An expressed-sequence tag (EST) is part of a sequence from a cDNA clone that corresponds to an mRNA (Adams and others 1991). It can be used to identify an expressed gene and as a sequence-tagged site marker to locate that gene on a physical map of the genome. In 1991 and 1992, NIH filed patent applications for 6,800 ESTs and for the rapid sequencing method developed by Craig Venter, who was a scientist at NIH. The PTO rejected NIH's application and when Harold Varmus became director of NIH, he decided not to appeal. But controversy caused by the initial patent application continued. In 1992, Venter left NIH to form The Institute for Genome Research (TIGR), a nonprofit company, and William Haseltine joined the newly established private company, Human Genome Sciences (HGS), a for-profit company that initially provided almost all of TIGR's funding. The focus of the controversy then moved from the public to the private sector, and it changed from an issue about patenting research tools to an issue of access to unpatented research tools. Like many other research tools, ESTs fill different roles and some of the controversy has involved disputes of the relative importance of ESTs for uses other than research.
Two factors have contributed to the controversy over intellectual property issues in this particular setting. First is the perception that some of the participants have been staking out intellectual property claims that extend beyond their actual achievements to include discoveries yet to be made by others. There is no question that ESTs constitute a powerful research tool. Questions about the patenting of ESTs have focused on the criteria of utility. ESTs are of limited value without substantial and nonobvious development. Initially a public institution, NIH, proposed to patent discoveries that both scientists and some representatives of industry felt belonged in the public domain. More recently a private institution, Merck, has assumed the quasigovernment task of sponsoring a university-based effort to place information into the public domain. While other private companies have provided funds for public sector research, such as in the Sandoz-Scripps agreement, these efforts have not been with the expressed purpose of putting information into the public domain.
This is a particularly interesting case study, in part because it began as a controversy over patents—over what could be patented, what should be patented and what would be the effect of patenting. It has evolved into a controversy over the dissemination of unpatented information and the terms on which that information will be made available.
Different firms have taken different approaches to the dissemination of these unpatented research tools, thus providing a natural experiment with which to study three models for disseminating the same sort of information. The models all arose in the private sector, and we can assume that although each firm adopted a different strategy, they had the same ultimate goal of maximizing the value that