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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance.

This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine.

This study was supported by Contract Number 68W40044 between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project.

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Cover art created by Carrie Mallory. Ms. Mallory received her Bachelor of Fine Arts Degree from the Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art. She takes many of her themes from the natural world and she has provided covers for many National Research Council reports.

Copyright 1997 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

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