Index

A

Aché people, 176, 178-179. 180, 183, 184, 185. 188, 193, 198, 213, 215-216, 221, 224

Actuarial science. 39-40

Age-specific death rate allelic effects in evolutionary demography , 97

among preagricultural peoples, 178-179

determinants of, 78

environmentally induced changes, 88

evolutionary demography model, 104

evolutionary theories of, 78-79

gerontogene role in, 122

individual age-related changes as factor in, 78

as measure of rate of aging, 82-85, 246

nematode genetics, 120-122

predictive modeling, 85-87, 90

research needs, 85

state-dependent life-history optimization. 90

See also Mortality trajectory

Aging. See Senescence

Alleles, 33, 97

genetic research, 237. 238

longevity assurance, 260

mutation-selection balance, 100

quantitative trait locus mapping, 112-113

studies of population distribution, 238-240

Altruism, 130-131

Alzheimer disease, 254-255

Aminoguanidine, 259

Anastrepha ludens,20-21

Antagonistic pleiotropy. 13. 118

allele rarity, 33

empirical evidence. 102

in evolutionary demography theory, 101

mortality trajectory patterns and, 33

theory of senescence. 3, 4

Antibiotic drugs, 54-55

Apolipoprotein E, 239, 260

Atresia. 196-197

Automobiles. 28-31

B

Bacterium, 70

Behavioral ecology

dominance hierarchies. 131-132

evolutionary response systems, 200. 203

learning, 133

neglect of elderly in, 127-128

species life span differences. 152

territoriality, 132-133

Bequests, 170-171, 224, 228-230, 231

Biodemographics

future prospects. 15. 34



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Index A Aché people, 176, 178-179. 180, 183, 184, 185. 188, 193, 198, 213, 215-216, 221, 224 Actuarial science. 39-40 Age-specific death rate allelic effects in evolutionary demography , 97 among preagricultural peoples, 178-179 determinants of, 78 environmentally induced changes, 88 evolutionary demography model, 104 evolutionary theories of, 78-79 gerontogene role in, 122 individual age-related changes as factor in, 78 as measure of rate of aging, 82-85, 246 nematode genetics, 120-122 predictive modeling, 85-87, 90 research needs, 85 state-dependent life-history optimization. 90 See also Mortality trajectory Aging. See Senescence Alleles, 33, 97 genetic research, 237. 238 longevity assurance, 260 mutation-selection balance, 100 quantitative trait locus mapping, 112-113 studies of population distribution, 238-240 Altruism, 130-131 Alzheimer disease, 254-255 Aminoguanidine, 259 Anastrepha ludens,20-21 Antagonistic pleiotropy. 13. 118 allele rarity, 33 empirical evidence. 102 in evolutionary demography theory, 101 mortality trajectory patterns and, 33 theory of senescence. 3, 4 Antibiotic drugs, 54-55 Apolipoprotein E, 239, 260 Atresia. 196-197 Automobiles. 28-31 B Bacterium, 70 Behavioral ecology dominance hierarchies. 131-132 evolutionary response systems, 200. 203 learning, 133 neglect of elderly in, 127-128 species life span differences. 152 territoriality, 132-133 Bequests, 170-171, 224, 228-230, 231 Biodemographics future prospects. 15. 34

