Figure 2-1

Mortality at ages 80 and over, females, 1980-1992. Pooled data are from 14 countries (Japan and 13 Western European countries) with the most reliable information. µ = force of mortality. SOURCES: Kannisto (1994, 1996); Lundström (1995); Vaupel and Lundström (1994); and Thatcher (1992).

similar assertions. In the wild there is little egg-laying among medflies after the first month of adult life, so a sharp rise in mortality might be expected around age 30 days. Many of the medflies, however, survived many months after the usual cessation of reproduction.

Following up on this pathbreaking initial study, the Carey laboratory completed life span analyses on an additional 1.6 million medflies, raised under a variety of conditions. Again, mortality decelerated at older ages. This result was replicated in a study of I million Anastrepha ludens, the Mexican fruit fly, which is somewhat larger and somewhat longer-lived than the medfly. For this species,



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