The Navy-developed nozzle, a modification of a commercially available high-pressure nozzle, has demonstrated good performance over a range of fire scenarios and may represent substantial improvements in water mist technology relative to the other designs currently contemplated for use by the Navy. Such improvements may provide opportunities to broaden the application of water mist systems through improvements in space and weight impacts and retrofit potential.

However, the need for substantial full-scale testing to improve the currently inadequate fundamental understanding of water mist fire suppression and extinguishment mechanisms represents a substantial cost, timing, and optimization barrier to additional development.

References

1. P.G. Papavergos, "Fine Water Sprays for Fire Protection," Proceedings of the Halon Alternatives Technical Conference, Albuquerque, N. Mex., May (1991).

2. J.R. Butz and R. Carey, "Application of Fine Water Mists to Fire Suppression," Proceedings of the Halon Alternatives Technical Conference , Albuquerque, N. Mex., May (1991).

3. R. Wighus, "Fine Water Spray Against Hydrocarbon Fires," SINTEF—Norwegian Fire Research Laboratory, Trondheim, Norway (1993); R. Wighus, "Fine Water Spray System—Extinguishing Tests in Medium and Full Scale Turbine Hood," Norwegian Fire Research Laboratory (1993).

4. C.S. Cousin, "Recent Work on Fire Control Using Fine Water Sprays at the Fire Research Station," Proceedings of the First International Conference on Fire Suppression Research, Stockholm and Bors, Sweden, May 5-8 (1992).

5. R.G. Hill, C.P. Sarkos, and T.R. Marker, "Development and Evaluation of an On-Board Aircraft Water Spray System for Postcrash Fire Protection," SAE Technical Paper 912224, Aerospace Technology Conference and Exposition, Long Beach, California, September 23-26 (1991).

6. R.T. Whitfield, Q.A. Whitfield, and J. Steel, "Aircraft Cabin Fire Suppression by Means of an Interior Water Spray System," CAA Paper 88014, Civil Aviation Authority, July (1988).

7. J.R. Mawhinney, "Fine Water Spray Fire Suppression Project," Proceedings of the First International Conference on Fire Suppression Research , Stockholm and Bors, Sweden, May 5-8 (1992).

8. A.R.F. Turner, "Water Mist in Marine Applications," presented at the Water Mist Fire Suppression Workshop, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland, March 1 (1993).

9. M. Arvindson and A. Ryderman, "Tests in Simulated Ship's Engine Rooms with Hi-fog Fire Protection System," 91 R30189, Swedish National Testing and Research Institute, Bors, Sweden, July 28 (1992).

10. M. Tuomissari, "Fire Suppression Tests in Simulated Ship's Engine Room with a Hi-fog Fire Protection System," PAL 2210/92, VTT Fire Technology Laboratory, Helsinki, Finland, November 16 (1992); M. Tuomissari, "Enclosed Space Fire Suppression Tests," PAL 2206/92, October 23 (1992); M. Tuomissari, ''Extinguishing Tests of Simulated Computer Room Fires by a Hi-fog Sprinkler System," PAL 2196/92, August 11 (1992); and M. Tuomissari "Withstand Voltage of Switch Gears in the Presence of Operating Hi-fog Fire Protection System," 9AFX92-98, ABB Strömberg Research Centre, Vassa, Finland, August 3 (1992).

11. E. Soja, "DGME Waterfog Trials," YARD Report No. 4175-NM0609, British Ministry of Defense - Navy, Bath, England (1990).

12. V. Gameiro, "Fine Water Spray Technology Water Mist Fire Suppression Systems," presented at the Halon Alternatives Technical Working Conference, Albuquerque, N. Mex., May 11-13 (1993); V. Gameiro, "Fine Water Spray Fire Suppression Alternative to Halon 1301 in Machinery Spaces," The 1993 International CFC and Halon Alternatives Conference Proceedings , Washington, D.C., October 20-22 (1993).

13. M. Arvindson and A. Ryderman, "Tests in Simulated Ship's Engine Rooms with Hi-fog Fire Protection System," 91 R30189, Swedish National Testing and Research Institute, Bors, Sweden, July 28 (1992).

14. A.T. Hills, T. Simpson, and D.P. Smith, "Water Mist Fire Protection Systems for Telecommunications Switch Gear and Other Electronic Facilities," presented at the Water Mist Fire Suppression Workshop, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland, March 1 (1993).

15. M. Tuomissari, "Fire Suppression Tests in Simulated Ship's Engine Room with a Hi-fog Fire Protection System," PAL 2210/92, VTT Fire Technology Laboratory, Helsinki, Finland, November 16 (1992); M. Tuomissari, "Enclosed Space Fire Suppression Tests," PAL 2206/92, October 23 (1992); M. Tuomissari, "Extinguishing Tests of Simulated Computer Room Fires by a Hi-fog Sprinkler System," PAL 2196/92, August 11 (1992); and M. Tuomissari "Withstand Voltage of Switch Gears in the Presence of Operating Hi-fog Fire Protection System," 9AFX92-98, ABB Strömberg Research Centre, Vassa, Finland, August 3 (1992).



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