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  research challenges. 2, 25 research trends. 1 Biology benefits of interdisciplinary collaboration. 33-34 cellular processes of aging, 255-258 generalizability of species studies, 19 molecular processes of aging, 258-260 relevance to demographic research, 2 theories of aging, 96 See also Reproductive biology Bio-reliability theory, 27-31 Birds, 76, 90, 259 Botryllus,257 Brain growth, 188 Bristlecone pine. 247 C Caenorhabditis elegans. See Nematode worm studies Calment, Jeanne, 14. 19, 24, 47, 250 Causes of death demographic elimination, 53 endogenous/exogenous, 53, 60 in food-restricted rodents, 254 natural. 53 specificity among elderly, 9-10 U.S. mortality patterns. 54-55 Cellular processes cell death, 255 Hayflick limit. 4, 255 life-history plasticity and, 255-258 vegetative propagation, 255-257 Ceratitis capitata. See Medfly studies Cetaceans, 7, 131 aging, 143-144 elderly, 144-146 postreproductive survival, 163-164, 165, 212 social organization. 143, 165 taxonomy, 142-143 Chickens, 132 Child/infant mortality, 54 Cloning of gerontogenes, 118-119 quantitative trait loci, 119 Coale-Demeny life tables. 49, 50, 213-215, 216 Collagen, 258-259 Complex systems biological assumptions for modeling, 10 bio-reliability theory. 27-31 living organisms as, 27 mortality trajectory in. 29n. 29-30 theoretical relevance, 10 Compression-rectangularization hypothesis, 48-51. 60 Contributions of elderly. 131, 221-222 altruistic behavior. 130-131 among cetaceans, 144-146 among elephants. 136-137 among primates, 139-142 caregiving. 140, 145-146, 152-153, 164-165, 167-168. 197, 222 eusociality among wasps, 147-148 evolutionary theory. 152, 154 feeding ecology. 189 fitness of populations, 127, 152 gender issues, 154 as repositories of knowledge. 217-218 resource transfer. 169-170 social dominance and leadership. 131-132, 136, 140, 141-142 social role concepts. 154 support of reproduction, 188-189 teaching, 133, 137 territorial dominance. 133 See also Natural selection, role of elderly in Creosote bush, 247 Cultural factors in mortality, 55 Cynolebias,252 D Decreasing hazard function in compression-rectangularization hypothesis, 49, 51 empirical evidence, 5-6, 17-18 genetic heterogeneity and, 6-7 research trends, 14 selectivity effects, 6-7 See also Mortality trajectory Dementia, 250, 254-255 Demography benefits of interdisciplinary collaboration, 33-34 classical theory of senescence, 69-71 future research, 14-15 goals of mortality research, 78 homeostatic process in, 10 notation of life tables, 39, 40

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  notation of longevity, 39-40 notation of survival analysis, 39-40 relevance for ecological research, 75-76 relevance of biology to, 2 research challenges, 1-2 support for compression-rectangularization hypothesis. 50-51 support for limit-distribution hypothesis, 54-58, 61 support for limited-life span hypothesis, 45-48, 60 See also Biodemographics: Evolutionary demography Density function, 39 limiting distribution, 51-52 U.S. females, mortality of, 40 Developed societies age at menopause, 213 death rate trends, 6 intergenerational transfers in, 223-227 Disposable soma theory, 3. 81, 258 worker castes in social insects, 151 Dolphins. See Cetaceans Drosophila melanogaster,1, 5-6, 17 environmentally mediated aging effects, 87-88 evidence of mortality deceleration, 21, 24 experimental population genetics, 101-102 force of natural selection experiments, 98-99 Gompertz model correlations, 102-103 increased-longevity genes, 113, 116 mechanisms of mortality deceleration, 25-26 natural reversal experiments, 90 Drug reactions, 239 E Economic theory, 189, 190-194, 200-201, 203 Education, 201, 202 dementia and, 254-255 as intergenerational transfer, 226, 227-228 Efe people. 188 Elder care genetic basis for, 8 intergenerational transfer, 223 Elephants, 7 reproductive biology and behavior, 134-136 role of elderly, 136-137 social organization, 134 Environmental heterogeneity evolutionary development and. 11- 12. 199-200 evolved norms of reaction, 199-200 individual variation and, 89 life-course dynamics and, 14 in life-history evolution, 79-80, 85-89 limit-distribution hypothesis of longevity. 52 long-term/short-term adaptation. 199-200. 203-204 modern environments. 200, 201-202, 203-204 natural reversal experiments, 89-90 phenotypic plasticity and. 88 selectivity and. 6-7 timing effects, 87. 90 See also Fluctuating environments Ethical issues, 241-242 Ethnographic research, 9 Eukaryotes, 247 Eusociality evolutionary steps to, 148-150 extended longevity for. 147-148 Evolutionary demography basic theory, 97-98 force of natural selection in, 98-100 genetic mechanisms. 100-101 goals, 96 resistance to, 96 scaling functions. 97, 100 See also Biodemographics Evolutionary equilibria genetic stability models, 67-68 for life-history phenotypes, 69-71 models of, 67-69 mortality-fertility tradeoffs. 71-72 phenotype distribution, 66 positive pleiotropy, 72 research significance. 65-66 selection-mutation, 68-69, 74 size-structured model. 73-74, 75 stable strategy models, 67, 71, 74 strong selection dynamics. 75 Evolutionary theory. 2-5 age-specific death rate. 78-79 of aging, 1 altruistic behavior, 130-131 applications of quantitative trait locus mapping, 118 benefits of demographic approach, 33-34

