Halon Bang

To serve existing applications depending on equipment that cannot be retrofitted cost-effectively, the U.S. EPA encourages halon banking programs. The Department of Defense maintains such a bank for mission-critical systems, managed by the Defense Logistics Agency, which also serves as the buffer needed while new agents are identified and systems developed for new platforms. In the commercial sector, users have undertaken similar actions to redeploy and bank halon. Private-sector businesses have sprung up to work the halon recycling market, and the non-profit Halon Recycling Corporation plays an important role in aiding buyers and sellers of halon both in the United States and abroad.

The data for estimating the global supplies of halons are collected by two different methods. The first is based on amounts manufactured annually by the major producers and on emission patterns. Countries that have required collection of halon for destruction provide the second. In two such countries, Australia and Germany, the first estimates of the halon to be collected were based on the study of annual production. In both cases, these initial estimates had to be revised downward because the actual quantity of halons collected fell short of projections, possibly because (1) actual quantities within the country were less than estimated, (2) some halon was emitted rather than being collected, or (3) the halon was not turned in. Any or all these could account for the discrepancies. The major point is that we just do not know. Currently, UNEP's Halon Technical Options Committee is reexamining its estimates of the global bank of halons.

References

1. J.D. Longstreth et al., "Effects of Increased Solar Ultraviolet Radiation on Human Health," pp. 23-48 in Environmental Effects of Ozone Depletion: 1994 Assessment , J.C. van der Leun, Ed., United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi, Kenya, November (1994).

2. S. Solomon, D. Wuebbles, et al., "Ozone Depletion Potentials, Global Warming Potentials, and Future Chlorine/Bromine Loading," pp. 13.9-13.13 in Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 1994, Co-Chairs, Daniel L. Albritton, Robert T. Watson, and Piet J. Aucamp, World Meteorological Organization, Geneva (1994).

3. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Risk Screen on the Use of Substitutes for Class I Ozone Depleting Substances: Fire Suppression and Explosion Protection, EPA, Washington, D.C., March (1994), pp. 2-2 to 2-4.

4. Gary Taylor, "Halon Bank Management - A Rationale to Evaluate Future World Supplies," in Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Halons and the Environment, CFPA Europe/NFPA, Geneva, Sept. 28 (1990).

5. Environment Canada, Halon Bank Management—A Rationale for Canada , March 15 (1990).

6. Halon Fire Extinguishing Agents Technical Options Report to the United Nations Environment Programme Technology Review Panel, Gary Taylor and Major E. Thomas Morehouse, Jr., Co-Chairs, Toronto, Canada, June (1989), p. 9.

7. S. Solomon, D. Wuebbles, et al., "Ozone Depletion Potentials, Global Warming Potentials, and Future Chlorine/Bromine Loading," pp. 13.9-13.13 in Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 1994, Co-Chairs, Daniel L. Albritton, Robert T. Watson, and Piet J. Aucamp, World Meteorological Organization, Geneva (1994).

8. Ozone Secretariat, Handbook for the Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer, third edition, United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi, Kenya, August (1993), p. 27.

9. Clean Air Act, U.S. Code, Vol. 42, Title VI, secs. 7450 et seq. (1990).

10. Reva Rubenstein, "Human Health and Environmental Toxicity Issues for Evaluation of Halon Replacements," Toxicology Letters 68, 21-24 (1993).

11. National Fire Protection Association, Halon 1301 Fire Extinguishing Systems, NFPA 12A, NFPA, Quincy, Massachusetts (1992), pp. 12A-11.

12. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Significant New Alternatives Policy Program, Rulemakings, and Notices, 59 FR 13044 (March 18, 1994); 59 FR 44240 (August 26, 1994); 60 FR 3318 (January 13, 1995).

13. Clean Air Act, U.S. Code, Vol. 42, Title VI, secs. 7401 et seq., sec. 612(a) , (1990).

14. A.R. Ravishankara, S. Solomon, A.A. Turnipseed, and R.F. Warren, "Atmospheric Lifetimes of Long-lived Halogenated Species," Science 259, 194-199 (1993).

15. Du Pont Fluorochemicals, "EPA SNAP Submission for HFC-23," January (1993).



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