied with a prolonged stancting ovation, affirming Dragstecit's ability to instruct, hold the attention of, and charm his audience with any subject upon which he chose to speak. That parting commencement aciciress, no doubt, took exhaustive ancl exhausting preparation. Upon its completion, Dragstecit departed with his family for his favorite and cus- tomary vacation spot on Elk Lake, Michiganwhere he cried, shortly after arrival, from a sudden, massive coronary occlu- sion. All efforts clirected at resuscitation by his son, Dr. Lester Dragstedt TI, proved unsuccessful. Gladys Dragstecit diec! two years after Lester. They left four children: Charlotte (Mrs. Thomas Jeffrey), of Gaines- ville; Carol (Mrs. Robert N. Stauffer), of Atlanta; Lester R. TI, surgeon of the Veterans Hospital, Des Moines, Iowa; and John Albert, of St. Mary's College, Oaklancl, California. The grandchildren number thirteen. So passed into memory and history one of the great sur- gical physiologists of this century, who left an indelible and durable imprint upon every area in which he worked; an eminent surgical teacher who enIargec! notably upon Phem- ister's training school for surgical academicians at the Uni- versity of Chicago. All privileged to have worked with Lester Dragstedt recognized that here was an extraorclinarily giftec! individual, compassionate and friencIly, sympathetically interested in all the problems of his associates. Is it any wonder that his memory is cherished with great pride and warm affection? THE AUTHORS WISH to express their gratitude to Mrs. Jeffrey and to Dr. Lester R. Dragstedt II for helpful suggestions concern- ing various facets of the lives of their parents. Dr. Carl A. Dragstedt also supplied valuable data about his brother's life and career.

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86 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Many of Dragstedt's proteges were extremely helpful in providing information concerning his professional and scientific career, espe- cially Drs. John H. Landor and Edward R. Woodward. fo Dr. Charles F. Klinger, the authors acknowledge their gratitude for aid in the collection of many of Dragstedt's scientific papers and the arrangement of the bibliographic references.

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LES rER REYNOLD DRAGSTED r HONORS AND DIS-rINC rIONS DEGREES B.S., University of Chicago M.S., University of Chicago Ph.D., University of Chicago M.D., Rush Medical College, Chicago HONORARY DEGREES Doctor Honors Causa, University of Guadalajara, Mexico Docteur Honors Causa, University of Lyons, France Sc.D., University of Florida, Gainesville Doctor Honoris Causa, University of Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden 87 UNIVERSITY APPOINrrMEN'rS 191~1917 1917-1919 192~1923 1923-1925 1925-1930 1930-1948 1948-1959 1916 Assistant, Department of Physiology, University of Chicago Instructor, Pharmacology, State University of Iowa Assistant Professor of Physiology, State University of Iowa Assistant Professor of Physiology, University of Chicago Professor and Head, Departments of Physiology and Pharmacology, Northwestern University Associate Professor of Surgery, University of Chicago Professor of Surgery, University of Chicago Thomas D. Jones Distinguished Service Professor of Surgery and Chairman of the Department of Surgery, University of Chicago 195~1975 Research Professor of Surgery, University of Florida, Gainesville MEMBERSHIPS IN AMERICAN ORGANIZATIONS AND SOCIE TIES National Academy of Sciences Phi Beta Kappa Sigma Xi Alpha Omega Alpha American Association for the Advancement of Science American Physiological Society

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88 B I OGRAPH I CAL MEMOI RS Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine American Surgical Association American Society for Clinical Surgery American Gastroenterological Association American College of Physicians American College of Surgeons American Medical Association Central Surgical Society Institute of Medicine of Chicago American Academy of Arts and Sciences Honorary Member of the Surgical Societies of Seattle, Los Angeles, Detroit, Minneapolis, Southern California, Graduate Surgeons of Los Angeles, and Boston HONORARY MEMBERSHIPS IN FOREIGN ORGANIZATIONS AND SOCIETIES Surgical Society of Lyons Surgical Society of Paris Swedish Surgical Society Argentine Society of Gastroenterology Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons of England National Academy of Medicine of Mexico Royal Academy of Arts and Sciences of Uppsala, Sweden (Foreign Corresponding Member) Academy of Surgery of France Association of Mexican Gastroenterologists AMERICAN HONORS AND AWARDS 1945 Silver Medal of the American Medical Association for origi- nal investigation 1946 Gold Medal of the Illinois State Medical Society for original investigation 1950 Gold Medal of the American Medical Association for origi- nal Investigation 1961 Samuel D. Gross Prize of the Philadelphia Academy of Surgery 1963 Distinguished Service Award of the American Medical Asso- ciation for research, teaching, and surgical practice