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  bottleneck theory, 32 contributions of elderly, 154 decelerating mortality trajectory and, 32-33 effects of fluctuating environments, 11, 199-200 empirical support for theories of aging, 18-29 eusociality in wasps, 148-150 genetics of aging in, 91-92 life-cycle patterns of intergenerational transfer, 228 life history, 79-82, 175, 189-194 life-history plasticity in. 246n. 246 mechanism of adaptation, 199 menopause in, 8-9, 166-168, 175, 176, 196 norms of reaction, 199-200 opportunities for research. 92 phenotype plasticity, 199 pleiotropy in, 81 postreproductive survival, 84-85, 164-168, 194-195, 203 preadaptation, 147 research models, 65 scale of change, 152 of senescence, 80-81 settings for human research, 7-8 taxonomic evolution, 128 See also Evolutionary demography; Natural selection Extreme survival. 14 Gompertz model correlation, 103 mortality trajectory, 19 oldest man/woman, 47 plant clones. 247 range of, across species, 251-253 theoretical models for mortality patterns, 103-104 trends among humans, 45 F Families homeostatic process in, 10-11 intergenerational transfers within, 223-224 size. 10-11 studies of gene-disease relationships, 240 Fecundity of elephants, 135-136 environmentally induced changes, 88 in measurement of aging, 83 in theory of evolutionary demography, 97 Feeding and nutrition among preagricultural peoples, 175, 176. 193-194 among primates, 180-182, 186 food-restricted rodents, 251, 253-254 life-history consumption and production, 179-189 life-history evolution, 87, 88, 175, 176, 202-204 longevity and, 12 modern environment. 202 molecular processes of aging and, 259 reproductive ecology and. 186-189 Fertility of elephants, 134-135 externally mediated evolutionary changes. 85 intergenerational transfers and, 227 in life history, 79 in measurement of aging, 83 mortality tradeoffs, 70 one-age-class life cycle, 70 quality vs. quantity of offspring. 190, 191-192, 201-202 size-structured model of evolutionary mortality, 73-74, 75 Fish, 251-252, 253 Fluctuating environments, 11 evolution of mortality rates in, 72-73 life span of captive animals, 163 See also Environmental heterogeneity Force of mortality definition, 40 See also Hazard functions Free radicals, 96, 260 Fruit fly evidence of decreasing hazard functions, 5-6 evidence of life span plasticity, 247 evolutionary plasticity, 248-249 rate of aging. 249 See also Drosophila melanogaster: Medfly studies G Gender differences feeding ecology, 179 feminization of elderly. 154 inheritance of resources, 170-171, 229-230 Gene association, 110-111

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Genetic heterogeneity in evolutionary demography theory, 100-101 in evolutionary equilibria models, 67-69 limit-distribution hypothesis of longevity, 52 mortality trajectory and. 25-26 population genetics of life-history evolution, 101-102 selectivity and, 6-7 unobserved heterogeneity and, 14 Genetic mapping conceptual basis, 111-112 of induced mutants, 115 positional cloning, 115, 119 rationale, 108-109 research value, 14-15 See also Quantitative trait locus mapping Genetic markers, 238-239 ethical issues, 241-242 future demographic research, 14-15 of life-history traits, 117 in long-lived animals, 252 nematode point mutation and longevity, 23 for old-age survival, 13-14 in quantitative trait locus mapping, 112-113 Genetic preprogramming life-history plasticity and, 246 longevity assurance genes. See Gerontogenes number of genes involved in extreme survival, 14 quantitative trait locus analysis, 13-14 for senescence, 4, 5 twin studies in longevity, 52 Genetic studies applications, 238-239 designing population studies for, 242-243 ethical issues, 241-242 gene-disease relationship, 237, 238, 239-240 prospects for longevity genetics, 260-261 prospects for marrying with population surveys, 235, 237 rationale for marrying with population surveys, 234 specimen collection, 241 Genotype definition, 237 evolutionary stable strategy models, 67 population distribution, 238-240 Germ-cell differentiation, 258 Gerontogenes cloning, 118-119 concept of, 109 gene association, 109, 110-111 induced mutation, 113, 115 mapping, 115. 122 methods for identifying, 109-110 in nematodes. 114-115, 116-117, 119, 120-122 research prospects, 260-261 selective breeding. 109, 111 transgenic, 115 in yeast. 113, 118 Glycation end-products, 258-259 Glycoxidation, 258-259 Gompertz distribution, 10, 17, 47 empirical evidence, 102-103 findings among oldest old, 103 Growth rate, 73-74 brain, 188 environmental effects, 87 H Hadza people, 179, 182, 184-185, 188, 194 Hassan-Weiss life tables. 215 Hayflick limit. 4, 255 Hazard functions, 1 antagonistic pleiotropy theory. 3 decreasing with age, See Decreasing hazard function definition, 40 evolutionary theories, 3-4 in finite life span model, 47 genetic heterogeneity, 6-7 genetically programmed, 13 leveling patterns, 5-6 limiting distribution, 51-52 mutation-accumulation theory, 3 U.S. females, 40 Health and morbidity adaptive vs. nonadaptive menopause, 9, 166 determinants of behavior, 202 gene-disease relationship. 237, 238, 239-240 human patterns. 250 recent population surveys, 235 role of genetic studies, 15. 234 Hiwi people. 176, 177, 179, 183, 188

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Homeostasis demographic meaning, 10 family processes, 10-11 implications of human postreproductive survival, 166 Hormone-replacement therapy. 9, 166 Hunter-gatherers, 7-8 feeding ecology, 179-189. 193-194 life course, 175 life-history evolution, 2(X) longevity, 176-179 mortality, 178-179, 194 postreproductive survival. 9, 166-168 reproductive ecology. 186-189 vs. modern environments, 200 See also Aché people; Efe people; Hadza people; Hiwi people; !Kung San peoples; Yanomamo people; Yora people I Income investment, 192. 193, 200-201 Individual differences age-related changes, 79-82 in aging, 128-129 in frailty, phenotypic plasticity and, 90-91 in life-history evolution. 89-90 life-history plasticity, 246 mortality trajectory, 26 Induced mutation, 113. 115 positional cloning, 119 Informed consent. 242 Intergenerational transfers, 8 as adaptive behavior, 171 bequests to children. 170-171, 224, 228-230 as contribution of elderly, 169 costs, 169 direction of flow, 219-220, 221-224, 230 environmental considerations, 219 gender differences, 170- 171, 229-230 measuring, 220 over life cycle. 219, 220, 228 patterns of, 169-171 repayment theory, 228 reproductive fitness and, 228, 230 through public sector, 224-227 within family, 223-224, 227-228 K Kangaroo rats, 169, 170 Kin selection, 7 !Kung San peoples, 166-167, 176. 179-180, 183, 185, 193-194, 213, 215-216 L Lactation, 187-188 Leadership, 131-132, 136, 140 Life expectancy among primitive peoples, 215-216 coefficient of variation of ages at death and, 49-50 compression-rectangularization hypothesis. 50 current beliefs, 38 definition, 45 for elderly, 216 evolutionary theories, 2-5 global disparities, 38 in high-mortality populations, 213-215, 216 in life tables, 215 modem female, 217 projections, 217 research needs, 1-2 trends, 38. 245, 260-261 See also Life spans: Limits to longevity Longevity Life history, 1, 129-130 ancestral reproductive scenarios, 196 capital investment model of reproductive evolution, 190-194, 200-201, 202, 203 cellular processes, 255-258 cetaceans, 144 definition, 79 distinctive human characteristics, 175, 202 elephants, 134-136 evolutionary demography theory, 100-102 evolutionary theory, 78-82, 175, 189-194 externally mediated evolutionary changes, 85-89 feeding ecology, 175, 176, 179-189 genetic markers, 117 individual variation in evolution of, 89-90 intergenerational transfers across, 219, 220, 228 molecular changes, 258-260 mortality-fertility tradeoffs, 71-72, 75

