Appendix E
Working Bibliography

The Study

“NRC Panel Enters the Fight Over Tagging Explosives.” Science. January 24, 1997; pp. 474–475.


Rouhi, M. “Research Council to Study Taggants.” Chemical and Engineering News. September 9, 1996; pp. 10–11.


“Tagging Explosives: Safety and Cost Dominate Debate.” Chemical and Engineering News. January 20, 1997; pp. 9–10.

General

Barbash, F. 1996. “London Police Seize 10 Tons of Presumed IRA Explosives: 1 Dead, 5 Arrested in Raids on Alleged Terrorist Group.” The Washington Post. September 24, page A12.


Cooper, K. 1995. “Few Countermeasures Seen Against Homemade Bombs.” The Washington Post. June 14, page A4.


Department of the Treasury, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms. 1995. Arson and Explosives: Incidents Report 1994. ATF P 3320.4. Washington, D.C.


Kitfield, J. 1996. “Freelance Terrorism Hard to Halt.” National Journal. July 6, pages 1483–1484.


National Research Council. 1986. The Embassy of the Future: Recommendations for the Design of Future U.S. Embassy Buildings. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

National Research Council. 1988. Protection of Federal Office Buildings Against Terrorism. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

National Research Council. 1995. Protecting Buildings from Bomb Damage: Transfer of Blast-Effects Mitigation Technologies from Military to Civilian Applications. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.


Schleifer, Y. 1996. “The Explosion of Bombs: What's Behind the Startling Upsurge in Criminal Blasts?” The Washington Post. August 4, page C4.


Technical Support Working Group (TSWG) of the National Security Council's Interagency Working Group on Counterterrorism (IWG/CT). Briefing slides.


U.S. Department of Justice. National Institute of Justice Research Plan 1995–1996.

Explosives (General)

“Advances in Analysis and Detection of Explosives,” Jehuda Yinon (editor), Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Analysis and Detection of Explosives, September 7–10, 1992, Jerusalem, Israel.



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--> Appendix E Working Bibliography The Study “NRC Panel Enters the Fight Over Tagging Explosives.” Science. January 24, 1997; pp. 474–475. Rouhi, M. “Research Council to Study Taggants.” Chemical and Engineering News. September 9, 1996; pp. 10–11. “Tagging Explosives: Safety and Cost Dominate Debate.” Chemical and Engineering News. January 20, 1997; pp. 9–10. General Barbash, F. 1996. “London Police Seize 10 Tons of Presumed IRA Explosives: 1 Dead, 5 Arrested in Raids on Alleged Terrorist Group.” The Washington Post. September 24, page A12. Cooper, K. 1995. “Few Countermeasures Seen Against Homemade Bombs.” The Washington Post. June 14, page A4. Department of the Treasury, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms. 1995. Arson and Explosives: Incidents Report 1994. ATF P 3320.4. Washington, D.C. Kitfield, J. 1996. “Freelance Terrorism Hard to Halt.” National Journal. July 6, pages 1483–1484. National Research Council. 1986. The Embassy of the Future: Recommendations for the Design of Future U.S. Embassy Buildings. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 1988. Protection of Federal Office Buildings Against Terrorism. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 1995. Protecting Buildings from Bomb Damage: Transfer of Blast-Effects Mitigation Technologies from Military to Civilian Applications. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Schleifer, Y. 1996. “The Explosion of Bombs: What's Behind the Startling Upsurge in Criminal Blasts?” The Washington Post. August 4, page C4. Technical Support Working Group (TSWG) of the National Security Council's Interagency Working Group on Counterterrorism (IWG/CT). Briefing slides. U.S. Department of Justice. National Institute of Justice Research Plan 1995–1996. Explosives (General) “Advances in Analysis and Detection of Explosives,” Jehuda Yinon (editor), Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Analysis and Detection of Explosives, September 7–10, 1992, Jerusalem, Israel.

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--> Anon. The Terrorist's Handbook. Available On-line Cooper, Paul and Kurowski, Stanley. Introduction to the Technology of Explosives. VCH Publishers, 1996. Coursen, D. 1992. Explosion and Explosives, McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th Edition, McGraw-Hill: New York. FBI. 1993 Bomb Summary. FBI. 1995 Bombing Data. FBI Explosives Unit, Bomb Data Center. 1994. “1994 Bombing Incidents.” General Information Bulletin 95-2. General Accounting Office. 1996. Terrorism and Drug Trafficking: Technologies for Detecting Explosives and Narcotics. Hopler, Robert, 1997. “Today's Commercial Explosives Industry: Trends in Products and Operations.” Washington, D.C.: Dyno Nobel Inc. “Inspectors Say Stopping Mail Bombs Impossible.” USA Today. January 14, 1997. “It's in the Mail.” The New Yorker. January 25, 1997. List of Working Papers from ICAO Ad Hoc Group of Specialists on the Detection of Explosives. “Mail Bombs,” NPR radio, January 15, 1997. Oxley, J. 1993. “Non-Traditional Explosives: Potential Detection Problems.” Terrorism and Political Violence 5 (number 2): 30–47. See also, Oxley, J. “The Chemistry of Explosives,” “The ABCs of Explosives,” and “Case History of an Ammonium Nitrate Emulsion Accident.” Yinon, Jehuda and Zitrin, Shmuel. 1993. Modern Methods and Applications in Analysis of Explosives. John Wiley and Sons. Black Powder and Smokeless Powder. Raber, L. 1996. “Clinton Drops Demand for Explosives Taggants.” Chemical and Engineering News. August 5, page 7. Why All Gun Owners Should Fear Taggants: The Truth About Taggants. http://pw2.netcom.com/~wooffer/taggants.html Taggants (General) Chen, T. 1995. “History of Military Explosives Tagging Efforts-ICAO Tagging of Plastic Explosives,” p. 41 in Explosives Symposium, September 18–22, 1995, Fairfax, Va.: Department of the Treasury, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms. Crawford, M. 1996. “Anti-Terrorism Tools Get Fast PTO Action.” New Technology Week. August 12, page 10. Department of the Treasury. 1995. Preliminary Proceedings of the International Explosives Symposium. Fairfax, Va.: Government Printing Office. Office of Technology Assessment (OTA). 1980. Taggants in Explosives. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office.

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--> Port, O. 1996. “An End to Anonymous Bombs? Even the NRA May Not Be Able to Stop IDs for Explosives.” Business Week. August 12, pages 84–85. Rouhi, M. 1995. “Government, Industry Efforts Yield Array of Tools to Combat Terrorism.” Chemical and Engineering News. July 24, pages 10–19. Rouhi, M. 1995. “How One Chemist's Outrage Sparked a Counterterrorism Invention.” Chemical and Engineering News. July 24, pages 13. Schwartz, J. 1995. “Technology Used to Tag Explosives Gets Second Look After Bombing.” The Washington Post. May 7, page A8. Taggants (Vendors) Information from taggant vendor: Biocode, Inc. Information from taggant vendor: Cambridge Isotope Laboratories, Inc. Information from taggant vendor: Innovative Biosystems Inc. Information from taggant vendor: Isotag LLC. Information from taggant vendor: Microtrace, Inc. Information from taggant vendor: Micro Tracers, Inc. Information from taggant vendor: SRI International. Information from taggant vendor: Tri-Valley Research. Taggants (Stakeholders) Follow-on information from the Institute for Makers of Explosives on tagging program costs. Information from the World Wide Web: “Why All Gun Owners Should Fear Taggants,” http://pw2.netcom.com/~wooffer/taggants.html.; “Fact Sheet: Tagging and Taggants for the Detection and Identification of Explosives, Smokeless Propellants, and Black Powder,” http://www.carkba.org/ncrkba/nccda_taggant.html.; and “Taggant Information,” http://www.hodgdon.com/taggants.htm. Information provided by ARES Incorporated Written testimony and follow-on information from the National Rifle Association, and an article in American Rifleman about the NRA's testimony to the committee. Written testimony from Amit Roy, International Fertilizer Development Center. Written testimony from George Ryan, American Iron Ore Association. Written testimony from Robert Bingham, Dyno Nobel, Inc. Written testimony from the Chemical Manufacturers Association and follow-on information on regulatory costs. Written testimony provided by the Glass Packaging Institute. Taggants for Detection Blasting Cap Tagging Schemes. JASON report JSR-86-825, 1986. Detection of Liquid Explosives. JASON report JSR-88-850, 1988. Detection of Plastic Guns. JASON report JSR-87-825, 1987.

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--> Detonator Tagging Using Multi-Photon Detection. Science Applications International Corporation. 1996. Lyle Malotky. 1991. Review of Potential Non-Vapor Marking Agents for Plastic Explosives. National Research Council. 1993. Detection of Explosives for Commercial Aviation Security. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 1996. Airline Passenger Screening. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Office of Technology Assessment. 1991. Technology Against Terrorism: The Federal Effort. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. Office of Technology Assessment. 1992. Technology Against Terrorism: Structuring Security. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office. Special Technologies Laboratory. 1996. Cobalt-60 as a Marking Agent. Special Technologies Laboratory. 1994. Future Tagging Program. Tagging Explosives for Detection. JASON report JSR-89-750, 1994. Tracer Detection Technology Corporation. Company Information. Taggants for Identification A white paper on glass microsphere taggants from the University of Missouri at Rolla. Aerospace Corporation. 1980. Identification Tagging Pilot Test for Packaged, Cap-Sensitive Explosives: Final Report. ATR-80(5860-03)-1ND. Washington, D.C. Freeman, Bruce. 1996. Explosive Tagging with Stable Isotopes. Centrus Plasma Technologies, Inc. Information from MICOT Corporation on its Micro-Component Tracer product. Information from Natura, Inc., on its luminescent chemical tagging approach. Information from Urenco Nederland B.V. on use of stable isotopes as potential taggants. Information on an Explosive Tagging Proposal by Dr. Vincent Calder. Information on Identispheres provided by Mo-Sci Corporation. Information on Micro Dots provided by Micro Dot Security Systems Incorporated. Selective Tagging of Explosives Using Surface Enhanced Resonance Raman Scattering (SERRS) as a Detection Technique. W. Smith and P. White, University of Strathclyde. Wu, C. 1996. “Tagged Out: New Markers for Explosives May Lay Old Safety Questions to Rest.” Science News, volume 150, September 14, pages 168–169. Desensitizing Explosives1 Hopler, Robert, Ammonium Nitrate/Fuel Oil (ANFO) Blasting Agents: Background of Development, Manufacture, and Use. Dyno Nobel, Inc. Garant, R. 1995. “Oklahoma City: How Easy Is It?” The Risk Advisory, May/June. 1   Several relevant papers are also included in the proceedings from the September 1995 ATF/International Explosives Symposium.

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--> Gorman, Christine. 1995. “How Garden-Variety Fertilizer Becomes Killer Bombs.” Time. volume 145, number 18, May 1. Sparta, Inc. 1995. Making Commercial Ammonium Nitrate Unsuitable for Terrorist Use. Controls for Precursor Chemicals Department of the Treasury, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms. 1990. Explosives Law and Regulations. Green, S. 1996. Preventing Illegal Diversion of Chemicals: A Model Statute. Department of Justice. Green, Sherry, National Institute of Justice. 1993. Preventing Illegal Diversion of Chemicals: A Model Statute. Hassan, F. 1996 “Explosives Producers Face Lawsuits.” Chemical Week, volume 158, number 25, June 26, page 18. Hassan, F. 1996. “Product Liability: Fertilizer Makers Face Bombing Suit.” Chemical Week, volume 158, number 12, March 27, page 12. National Institute of Justice. 1993. Controlling Chemicals Used to Make Illegal Drugs: The Chemical Action Task Force and the Domestic Chemical Action Group. The New Gun Week. 1996. “Minnesota Activist Blasts Clinton's Stand on Taggants.” October 10, page 12. Office of Technology Assessment. 1993. The Chemical Weapons Convention: Effects on the U.S. Chemical Industry. Rouhi, M. 1996. “Product Liability Could Be the Real Issue with Taggants.” Chemical and Engineering News. August 26, page 38. Sevick, James R., National Institute of Justice. 1993. Precursor and Essential Chemicals in Illicit Drug Production: Approaches to Enforcement. Swansiger, W., Shepodd, T., and Phillips, M. 1994. Development of Techniques for Tagging Precursor and Essential Chemicals. Sandia National Laboratory.