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LESTER REYNOLD DRAGSTEDT 89 1964 Julius Friedenwald Medal of the American Gastroentero- logical Association for "Outstanding Achievement in Gas- troenterology" 1964 Golden Plate from the Academy of Achievement 1964 Henry Jacob Bigelow Medal of the Boston Surgical Society for "Contributions to the Advancement of Surgery" 1965 Annual Award of the Gastrointestinal Research Foundation 1969 Distinguished Service Award (the first) and Gold Medal of the American Surgical Association FOREIGN HONORS AND AWARDS 1953 Honorary Professor of Surgery at the University of Guada- lajara, Mexico 1965 Gold Medal of the Surgical Society of Malmo, Sweden 1967 Royal Order of the North Star of Sweden, bestowed by the King of Sweden, for "Outstanding Contributions to the Science of Surgery" 1969 Silver Plaque of the Institute of Digestive Diseases and Nu- trition of Mexico City 1969 Silver Plaque of the Association of Mexican Gastroenter- ologists

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go BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS SELEC rED BIBLIOGRAPHY* 1916 With l. I. Moorhead and F. W. Burcky. The nature of the toxemia of intestinal obstruction. Preliminary report. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 14:17-19. 1917 Contributions to the physiology of the stomach. XXXVIII. Gastric juice in duodenal and gastric ulcers. I. Am. Med. Assoc., 68:33(~33. With I. l. Moorhead and F. W. Burcky. An experimental study of the intoxication in closed intestinal loops. l. Exp. Med., 25:42 1-39. 1922 The pathogenesis of parathyroid tetany. I. Am. Med. Assoc., 79: 1593-94. 1923 The pathogenesis of parathyroid tetany. Am. J. Physiol., 63:408-9. With S. C. Peacock. Studies on the pathogenesis of tetany. I. The control and cure of parathyroid tetany by diet. Am. I. Physiol., 64:424-34. With S. C. Peacock. The influence of parathyroidectomy on gastric secretion. Am. I. Physiol., 64:49~502. With K. Phillips and A. C. Sudan. Studies on the pathogenesis of tetany. II. The mechanism involved in recovery from para- thyroid tetany. Am. J. Physiol., 65:368-78. 1924 , , _ , The resistance of various tissues to gastric digestion. Am. I. Physiol., 68:134. 1926 With A. C. Sudan. Studies on the pathogenesis of tetany. V. The prevention and control of parathyroid tetany by calcium lactate. Am. I. Physiol., 77:296-306. *A complete bibliography of the works of Lester Dragstedt, numbering 341 entries, is available from the Archives of the National Academy of Sciences.

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LESTER REYNOLD DRAGS rED r 91 With A. C. Sudan. Studies on the pathogenesis of tetany. VII. The prevention and control of parathyroid tetany by the oral administration of kaolin. Am. l. Physiol., 77:314-20. 1927 The physiology of the parathyroid glands. Physiol. Rev., 7:490530. 1929 With l. C. Ellis. Effect of liver autolysis in viva. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 26:304-5. With I. C. Ellis. Fatal effect of total loss of gastric juice. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 26:305-7. 1930 With l. C. Ellis. Liver autolysis in viva. Arch. Surg., 20:8-16. With M. L. Montgomery, W. B. Matthews, and J. C. Ellis. Fatal effect of the total loss of pancreatic juice. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 28:110-11. 1931 With M. L. Montgomery, I. C. Ellis, and W. B. Matthews. The pathogenesis of acute dilatation of the stomach. Surg. Gynecol. Obstet., 52: i 075-86. 1932 With W. L. Palmer. Direct observations on the mechanism of pain in duodenal ulcer. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 29:753-55. With W. B. Matthews. The etiology of gastric and duodenal ulcer. Experimental Studies. Surg. Gynecol. Obstet., 55 :265-86. 1933 Ulcus acidum of Meckel's diverticulum. I. Am. Med. Assoc., 101 :20-22. 1934 With H. E. Haymond and I. C. Ellis. Pathogenesis of acute pancrea- titis (acute pancreatic necrosis). Arch. Surg., 28:232-91.

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92 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1936 Acid ulcer. Surg. Gynecol. Obstet., 62:118-20. With I. Van Prohaska and H. P. Harms. Observations on a sub- stance in pancreas (a fat metabolizing hormone) which permits survival and prevents liver changes in depancreatized dogs. Am. J. Physiol., 117: 175-81. 1938 Lipocaic. A new pancreas hormone. Northwest Med., 37:33-36. With W. C. Goodpasture, C. Vermeulert, and P. B. Donovan. The Bromsulphalein liver function test as a method of assay of lipocaic. Am. J. Physiol., 124:642-46. 1939 With C. D. Stewart, D. E. Clark, and S. W. Becker. The experi- mental use of lipocaic in the treatment of psoriasis. A preliminary report. l. Invest. Dermatol., 2:219~30. With P. B. Donovan, D. E. Clark, W. C. Goodpasture, and C. Ver- meulen. lithe relation of lipocaic to the blood and liver lipids of depancreatized dogs. Am. I. Physiol., 127:755~0. With C. Vermeulen, W. C. Goodpasture, P. B. Donovan, and W. A. Geer. Lipocaic and fatty infiltration of the liver in pancreatic diabetes. Arch. Intern. Med., 64: 1017-38. 1940 With D. E. Clark, O. C. Julian, C. Vermeulen, and W. C. Good- pasture. Arteriosclerosis in pancreatic diabetes. Surgery, 8:353 - 1. 1942 With C. Vermeulen, D. E. Clark, O. C. Julian, and I. G. Allen. Effect of the administration of lipocaic and cholesterol in rabbits. Arch. Surg., 44:26(}67. 1943 With F. M. Owens, tr. Supra-diaphragmatic section of the vagus nerves in treatment of duodenal ulcer. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 53: 152-54.

