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IRA SPRAGUE BOWEN December 21, 1898-Februa7:y 6, 1973 BY HORACE W. BABCOCK IRA SPRAGUE BOWEN was one of the outstanding physicists and astronomers of the twentieth century. He was giftec! with exceptional physical insight and with a compelling con- cern for funciamentals from which he seldom permitted him- self to be divertecI. As a pioneer in ultraviolet spectroscopy he discovered, with R. A. Millikan, evidence that led to the con- cept of electron spin in the vector mode] of the atom. He solver! the long-standing mystery of the "nebulium" lines in the spectra of gaseous nebulae, showing that they were "for- bidden" lines of ordinary elements. He was a master of ap- plied optics who was responsible for successful completion of the 200-inch Hale Telescope and for many ingenious crevices or optical systems that contributed enormously to mankincl's observations of the universe. Bowen was director of the Mount Wilson and Palomar Observatories for eighteen years. Here he took the leacI in developing a major organization for research and education while at the same time closely supervising details of observa- tory operations. On a wider scale, he accomplishecI much to broaden the opportunities for astronomers generally and to increase the number and efficiency of astronomical facilities. FAMILY BACKGROUND AND SCHOOLING The Bowen family traces its beginning in New England to Richard Bowen, who left Wales and settlecI in Rehoboth, 83

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84 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Massachusetts in 1643. During the Revolutionary War some members of the family were Tories and were forced to emi- grate to Canada. Later they returned to Washington County, New York. Ira Bowen's great-grancifather, Aaron Bowen, pioneered! in Steuben County, in the western part of the state. His grandfather, William H. Bowen, grew up on a farm in this region and married Juliza Cotton, whose family was I-ikewise of New England origin and had pioneered in the same section of the state. After spending his early years on the farm, Tra's father, lames H. Bowen, received his educa- tion at the local high school and at the Geneseo State Normal. He then became a preacher in the Wesleyan Methodist Church, a small denomination with fundamentalist doctrines and strict codes of conduct. James Bowen married Philinda Sprague, who tract grown up in the same rural community of Haskinsville in Steuben County and hacl completed her edu- cation at the Geneseo State Normal. Ira was born December 2l, IS98 at Seneca Falls, New York, where his father was at the time pastor of the local church. Two years later the family, including Ira's older brother, Ward, moved to MilIview, a small village in Sullivan County, Pennsylvania. While Tra was quite young, his father became business agent of the Wesleyan Methodist Church; the resulting responsibilities required frequent moves be- tween Houghton and Syracuse, with the result that from 1905 to 1908 Tra dicI not attend school but was taught at home by his mother, who was a licensed teacher in New York State. Following the death of his father in 190S, the boy's education was continued at Houghton Wesleyan Methodist Seminary, where his mother had obtained a position as a teacher. She later became principal of the high school department. During his high school years, Ira (or Ike, as he was known to his friends) took considerable interest in popular science as represented by Popular Mechanics and Scientific American. He

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IRA SPRAGUE BOWEN 85 also played with lenses, wires, and batteries to the extent permitted by the very limitecI family finances. He graduated from the high school in 1915 as valedictorian of a class of seventeen. The first three years of Ike Bowen's college courses were in the junior college that formed part of Houghton Sem- inary. All of the courses in mathematics, physics, ant! astron- omy were taught by the president, I. S. Luckey, who was a most effective teacher and who was largely responsible for the unusually high scholastic standarcis at the school. For these three years Bowen had charge of the laboratory of the high school physics course; the income earned in this way was used to pay his tuition. His early interest in science deepenecI cluring Bowen's first college years. It was no doubt stimulatecI by the ingenuity requires! to devise suitable experiments with the limiter] equipment available, as well as by the formal courses. Follow- ing a connection establishecl by Luckey, Bowen transferred to Oberlin College for his senior year and received the A.B. degree in June 1919. While at Oberlin he came under the direction of Professor S. R. Williams, whose sympathetic col- laboration with his students in research projects was respon- sible for the continuation of many of these students in ad- vancec! stucly anct research. In a project of this sort, Bowen stucliecI the magnetic and magnetomechanical properties of samples of manganese steel supplied by Sir Robert HacIfield, with whom he eventually publishecI the results in the Proceed- ings of the Royal Society. During this year he also assisted in one of the general physics laboratories and gave some time to the Students Army Training Corps, in which he had enlisted before the end of World War I. In the fall of 1919, having been awarded a scholarship, Bowen took up graduate studies at the University of Chicago. In the two years that he remained there he attenclecl all of the

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86 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS very comprehensive group of courses given by A. A. Michel- son on classical physics and R. A. Millikan on modern physics, as well as many other courses in the department. These con- tacts, and the involvement in a major physics department during a period of extraordinary progress, undoubtedly had a deep and lasting influence. In later life Bowen insisted that research should be aimed incisively at a welI-defined, funda- mental problem; he was intent on understanding the basic physics and had little patience with mere data-gathering pro- grams, which he characterized as "weather-bureau-type" . . activity. RESEARCH AND TEACHING At about the time of Bowen's arrival at the University of Chicago, Millikan's laboratory assistant, Dr. Ishida, an- nounced his intention of leaving the University and return- ing to Japan. Bowen immediately accepted the offer of this position, which he took up on January I, 1920. His first duties were to assist Tshida in the completion of his mea- surement of the viscosities of several gases by the oil-drop method. Upon Ishida's departure, however, Bowen was transferred to spectroscopic studies in the extreme ultraviolet using the vacuum spectrograph that had been developed by R. A. Sawyer and G. D. Shallenberger under Millikan's direction. At about this time significant improvements were introduced in the methods of ruling diffraction gratings, permitting extension of the shortward limit observable in the laboratory to about 150 angstroms. In the winter of 1920 and 1921 Bowen systematically photographed, in this newly avail- able region, the spectra of most of the first twenty elements of the periodic table. The results were published jointly with Millikan in 1924. Many interesting surprises occurred in this first survey of the new region, such as the discovery that chemically pure aluminum and magnesium electrodes gave

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IRA SPRAGUE BOWEN 87 practically identical spectra in the region between 300 ~ ant! 1200 A. At first the investigators even consiclerec! attributing this finding to some transmutation of one element into another by the powerful condensed spark that was used. But more reflection anti investigation showed that these common lines were due to oxygen, always present on the surface of these easily oxidizable metals. The difference in behavior in the new region and in the spectral regions previously ex- plored results from the presence of all the strong lines of these metals in the older, long wavelength range. In 1921 George E. Hale persuaded Millikan to move to the California Institute of Technology as chairman of its executive council and director of the Norman Bridge Labora- tory of Physics, then nearing completion. Arrangements were made for Bowen also to make the move ant] to continue as Millikan's assistant in the new physics group at Caltech. One of the inducements offerer! by Hale was the proximity of the emergent scientific school to the Mount Wilson Observa- tory of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, where the largest telescopes in the world were being used by an active staff in a variety of investigations in astrophysics and cosmol- ogy. More specifically, Hale promiser! Millikan that diffrac- tion gratings would be provided from the new ruling ma- chine that had just gone into operation at the Pasadena head- quarters of the Observatory. During the first year after the move to Caltech, Bowen taught a course in general physics, using a lecture room in Throop Hall because the Norman Bridge L aboratory was still uncler construction. He also participates] with Millikan in research on cosmic rays. The program involved the design and use of instruments carrier! to high altitudes by sounding balloons, the actual flights being made from San Antonio, Texas. The researchers obtained the first record from souncI- ing balloons of cosmic rays and fount! definite evidence for

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88 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS an increase of intensity with altitude. Aerial observations had already been made by Hess and Kolhorster, but because they user! manned balloons they were limiter! to lower altitucles. Bowen also participated with R. M. Otis in measurements of cosmic-ray intensity in the High Sierra of California. They used detectors that were lowered into the waters of mountain lakes at altitucles of some 12,500 feet, such that the water shielded the instruments from local radioactivity of the rocks. A love of the mountains stayed with Bowen all his life, but his principal research interests lay in spectroscopy, to which he soon returned. With the completion of the physics laboratory, apparatus couIct be assembled for the continuation of the ultraviolet studies. An exceptionally fine grating was indeecl provided by I. A. Anderson of the Mount Wilson Observatory. This grat- ing gave much higher resolution than had hitherto been ob- tained in this region anal macle possible the studies of the fine structure of many lines in the extreme ultraviolet that were carried out by Bowen with the vacuum spectrograph in 1923 and 1924. At about this time, Paschen and R. H. Fowler almost simultaneously macle their analyses of highly ionized Al ITI ant] Si IV, anct Bohr publisher! his discussion of penetrating and nonpenetrating orbits. Applying these results to their new data, Bowen ant! Millikan found it possible to make an analysis of B ITI. From further stucties ma(le early in 1924 they were able to show that the so-called regular anti irregu- lar cloublet laws, developed earlier for X-ray spectra, applied equally well to optical spectra when isoelectronic sequences (series of ions of the same electronic structure but differing nuclear charge) were used. This discovery at once ma(le pos- sible a direct correlation between optical and X-ray spectra ant! therefore between the atomic-structure formalisms cle- veloped from these two types of spectra. The results of this

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IRA SPRAGUE BOWEN 89 correlation constituted part of the evidence that later resulted in the introduction of the important concept of the spinning electron by UhIenbeck and Goudsmit. The doublet laws provided a very powerful too! for the analysis of highly ionized atoms. In 1925 and 1926 Bowen and Millikan applied these laws to the analysis of their new data and were able to obtain partial analyses of Be I, Be Il. B Il. B IIT, C IlI, C IV, P III, P IV, P V, S IV, S V, S VI, CT V, C l VI, C ~ VIT, C 1 VITI, Y lIl, and Zr IV. In this research, the heavier part of the load fell on Bowen, who produced and measured the spectrograms and analyzed the data. Millikan was exceedingly busy with the administration of the Institute anc! of the Norman Bridge Laboratory, as well as with a variety of other research efforts. He would occasionally cirop in to keep in touch. When Bowen was ready, he would say to Millikan, "I've got an article. How about coming arounct tonight?"* Millikan would appear at about nine o'clock in Bowen's office, and the two would work until midnight writ- ing the paper. For several years after coming to Caltech, Bowen heal the title of instructor and research assistant to the director of the Norman Briclge Laboratory of Physics. His teaching assign- ment was to instruct one of the undergracluate sections of twenty students in physics. In 1924 the practice was initiated of assigning the top men of the sophomore class to section A, the honor section, and Bowen was given this section. Much later he commented that "l never had quite such a run for my money. In the section were Ed McMilIan, Robley Evans, and several others who later became heads of departments or university presidents. Keeping ahead of that group took . quite some time. ~ *Interview with Charles Weiner, Center for the History of Physics, American Institute of Physics. Sibs.

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go BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Bowen continued with undergraduate teaching in physics until 1929, when he took over the teaching of graduate courses in optics and spectroscopy. He became assistant pro- fessor of physics in 1926, associate professor in 192S, and professor in 193 I. Under the pressures of research and teaching, Bowen found little time to proceed with the formal requirements for the Ph.D. degree, although he finally received it in 1926, by which time he had already published some twenty articles. language examinations were required, and partly for this reason he took a month's vacation in the summer of 1925, spending some of the time reading Sommerfeld's Atombau und Spectra1!linien in German. (He had already passed the French examination.) His thesis, somewhat surprisingly, was on the subject of "The Ratio of Heat Losses by Conduction and by Evaporation from Any Water Surface." This came about because Bowen had been assigned to guide the thesis work of another graduate student, an older man who had been with the weather bureau and who proposed to do a thesis on evaporation but later lost interest. Bowen's interest grew to the extent that he worked out a formula for the ratio of heat lost by evaporation and by conduction to the air. showing that this ratio can be determined uniquely from the temperature of the air, the temperature of the water, and the humidity. This quantity, known as the Bowen ratio, is to be found in the literature of meteorology and has been of use in oceanography. His ratio method is now commonly used to measure the evaporation from plant, soil, and water surfaces. As Bowen said later, "When ~ got ready to take my degree, that was the paper that was going to press, so it became my thesis."* His subject was undoubtedly a novel one for the faculty pundits including P. Epstein, R. C. Tolman, and Millikan who sat on his examining committee. * Ibid.

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IRA SPRAGUE BOWEN 9 In the middle 1920's the vector model of the atom to account for complex spectra was developed by Russell, Saunders, Pauli, Hund, and others. Bowen applied this theory to the analysis of the more complex spectra of the elements in the first row of the periodic table, using again the data accumulated from the use of the high-resolution spec- trograph. It was thus possible for him in 1926 to fix the low terms of C Il. N III, O IV, N II, O IlI, F IV, O Il. F [II, F II, and F I. This, as it turned out, was preliminary to his most outstanding discovery, the identification of the so-called "nebulium lines" in the spectra of galactic nebulae. These two bright green lines hacI been a puzzle to spectroscopists since their discovery by Huggins some sixty years earlier. In paral- lel with the bright yellow line in the spectrum of the sun's corona, which had been attributed to an unknown element (helium) before the element was discovered on earth, it hacT been conjectured that nebulium was also an unknown but real element. By 1920, however, spectroscopy in the X-ray region had established the sequence of light elements. It was clear that there was no room here for an unknown, while the very strong nebulium lines could hardly be due to a rare element at the heavy encI of the periodic table. Spectros- copists were generally aware of the problem and were alert to any {cads that might provide a solution. H. N. Russell of Princeton was knowledgeable about these matters. In 1927 the text of the classic Astronomy by Russell, Dugan, and Stewart appeared, in which Russell made the suggestion that "The nebular lines may be emitted only in a gas of very low density. This wouIcl happen, for example, if it took a relatively long time for an atom to get into the right state to emit them, and if a collision with another atom in this interval prevented the completion of the process. In such a case, it might require a great thickness of the very rarefied gas to emit these lines strongly enough to be visible" [p. 8381.

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92 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Bowen bought the two volumes of Astronomy and thus became aware of Russell's summary. Later he related that one evening he came home from the laboratory at about nine o'clock and while preparing for bed was thinking about the energy levels of O I! ant! O ITI anct the "forbicIden transi- tions." According to the theory, there was no way for the atom to get from the D or F states to the S (Iowest or ground) state except through collisions. In a very rare gas, as in a nebula, the rate of collisions was insignificant. What, then, happens to these atoms? Are they stuck forever in the D and F states? Then it occurred to Bowen that, given enough time, perhaps the atoms can, in fact, make the "forbicIden" jumps, although at a low rate. Bowen quickly dressed ant! returned to his office. Since all the data on the energy levels were available in his records, it was easy for him to take the differences and to compute the wavelengths of the forbiciclen lines in a matter of minutes. There they were, correct to a hundredth of an angstrom! "I worked until midnight and had the answer when ~ went home," * he said. The "nebulium" lines were in fact due to forbiciclen transitions between low-lying energy levels of singly and doubly ionized oxygen. The lines were intense because of the immense volume of gas at low pressure in the nebulae. The name "nebulium" couIc! be laid to rest. The solution to the problem was wiclely accIaimecT ant! brought well-deservecl recognition to its author. The initial discovery explainec! half a clozen of the strong- est lines in the spectra of gaseous nebulae, but there were many other fainter lines that required years of work by Bowen anc! others; some were regular permitted lines of hydrogen ant! helium, but many were fainter forbidden lines of various elements. Bowen continued the work for years, * Interview with Charles Weiner.

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IRA SPRAGUE BOWEN HONORS AND DISTINCTIONS DEGREES A.B., Oberlin College, 1919 Ph.D., California Institute of Technology, 1926 Sc.D. (honorary), Oberlin College, 1948 Ph.D. (honorary), University of Lund, 1950 Sc.D. (honorary), Princeton University, 1953 PROFESSIONAL APPOINTMENTS Morrison Research Associate, Lick Observatory, 193~ 1939 Director, Mount Wilson Observatory, 1946-1948 Director, Mount Wilson and Palomar Observatories, 194~1964 National Astronomical Observatory Advisory Panel, 1953-1957 PROFESSIONAL AND HONORARY SOCIETIES National Academy of Sciences, 1936 American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1939 American Philosophical Society, 1940 Royal Astronomical Society, London (Associate), 1946-1973 Astronomical Society of the Pacific, President, 1948 AWARDS 109 Draper Medal, National Academy of Sciences, 1942 Potts Medal, Franklin Institute, 1946 Rumford Premium, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 1949 Ives Medal, Optical Society of America, 1952 Catherine Wolf Bruce Gold Medal, Astronomical Society of the Pacific, 1957 Distinguished Service Staff Member, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1964- 1973 Henry Norris Russell Lecturer, American Astronomical Society, 1964 Gold Medalist and George Darwin Lecturer, Royal Astronomical Society, 1966

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10 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS BIBLIOGRAPHY 1921 With Sir Robert Hadfield and S. R. Williams. The magnetic me- chanical analysis of manganese steel. Proc. R. Astron. Soc., 98:297-302. With R. A. Millikan and R. A. Sawyer. The vacuum spark spectra in the extreme ultra-violet of carbon, iron, and nickel. Astro- phys. J., 53: 15~60. 1924 With R. A. Millikan. Extreme ultra-violet spectra. Phys. Rev., 23: 1-34. With R. A. Millikan. The series spectra of the stripped boron atom (B III). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 10:199-203. With R. A. Millikan. The fine structure of the nitrogen, oxygen, and fluorine lines in the extreme ultra-violet. Philos. Mag., 48:25~64. With R. A. Millikan. The assignment of lines and term values in beryllium II and carbon IV. Nature, 114:380. With R. A. Millikan. The extension of the X-ray doublet laws into the field of optics. Phys. Rev., 24:209-22. With R. A. Millikan. Some conspicuous successes of the Bohr atom and a serious difficulty. Phys. Rev., 24:223-28. 1925 With R. A. Millikan. The significance of the discovery of the X-ray laws in the field of optics. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA,11: 119-22. With R. A. Millikan. A possible reconciliation of Bohr's interpene- tration ideas with Sommerfeld's relativistic treatment of elec- tron orbits. Philos. Mag., 49:923-35. With R. A. Millikan. The series spectra of the stripped atoms of phosphorus (P V), sulphur (S VI), and chlorine (C1 VII). Phys. Rev., 25:295-305. With R. A. Millikan. The series spectra of two-valence-electron and of three-valence-electron systems. Nature, 115:423. With R. A. Millikan. The series spectra of two-valence-electron atoms of phosphorus (P IV), sulphur (S V) and chlorine (C1 VI). Phys. Rev., 25:591-99. With R. A. Millikan. The series spectra of three-valence-electron

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IRA SPRAGUE BOWEN atoms of phosphorus (P III), sulphur (S IV) and chlorine (C1 V). Phys. Rev., 25:60() 605. With R. A. Millikan. New light on two-electron jumps. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 11:32~34. With R. A. Millikan. Relations of PP' groups in atoms of the same electronic structure. Phys. Rev., 26:150-64. With R. A. Millikan. Series spectra of the two-valence-electron atoms of boron (B II) and carbon (C III). Phys. Rev.,26:31 () 18. 1926 With R. A. Millikan. Stripped oxygen O VI, the PP' group in O V and new aluminum lines in the extreme ultra-violet. Phys. Rev., 27:14~49. With R. A. Millikan. High frequency rays of cosmic origin I. Sound- ing balloon observations at extreme altitudes. Phys. Rev., 27:353-61. The ratio of heat losses by conduction and by evaporation from any water surface. Phys. Rev., 27:779-87. Vacuum spectroscopy. I Opt. Soc. Am., 13: 89-93. With R. A. Millikan. Series spectra of beryllium, Be I and Be II. Phys. Rev., 28: 256-58. With S. B. Ingram. Wave-length standards in the extreme ultra- violet spectra of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and aluminum. Phys. Rev. 28:444-48. With R. A. Millikan. The ionization potential of O II. Nature, 118:410. With R. A. Millikan. Stripped yttrium (Y III) and zirconium (Zr IV). Phys. Rev., 28:923-26. 1927 The series spectra of boron, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and fluo- rine. Phys. Rev., 29:321-47. Series spectra of ionized phosphorus P II. Phys. Rev., 29:51(}12. With R. A. Millikan. Energy relationships and ionization potentials of atoms of the first row of the periodic table in all stages of ionization. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 13:531-34. With R. A. Millikan. Spectral relationships of lines arising from the atoms of the first row of the periodic table. Philos. Mag., 4:561-80. The origin of the nebulium spectrum. Nature, 120:473.

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112 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS The origin of the chief nebular lines. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 39:295-97. 1928 The origin of the nebular lines and the structure of the planetary nebulae. Astrophys. J., 67: 1- 15. The life of atomic states and the intensity of spectral lines. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 14:30-32. Series spectra of chlorine, C1 II, C1 III, C1 IV, C1 V, and of Si II, P III, and S IV. Phys. Rev., 31:34-38. Series spectra of potassium and calcium. Phys. Rev., 31:497-502. Series spectrum of sodium Na II. Phys. Rev., 31:967-68. With D. H. Menzel. Forbidden lines in the flash spectrum. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 40:332~0. 1929 The presence of sulphur in the gaseous nebulae. Nature, 123:450. With H. N. Russell. Is there argon in the corona? Astrophys. I., 69: 19~208. Additional lines in the spectra of C II and N II. Phys. Rev. 34:534-36. 1930 With R. A. Millikan. The significance of recent cosmic ray experi- ments. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 16:421-25. The presence of neutral oxygen in the gaseous nebulae. Phys. Rev., 36:600-601. 1931 Spectrum of doubly ionized carbon C III. Phys. Rev., 38: 128-32. With R. A. Millikan. Similarity between cosmic rays and gamma rays. Nature, 128:582-83. 1932 Spectra of two- and three-valence-electron atoms, Si II, P III, S IV, P IV, and S V. Phys. Rev., 39:~15. Ionization of air by gamma rays as a function of pressure and collecting field. Phys. Rev., 41: 24-31.

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IRA SPRAGUE BOWEN 1933 113 With R. A. Millikan. Cosmic-ray intensities in the stratosphere. Phys. Rev., 43:695-700. With R. A. Millikan and H. V. Neher. New high-altitude study of cosmic-ray bands and a new determination of their total energy content. Phys. Rev., 44:24~52. The aberrations of the concave grating at large angles of incidence. J. Opt. Soc. Am., 23:313-15. 1934 The spectrum of fluorine, F II, F III, F IV. Phys. Rev., 45:82-86. The spectrum of chlorine, C1 III, C1 IV, C1 V. Phys. Rev.,45:401-4. The path of a secondary cosmic-ray particle in the earth's magnetic field. Phys. Rev., 45:349-51. The presence of neon in the nebulae. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 46: 145-46. The excitation of the permitted O III nebular lines. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 46: 146-48. The chemical composition of the nebulae. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 46: 186-87. The singlet lines of C1 IV. Phys. Rev., 46:377. With R. A. Millikan and H. V. Neher. Very high altitude survey of the effect of latitude upon cosmic-ray intensities and an attempt at a general interpretation of cosmic-ray phenomena. Phys. Rev.,46:641-52. Also in: Papers and Discussions of the Interna- tional Conference on Physics, London, 1:20~24. Spectra of potassium, K IV and K V, and of calcium, Ca V and Ca VI. Phys. Rev., 46:791-92. 1935 The spectrum and composition of the gaseous nebulae. Astrophys. J., 81:1-16. The low terms in Mn V and Fe VI. Phys. Rev., 47:92~25. The extreme ultra-violet in astronomical sources. In: Zeeman Ver- handlungen, pp. 55-62. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff. 1936 The galactic nebulae. Scientia, 59:77-86.

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114 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Forbidden lines. Rev. Mod. Phys., 8:55-81. With R. A. Millikan, S. A. Korff, and H. V. Neher. The latitude effect in cosmic rays at altitudes up to 29,000 feet. Phys. Rev., 50:57~81. 1937 With Everett F. Cox. Ionization of air by gamma-rays as a function of pressure and collecting field II. Phys. Rev., 51:232-34. With R. A. Millikan and H. V. Neher. Measurement of nuclear absorption of electrons by the atmosphere up to 10~ electron volts. Nature, 140:23. With R. A. Millikan and H. V. Neher. The influence of the earth's magnetic field on cosmic-ray intensities up to the top of the atmosphere. Phys. Rev., 52:8(:~88. The low terms in Cr III, Cr IV, Mn IV, and Fe V. Phys. Rev., 52: 1153-56. 1938 With R. A. Millikan and H. V. Neher. New evidence as to the nature of the incoming cosmic rays, their adsorbability in the atmo- sphere, and the secondary character of the penetrating rays found in such abundance at sea level and below. Phys. Rev., 53:217-23. With R. A. Millikan and H. V. Neher. New light on the nature and the origin of the incoming cosmic rays. Phys. Rev., 53: 855-61. The low terms in Co VI. Phys. Rev., 53:88~90. The image-slicer, a device for reducing the loss of light at the slit of a stellar spectrograph. Astrophys. I, 88: 1 13-24. With A. B. Wyse. Hypersensitization and reciprocity failure. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 50:305. With A. B. Wyse. New lines in the spectra of the gaseous nebulae. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 50:34~49. With R. Minkowski. Effect of collisions on the intensities of nebular lines. Nature, 142: 107~80. 1939 With B. Edlen. Forbidden lines of Fe VII in the spectrum of nova RR Pictoris ~ 1925~. Nature, 143:374. With A. B. Wyse. The spectra and chemical composition of the

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IRA SPRAGUE BOWEN 1 l; gaseous nebulae NGC 6572, 7027, 7762. Lick Obs. Bull. 19: 1-16. 1940 5 With L. T. Clark. Hypersensitization and reciprocity failure of pho- tographic plates. J. Opt. Soc. Am., 30:50~10. 1946 Metric photography: Field equipment and operations. In: Field Testing of Rockets, pp. 47-89. Pasadena: California Institute of Technology. With F. A. Jenkins. Transparency of ocean water. I. Opt. Soc. Am., 36:617-23. Survey of the year's work at Mount Wilson. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 58:329-40. 1947 With P. Swings. Relative intensities of the coronal and other for- bidden lines. Astrophys. J., 105:92-95. Excitation by line coincidence. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 59: 19~98. Limiting visual magnitude. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 59:25~56. 1948 Survey of the year's work at Mount Wilson. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 60:5-17. The abundance of oxygen in the sun. Rev. Mod. Phys., 20: 10~12. Survey of the year's work at Mount Wilson and Palomar Observa- tories. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 60:353-65. The telescope at work. In: Palomar, fune 3, 1948. San Francisco: Grabhorn Press. Reprinted in: Griffith Obs., 12: 121-23. 1949 The award of the Bruce Medal to Sir Harold Spencer Jones. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 61:61-62. Survey of the year's work at the Mount Wilson and Palomar Obser- vatories. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 61:243-53. 1950 The 200-inch Hale Telescope. Bull. Am. Acad. Arts Sci., 3~4~:2-3.

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116 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Final adjustments and tests of the Hale Telescope. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 62:91-97. 1951 Survey of the year's work at the Mount Wilson and Palomar Obser- vatories. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 63:~16. Palomar Observatory. Sci. Mon., 73:141-49. With Paul Merrill. The spectrum of RS Ophiuichi in May 1951. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 63:25~56. With Paul Merrill. Forbidden lines in the spectrum of MWC 300. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 63:29~96. 1952 The spectrographic equipment of the 200-inch Hale Telescope. Astrophys. J., 116: 1-7. Optical problems at the Palomar Observatory. I. Opt. Soc. Am., 42: 79~8~)0. Some new tools of the astronomer. Observatory, 72: 12~37. Mount Wilson and Palomar Observatories (Reports of Observa- tories 1951-521. Astron. I., 57:184-85. 1953 Mount Wilson and Palomar Observatories (Reports of Observa- tories 1951-52~. Astron. J., 58:25~61. 1954 The 200-inch Hale Telescope. Trans. Int. Astron. Un., 8:75~54. Mount Wilson and Palomar Observatories (Reports of Observa- tories 195~54~. Astron. I., 59:35~56. Edwin P. Hubble, 188~ 1953. Science, 119:204. 1955 Wavelengths of forbidden nebular lines. Astron. J., 121:30~11. Mount Wilson and Palomar Observatories (Reports of Observa- tories 1954-55) Astron. J., 60:296-99. Astronomical spectrographs: Past, present, and future. In: Vistas in Astronomy, ed. Arthur Beer, vol. l, pp.400-406, London: Perga- mon Press. With L. H. Aller and R. Minkowski. The spectrum of NGC 7027. Astron. I., 122: 62-71.

