solutions. Nevertheless, in looking at the history of how our science is developed and how we use the available instruments of intellectual property protection, it would be of interest for many of us to know, even in retrospect, whether placing restraints on information and attempting to exploit our ability to restrict information for the benefit of one party or another actually has any public benefit.


Blumenthal D. Causino N, Campbell E, and Louis KS. 1996. Relationships between academic institutions and industry in the life sciences—an industry survey . New England J Med. 334(6): 368–373.

National Research Council. 1994. Sharing Laboratory Resources: Genetically Altered Mice. Washington. National Academy Press. 41p.

The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement