Appendix D
Language of the Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996

TITLE VII-CRIMINAL LAW MODIFICATIONS TO COUNTER TERRORISM SEC. 732. MARKING, RENDERING INERT, AND LICENSING OF EXPLOSIVE MATERIALS.

(a) STUDY.

(1) IN GENERAL.-Not later than 12 months after the date of enactment of this Act, the Secretary of the Treasury (referred to in this section as the “Secretary”) shall conduct a study of

(A) the tagging of explosive materials for purposes of detection and identification;

(B) the feasibility and practicability of rendering common chemicals used to manufacture explosive materials inert;

(C) the feasibility and practicability of imposing controls on certain precursor chemicals used to manufacture explosive materials; and

(D) State licensing requirements for the purchase and use of commercial high explosives, including

(i) detonators;

(ii) detonating cords;

(iii) dynamite;

(iv) water gel;

(v) emulsion;

(vi) blasting agents; and

(vii) boosters.

(2) EXCLUSION.-No study conducted under this subsection or regulation proposed under subsection (a) shall include black or smokeless powder among the explosive materials considered.

(3) New prevention technologies: In addition to the study of taggants as provided herein, the Secretary, in consultation with the Attorney General, shall concurrently report to the Congress on the possible use, and exploitation of technologies such as vapor detection devices, computed tomography, nuclear quadrupole resonance, thermal neutron analysis, pulsed fast-neutron analysis, and other technologies upon which recommendations to the Congress may be made for further study, funding, and use of the same in preventing and solving acts of terrorism involving explosive devices.

(b) CONSULTATION.

(1) IN GENERAL.-In conducting the study under subsection (a), the Secretary shall consult with

(A) Federal, State, and local officials with expertise in the area of chemicals used to manufacture explosive materials; and

(B) such other individuals as the Secretary determines are necessary.

(2) FERTILIZER RESEARCH CENTERS.-In conducting any portion of the study under subsection (a) relating to the regulation and use of fertilizer as a pre-explosive material, the Secretary of the Treasury shall consult with and receive input from non-profit fertilizer research centers.

(c) REPORT.-Not later than 30 days after the completion of the study conducted under subsection (a), the Secretary shall submit a report to the Congress, which shall be made public, that contains

(1) the results of the study;

(2) any recommendations for legislation; and

(3) any opinions and findings of the fertilizer research centers.

(d) HEARINGS.-Congress shall have not less than 90 days after the submission of the report under subsection (c) to

(1) review the results of the study; and

   

NOTE: Title VII was amended on September 28, 1996 (Department of Defense Appropriations Act, 1997). Changes are shown as bold text.



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--> Appendix D Language of the Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996 TITLE VII-CRIMINAL LAW MODIFICATIONS TO COUNTER TERRORISM SEC. 732. MARKING, RENDERING INERT, AND LICENSING OF EXPLOSIVE MATERIALS. (a) STUDY. (1) IN GENERAL.-Not later than 12 months after the date of enactment of this Act, the Secretary of the Treasury (referred to in this section as the “Secretary”) shall conduct a study of (A) the tagging of explosive materials for purposes of detection and identification; (B) the feasibility and practicability of rendering common chemicals used to manufacture explosive materials inert; (C) the feasibility and practicability of imposing controls on certain precursor chemicals used to manufacture explosive materials; and (D) State licensing requirements for the purchase and use of commercial high explosives, including (i) detonators; (ii) detonating cords; (iii) dynamite; (iv) water gel; (v) emulsion; (vi) blasting agents; and (vii) boosters. (2) EXCLUSION.-No study conducted under this subsection or regulation proposed under subsection (a) shall include black or smokeless powder among the explosive materials considered. (3) New prevention technologies: In addition to the study of taggants as provided herein, the Secretary, in consultation with the Attorney General, shall concurrently report to the Congress on the possible use, and exploitation of technologies such as vapor detection devices, computed tomography, nuclear quadrupole resonance, thermal neutron analysis, pulsed fast-neutron analysis, and other technologies upon which recommendations to the Congress may be made for further study, funding, and use of the same in preventing and solving acts of terrorism involving explosive devices. (b) CONSULTATION. (1) IN GENERAL.-In conducting the study under subsection (a), the Secretary shall consult with (A) Federal, State, and local officials with expertise in the area of chemicals used to manufacture explosive materials; and (B) such other individuals as the Secretary determines are necessary. (2) FERTILIZER RESEARCH CENTERS.-In conducting any portion of the study under subsection (a) relating to the regulation and use of fertilizer as a pre-explosive material, the Secretary of the Treasury shall consult with and receive input from non-profit fertilizer research centers. (c) REPORT.-Not later than 30 days after the completion of the study conducted under subsection (a), the Secretary shall submit a report to the Congress, which shall be made public, that contains (1) the results of the study; (2) any recommendations for legislation; and (3) any opinions and findings of the fertilizer research centers. (d) HEARINGS.-Congress shall have not less than 90 days after the submission of the report under subsection (c) to (1) review the results of the study; and     NOTE: Title VII was amended on September 28, 1996 (Department of Defense Appropriations Act, 1997). Changes are shown as bold text.

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--> (2) hold hearings and receive testimony regarding the recommendations of the Secretary. (e) REGULATIONS. (1) IN GENERAL.-Not later than 6 months after the submission of the report required by subsection (c), the Secretary may submit to Congress and publish in the Federal Register draft regulations for the addition of tracer elements to explosive materials manufactured in or imported into the United States, of such character and in such quantity as the Secretary may authorize or require, if the results of the study conducted under subsection (a) indicate that the tracer elements (A) will not pose a risk to human life or safety; (B) will substantially assist law enforcement officers in their investigative efforts; (C) will not substantially impair the quality of the explosive materials for their intended lawful use; (D) will not have a substantially adverse effect on the environment; and (E) the costs associated with the addition of the tracers will not outweigh benefits of their inclusion. (2) EFFECTIVE DATE.-The regulations under paragraph (1) shall take effect 270 days after the Secretary submits proposed regulations to Congress pursuant to paragraph (1), except to the extent that the effective date is revised or the regulation is otherwise modified or disapproved by an Act of Congress. (f) Special Study: (1) In general.--Notwithstanding subsection (a), the Secretary of the Treasury shall enter into a contract with the National Academy of Sciences (referred to in this section as the Academy) to conduct a study of the tagging of smokeless and black powder by any viable technology for purposes of detection and identification. The study shall be conducted by an independent panel of 5 experts appointed by the Academy. (2) Study elements.--The study conducted under this subsection shall (A) indicate whether the tracer elements, when added to smokeless and black powder (i) will pose a risk to human life or safety; (ii) will substantially assist law enforcement officers in their investigative efforts; (iii) will impair the quality and performance of the powders (which shall include a broad and comprehensive sampling of all available powders) for their intended lawful use, including, but not limited to the sporting, defense, and handloading uses of the powders, as well as their use in display and lawful consumer pyrotechnics; (iv) will have a substantially adverse effect on the environment; (v) will incur costs which outweigh the benefits of their inclusion, including an evaluation of the probable production and regulatory cost of compliance to the industry, and the costs and effects on consumers, including the effect on the demand for ammunition; and (vi) can be evaded, and with what degree of difficulty, by terrorists or terrorist organizations, including evading tracer elements by the use of precursor chemicals to make black or other powders; and (B) provide for consultation on the study with Federal, State, and local officials, non-governmental organizations, including all national police organizations, national sporting organizations, and national industry associations with expertise in this area and such other individuals as shall be deemed necessary. (3) Report and costs.--The study conducted under this subsection shall be presented to Congress 12 months after the enactment of this subsection and be made available to the public, including any data tapes or data used to form such recommendations. There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary to carry out the study.

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--> Conference Language Accompanying the Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996 Section 732-House amendment sections 301 and 801 recede to Senate sections 708 and 905, with modifications. This section directs the Treasury Secretary to provide to the Congress a study of the feasibility of tagging explosives and precursor chemicals, for the purpose of tracing the explosives back to the manufacturer after an explosion. The study would also evaluate the feasibility of imposing controls on the sale and distribution of certain of those chemicals. Black or smokeless powder is excluded from the study. The section requires input from non-profit fertilizer research centers in the Treasury Secretary's conduct of the study. The section also requires the Treasury Secretary to conduct a study of the licensing requirements applicable in the various states for the purchase and use of commercial high explosives. The phrase “commercial high explosives” is defined, by way of illustration, to include “detonators, detonating cards, dynamite, water gel, emulsion, blasting agents, and boosters.” This section also requires the Treasury Secretary to report the results of the study to Congress, together, if deemed necessary, with recommendations for regulation. The Secretary is authorized to promulgate regulations requiring the inclusion of tracing taggants in explosive materials if the taggants will not endanger human life or safety, will substantially assist law enforcement, and are cost-effective. The regulations promulgated pursuant to this authority shall go into effect if Congress does not act within 270 days of the publication of the regulations in the Federal Register.