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IRA SPRAGUE BOWEN 1956 117 Optics. Smithson. Contrib. Astrophys., 1: 1-3. Mount Wilson and Palomar Observatories (Reports of Observa- tories 1955-56~. Astron. I., 61: 336-41. 1957 Instrumentation at Mount Wilson and Palomar Observatories. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 69:377-84. 1958 The Universe from Palomar. Griffith Obs., 22:6~78. Astronomy in a changing world. In: Frontiers in Science, ed. E. Hutchings, Jr., pp. 28~94. New York: Basic Books. 1960 John August Anderson, 1876-1959. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 72:9~96. John A. Anderson, astronomer and physicist. Science, 131 :64~50. Wavelengths of forbidden nebular lines II. Astrophys. }.,13?: 1-17. The 200-inch Hale Telescope. In: Stars and Stellar Systems, ed. G. P. Kuiper and B. M. Middlehurst, vol. 1, Telescopes, pp. 1-15. Chi- cago: Univ. of Chicago Press. Schmidt Cameras. In: Stars and Stellar Systems, ed. G. P. Kuiper and B. M. Middlehurst, vol. 1, Telescopes, pp. 43-61. Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press. 1961 Problems in future telescope design. Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac., 73: 11~24. 1962 John August Anderson. In: Biographical Memoirs, 36:1-18. New York, Columbia Univ. Press for the National Academy of ~ - ~clences. Robert Raynolds McMath (1891-1962~. Yearb. Am. Philos. Soc., pp. 14~53. Spectrographs. In: Stars and Stellar Systems, ed. W. A. Hiltner, vol. 2, Astronomical Techniques, pp.3~62, Chicago: Univ. of Chicago Press.

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118 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1963 With L. H. Aller and O. C. Wilson. The spectrum of NGC 7027. Astrophys. J., 138: 101~17. 1964 Explorations with the Hale Telescope. Science, 145:1391-98. Le choix de sites d'observatoires astronomiques (site testing), in- formal discussions. Int. Astron. Un. Symp. no. 19, ed. I. Rosch pp. 15-34. Paris: Gauthier-Villars. Telescopes. Astron . ~ ., 169: 816-25. 1965 With James B. Kaler and Lawrence H. Aller. Spectrophotometric studies of gaseous nebulae. IV. The Orion Nebula. Astrophys. J., 141:912-22. 1966 With Lawrence H. Aller and James B. Kaler. Spectrophotometric studies of gaseous nebulae. VII. The ring planetary NGC 7662. Astrophys. J., 144:291-304. Optimum thermal effects for large domes. In: The Construction o) Large Telescopes, ed. D. L. Crawford, pp. 17() 74. New York: Academic Press. Control of thermal effects. In: The Construction of Large Telescopes, ed. D. L. Crawford, pp. 6~65. New York: Academic Press. Statement of aims and limitations of the program. In: The Construc- tion of Large Telescopes, ed. D. L. Crawford, pp. ~7. New York: Academic Press. With Bruce Rule. The Palomar 60-inch photometric telescope. Sky Telesc., 32: 185-87. 1967 Future tools of the astronomer. (Darwin lecture.) Q. J. R. Astron. Soc., 8:~22. Astronomical optics. In: Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics, ed. Leo Goldberg, David Layzer, and John G. Phillips, vol.5, pp. 4~66. Palo Alto: Annual Reviews.

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IRA SPRAGUE BOWEN 119 1968 Comments on accuracy and on optical tests and adjustments of the 200-inch Hale Telescope. In: Symposium on Support and Testing of Large Telescope Mirrors, pp. 8-9; 98-101. Tucson: Kitt Peak Na- tional Observatory and Univ. of Arizona. 1969 With E. W. Denison and M. Schmidt. An image tube spectrograph for the Hale 200-inch Telescope. In: Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics, ed. L. Marton, vol. 28, pp. 767-71. New York: Academic Press. 1972 National Geographic Society-Palomar Sky Atlas. In: National Geo- graphic Society Research Reports, 1955-1960 Projects, ran. 27-32. National Geographic: Wash.. D.C. -at rr