Curtsinger, J.W., H. Fukui, A. Khazacli, L. Xiu, and S. Pletcher 1994   Rates of mortality in populations of Caenorhabditis elegans. Science 266:826.

Eshel, I., and M.W. Feldman 1982   On the evolutionary genetic stability of the sex-ratio. Theoretical Population Biology 21:430-439.

Gaillard, J-M., D. Allaine, D. Pontier, N.G. Yoccoz, and D. Promislow 1994 Senescence in natural populations of mammals. Evolution 48: 509-516.

Hamilton, W.D. 1966 The moulding of senescence by natural selection. Journal of Theoretical Biology 12:1245.

Lande, R. 1982 A quantitative genetic theory of life history evolution. Ecology 63(3):607-615.

Liberman, U., and M.W. Feldman 1986 Modifiers of mutation rate: A general reduction principle. Theoretical Population Biology 30:125-142.

Medawar, P.B. 1952 An Unsolved Problem of Biology. London: H.K. Lewis.

Mukai, T., S.I. Chigusa, L.E. Mettler, and J.F. Crow 1972   Mutation rate and dominance of genes affecting viability in Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics 72:335-355.

Orzack, S., and S. Tuljapurkar 1989   Population dynamics in variable environments VII. The demography and evolution of iteroparity. American Naturalist 133:901-923.

Sibley, C., and J.E. Ahlquist 1990   Phylogeny and Classification of Birds: A Study in Molecular Evolution. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Tuljapurkar, S., and C. Boe 1993   No Senescence Before Its Time: Life History and Mortality. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Population Association of America.

Williams, G.C. 1957   Pleiotropy, natural selection, and the evolution of senescence. Evolution 11:398-411.

The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement