TABLE 2-1 Identified Environmental Issues

Clean Air

Automotive emissions

Industrial emissions

Photochemical air pollution

Acid deposition

Airborne toxic substances

Particulate matter

Long-range pollutant transport

Sudden, accidental releases of hazardous air pollutants

Urban and regional-scale tropospheric ozone

Clean Streams, Rivers, Lakes, and Estuaries

Industrial discharges

Municipal waste discharges

Acid mine drainage

Agricultural runoff

Urban runoff

Atmospheric deposition

Oil spills

Thermal pollution


Human-accelerated erosion and turbidity

Biochemical oxygen demand

Alterations due to floods

Storm overflows

Stream channelization consequences

Effects of dams

Introduced species

Competition for water resources

Clean Coasts and Oceans


Input from rivers and streams

Chemical contamination of estuaries, coastal areas, and oceans

Effects of recreational and commercial uses

Changes in biodiversity

Contaminated sediments

Clean Aquifers and Soils

Superfund and other industrial waste sites

Leaking fuel tanks

Diffuse-source contamination

Salt and heavy metal contamination

Salt water inflow

Clean Drinking Water

Drinking water pollutants

Biological contamination

Disinfection byproducts

Inadequate water delivery systems

Point-of-use treatment (home filters, etc.)

Old lead and lead-soldered waterpipes

Regional scarcity of potable water

Clean Dwellings and Workplaces

Indoor air contaminants (including radon)

Old lead-based paint


Outgassing from construction and finishing materials

Toxic substances used in homes and workplaces

Safe Food Supply

Pesticide residues

Plant uptake of contaminants

Effects of pollution on crops

Safe Disposal of Human Wastes

Effective waste isolation/collection

Sanitary waste disinfection

Sludge disposal

Wastewater reuse

Safe Disposal of Household and Industrial Waste

Waste reduction and recycling

Landfill technology and use

Radioactive waste storage, treatment, and disposal

Incineration emissions and ash

Offshore disposal

Industrial wastewater treatment

Infrastructure needs

Habitat and Species Conservation

Riparian degradation

Tropical ecosystem degradation

Temperate ecosystem degradation

Polar ecosystem degradation

Marine ecosystem degradation

Wetlands degradation

Endangered species

Species extinction


Pollutant bioaccumulation/bioconcentration

Habitat alteration, fragmentation, and destruction

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