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  mutation-accumulation theory, 81-82 phenotype evolution, 68-69, 74-76 phenotype optimization, 104 primate vs. human. 186-187 reproductive tradeoffs. 190, 195, 196-197 reproductive value measurement, 83-85 scope, 245-246 state-dependent optimization, 90-91 traits associated with increased longevity. 153 of wasps. 148-150 Life spans of captive animals, 163 of cetaceans, 143-144, 212 compression-rectangularization hypothesis, 50 contributions of elderly. 152-153 definition. 45 evidence of plasticity in, 247 evolution in eusocial wasps, 151 limit-distribution hypothesis, 53, 60 as measure of evolved rate of aging, 86 physiological determinants. 247-249 of primates, 139 range among living things. 246-253 rate of senescence and, 249 species differences. 152 support for limited-life span hypothesis, 45-48 Life tables Coale-Demeny, 49, 50, 213-215, 216 Hassan-Weiss, 215 for high-mortality populations, 213-215, 216 notation, 39, 40 Limit-distribution hypothesis, 51-58, 60-61 Limited-life span hypothesis, 40-48, 60 Limits to longevity cause-elimination models, 53 cellular, 255-258 compression-rectangularization hypothesis, 48-51, 60 current beliefs, 38 demographic approach, 61 evolutionary theory, 246-247 limit-distribution hypothesis, 51-58, 60-61 limited-life span hypothesis, 40-48, 60 molecular, 258-260 preprogrammed, 4, 5 relevance of Hayflick limit, 4, 255 theories of, 2-5 Longevity among primates, 176-179 associated life-history traits, 153 consequences for individuals, 130 demographic notation for expressing, 39-40 gender issues. 154 genetic plasticity, 6, 260-261 genetically programmed. 13-14 gerontogene concept for, 109 nutritional factors, 12 postreproductive survival and. 196-198 of primates, 139 primitive peoples, 176-179 quantitative trait locus mapping of. 116-118 rationale for genetic research, 108 social consequences, 130 of wasps, 147-148 See also Life expectancy: Life spans Limits to longevity Lotka growth equation, 67, 73, 127 M Machiguenga, 180, 184, 185-186, 189 Markov chain, 27 Mathematical modeling in evolutionary demography, 97-98 evolutionary equilibria, 66, 67-69 of evolutionary processes, 10 intergenerational transfers, 220 measures of aging, 83 research trends, 14-15 stochastic, 27 Maximum age at death current computability, 47-48 limited-life span hypothesis, 48, 60 trends, 45-46 Mayflies, 248-249 Mechanical devices, 29-30 Medfly studies. 1, 5-6, 17 evidence of mortality deceleration, 18, 19-21, 24 mechanisms of mortality deceleration, 25-26 Mediterranean fruit flies. See Medfly studies Menopause adaptive. 8-9, 166, 196 age at onset. 213 evolutionary theory, 166-168, 175, 176 nonadaptive, 166. 196 physiology, 196