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LESTER REYNOLD DRAGSTEDT 93 1945 With T. F. Thornton, Jr. and E. H. Storer. Supra-diaphragmatic section of vagus nerves and gastric secretion in patients with peptic ulcer. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 59:140 41. With D. E. Clark and M. L. Eilert. Lipotropic action of lipocaic. A study of the effects of lipocaic, methionine and cystine on dietary fatty livers in the white rat. Am. I. Physiol.,144:62~25. 1946 With M. L. Eilert. Lipotropic action of lipocaic: A study of the effect of oral and parenteral lipocaic and oral inositol on the dietary fatty liver of the white rat. Am. i. Physiol., 147:346-51. 1948 With E. R. Woodward, E. B. Tovee, H. A. Oberhelman, Jr., and W. B. Neal, Jr. A quantitative study of the effect of vagotomy on gastric secretion in the dog. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 67:35(}51. With E. R. Woodward and R. R. Bigelow. Quantitative study of effect of antrum resection on gastric secretion in Pavlov pouch dogs. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 68:473-74. 1950 With E. R. Woodward, W. B. Neal, fir., P. V. Harper, ir., and E. H. Storer. Secretory studies on the isolated stomach. Arch. Surg. 60:1-20. With E. R. Woodward and R. R. Bigelow. Effect of resection of antrum of stomach on gastric secretion in Pavlov pouch dogs. Am. J. Physiol., 162:99-109. 1951 With H. A. Oberhelman, fir. and C. A. Smith. Experimental gastro- jejunal ulcers due to antrum hyperfunction. Arch. Surg., 63 :298-302. 1952 With I. M. Zubiran, A. E. Kark, I. A. Montalbetti, and C. l. L. Morel. Peptic ulcer and the adrenal stress syndrome. Arch. Surg., 65:809-15.

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94 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1953 With S. O. Evans, Jr., }. M. Zubiran, I. D. McCarthy, H. Ragins, and E. R. Woodward. Stimulating effect of vagotomy on gastric secretion in Heidenhain pouch dogs. Am. I. Physiol., 174:21~25. 1957 With C. M. Baugh, I. Barcena, and l. Bravo. Studies on the site and mechanism of gastrin release. Surg. Forum, 7:356 60. With C. F. Mountain, I. H. Landor, J. D. McCarthy, and P. V. Harper, fir. The secretory effect of gastric transection. Surg. Forum, 7:375-79. With l. Barcena, C. M. Baugh, I. L. Bravo, and C. F. Mountain. Effects of total pancreatectomy on gastric secretion. Surg. Forum, 7:380 82. 1962 Section of the vagus nerves to the stomach in the treatment of duodenal ulcer. In: Surgery of the Stomach and Duodenum, ed. H. N. Harkins and L. M. Nyhus, pp. 461-72. Boston: Little, Brown. 1963 With E. R. Woodward, C. L. Park, Jr., and H. Schapiro. Signifi- cance of Meissner's plexus in the gastrin mechanism. Arch. Surg., 87:512-15. 1965 With C. de la Rosa and E. R. Woodward. Localization of the gastrin- producing cell. Surg. Forum, 16:327-29. 1968 With D. R. Kemp, F. Herrera-Fernandez, and E. R. Woodward. Meissner's plexus and the mechanism of vagal stimulation of gastric secretion. Gastroenterology, 55:7080. 1971 With J. R. N. Curt, J. Isaza, and E. R. Woodward. Potentiation between intestinal and gastric phases of acid secretion in Heidenhain pouches. Arch. Surg., 105:70012.

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LESTER REYNOLD DRAGS FEDS 1973 95 With G. Wickbom, M. A. Kamal, and E. R. Woodward. Corrosive effects of digestive juices on legs of living frogs. Am. Surgeon, 39:571-81. 1974 With G. Wickbom, F. L. Bushkin, and C. Linares. On the corrosive properties of bile and pancreatic juice on living tissue in dogs. Arch. Surg., 108 :68~84. 1976 With }. B. Weeks, G. C. Petridis, and E. R. Woodward. A simplified method for chemical induction of gastric hypersecretion. l. Surg. Res., 21:357-58.