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Midlife, 250 Molecular life history. 258-260 Mortality fertility tradeoffs, 70 high-mortality populations, 213-215, 216 nematode genetics, 120-122 prehistoric. 9, 87, 166-168, 213, 215. 230, 231 primate, 176-179 primitive peoples, 178-179, 194 research goals, 78 salmon limit, 70 See also Age-specific death rate Mortality rate Mortality trajectory Mortality rate among oldest old, 6, 103-104 doubling time. 246 Gompertz equation, 102-103 U.S. trends, 54 See also Age-specific death rate: Mortality trajectory Mortality trajectory among oldest old, 19 of automobiles, 28-29 in complex systems, 10. 29-30 compression-rectangularization hypothesis. 48-51 evidence of deceleration at older ages, 5-6, 17-18, 19-25 evolutionary theory and, 32-33, 84 general pattern, 19 generalizability of species studies, 19 genetic heterogeneity and. 25-26 Gompertz distribution, 17 insect and worm patterns, 19-25 limit-distribution hypothesis. 51-58, 60-61 limited-life span hypothesis, 47-48 measures of fertility and reproduction and, 84 mechanisms of deceleration at older ages, 25-26, 31-33 nematode point mutation effects, 23 patterns among population subgroups, 26 population density effects. 25 reliability theory, 27-30 research goals. 78 stochastic modeling, 27 theories of aging, 18-19 U.S. patterns, 54-55 world patterns, 55-58 See also Decreasing hazard function Mortality rate Mutation definition, 237 evolutionary demography theory, 100-101 evolutionary theory, 91 induced, in gerontogenes, 113, 115, 119 life-history optimization and. 80-81 mortality-fertility tradeoffs in evolutionary equilibria, 71-72 nematode gerontogenes, 114-115 phenotype evolution, 68-69, 74 positive pleiotropy, 72 reduced rate of aging through, 91-92 research needs, 85 salmon limit for mortality, 70 selection balance, 100-101 selection for early fertility, 70 Mutation-accumulation theory, 4, 13. 247 allele rarity, 32-33 conceptual basis, 3, 18, 81-82 empirical evidence. 102 mortality trajectory patterns and, 32-33 theoretical revisions, 11-12 N National Institute on Aging. 234, 235 Natural selection in demographic disequilibrium, 75 disposable soma theory, 258 evolutionary demography model. 97-100 historically contingent change in, 12 life-history interaction, 79, 80, 87 mutation-accumulation theory, 3, 18 phenotype mutation and, 68-69, 74 for physiological/psychological response system, 200, 203 for plasticity of response to food supply, 12 role of elderly in, 7, 8, 32, 127, 131, 152 Nematode worm studies, 17 evidence of mortality deceleration, 5-6, 21, 23, 24-25 genetics of age-specific mortality, 120-122 identification of gerontogenes, 114-115, 116-117, 119 large populations, 122 normal mortality rate, 120 point mutation effects on mortality, 23 rate of aging, 249 Net maternity function, 7 Neuronal life history, 250, 255, 259-260 NIA. See National Institute on Aging Norms of reaction, 199-200

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O Oocyte endowment, 8-9, 161-162, 196-197 P Phenotype evolutionary equilibrium models, 66-69, 74-76 evolutionary genetic stability model, 67-68 evolutionary stable strategy models, 67 life history, evolutionary equilibria for, 69-71 optimization, 104 polymorphism, 73 population distribution, 240 quantitative trait locus mapping, 112-113 selection-mutation dynamic, 68-69, 74 Phenotypic plasticity, 12, 88, 199, 203 individual differences in frailty and, 90-91 Phenylketonuria, 238 Pioneer space probe, 27-28 Piro, 180, 184, 185-186 Plant clones. 247 Pleiotropy, antagonistic. See Antagonistic pleiotropy Pleiotropy theory, 72, 109, 118 definition, 81 population genetics of life-history evolution, 100, 101 Policymaking, 1 Polymorphic genes. 13-14 Population growth of eusocial insect colonies, 151 evolutionary demography model, 97 homeostatic process in, 10 implications for longevity, 261 life-history evolution. 79-80 maximum age at death and, 45-46 Population surveys applications of genetic research, 238-240 designed for genetic research, 242-243 estimates of phenotypic distribution from, 240 genetic specimen collection in, 241-242 prospects for genetic research, 235, 237 rationale for genetic studies, 234 recent efforts, 235 Positive pleiotropy, 72 Postreproductive survival among captive animals, 163 among cetaceans. 146, 163-164, 165. 212 among primates. 163 antagonistic pleiotropy theory. 3 behaviorally imposed reproductive cessation, 162-163 defining, 213 evolutionary theory, 84-85, 164-168, 194-195, 203 feeding ecology, 179-180 individual productivity and. 175 longevity and. 196-198 in men, 197-198 mutation-accumulation theory. 18, 70 in nature, 7, 127-128, 161-163, 168-169, 212-213 as nonadaptive artifact. 165-166 preadaptation model, 4-5 in preagricultural societies, 9, 166-167, 179, 213, 216, 230, 231 research needs. 85 trends, 217 See also Contributions of elderly Preadaptation conceptual basis. 4-5 for eusociality, 147-151 evolutionary theory. 147 for social evolution, 128 Predation behavioral strategies. 192, 193 in life-history evolution. 85-86 Primates aging, 139, 176-179 altruistic behavior in, 131 contributions of elderly. 139-142 dominance hierarchies, 132 feeding ecology, 180-182, 186, 188 food-restriction effects, 254 postreproductive survival, 163 reproduction, 138, 139, 187, 188 social organization, 137-139 taxonomy, 137 Q Quantitative trait locus mapping applications, 13-14, 118 conceptual basis, 111-112 genetic marker linkages. 113 for identifying gerontogenes. 109, 110 interval mapping. 113 of longevity. 116-118

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  positional cloning. 119 procedure, 112-113 recombinant inbred strains, 116-117 for research in life-history phenotypic evolution. 75 R Rate of aging, 82-85, 246 artificially postponed reproduction and, 253 polygenic genetic variation in, 91 predicting, 87, 92 range of, across species. 249-250, 251 -253 reduction through mutation, 91-92 variability in. 128n. 128 See also Senescence Reactive oxidation. 115, 258-259, 260 Recombinant inbred strains. 116-117 genetics of longevity in nematodes. 120-121 Relativistic mechanics, 103-104 Reliability engineers, 27-28, 39 Repair and maintenance, 27, 92 determinants of mortality in biology of. 247 Reproductive biology among primates. 138, 139, 187 ancestral life span scenarios, 196 artificial selection for late reproduction, 6 artificially postponed, senescence and, 98-99, 253 atresia, 196-197 behaviorally imposed reproductive cessation, 162-163 capital investment model of life-history evolution, 189-194, 200-201, 202, 203 effects of fluctuating environments, 11 of elephants, 134-136 environmental effects on life history, 90 feeding ecology and, 186-189 germ-cell differentiation. 258 homeostatic models, 10-11 human life span. 153 life history. 162 life-history evolution, 79-80 life-history tradeoffs, 190, 195, 196-197 of medflies, 20 nonsexually reproducing organisms, 247 old-age fertility, 32 oocyte endowment, 8-9, 161-162, 196-197 primate vs. human, 187-188 quality vs. quantity of offspring, 190, 191-192, 201 risks of old-age reproduction, 195 vegetative propagation, 255-257 Reproductive value, 83-85, 195 Rodent studies cell proliferation, 257-258 food restrictions, 251 identification of gerontogenes. 114-115, 116 laboratory life spans, 250-251 quantitative trait loci cloning. 119 rate of aging, 249 S Salmon, 5, 70, 249, 253 Saturnid moth, 131 Sebastes,251, 252, 258 Senescence altruistic behavior in, 130-131 among primates, 139 classical demography, 69-71 comparative biology, 1 contextual assessment, 129-130 evolutionary theories of, 3-5, 65, 80-81, 203 examples of species plasticity. 253-255 genetic basis, 91-92 germ-cell differentiation, 258 individual differences, 128-129, 246 measuring rate of, 82-85, 246 mutation-accumulation theory, 81-82 in nature, 168-169 in nonsexually reproducing organisms. 247 predictive modeling. 85-87, 90 preprogrammed. 4, 5 process conceptualization, 129 research needs, 76 in theory of evolutionary demography, 97-98 See also Rate of aging Senility, 127-128 Social organization and behavior altruistic behaviors, 130-131 of cetaceans, 143, 165 consequences of individual longevity, 130 dominance relations, 131-132 of elephants, 134 intergenerational transfers and, 223, 224-227 longevity as preadaptation for, 128 of primates, 137-139

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  teaching and learning, 133, 137, 145 territoriality. 132-133 of wasps, 148-150 Survival analysis, 39-40 limited-life span hypothesis, 40-45 Survival function, 39 in compression-rectangularization hypothesis, 49, 50-51 limiting distribution, 51-52 U.S. females, 40 T Teaching, 133, 137, 145, 217-218 Telomere DNA, 255 Territorial behavior, 132-133 intergenerational transfer, 170, 171 Transgenic gene lines. 115, 119 V Vasopressin, 259-260 Vegetative propagation. 255-257 Violent death, 55 W Waaler surfaces, 12 Wasps, 147-151 Whales. See Cetaceans Y Yanomamo people, 176, 177 Yeasts, 113, 118. 247 Yora people, 184 Z Zeus, 5