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Biograpl~ical Memoirs NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

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NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Biograpl~ical Wemoirs VOLUME 53 NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS WASHINGTON, D.C. 1982

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The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by Act of Congress as a private, non-profit, self-governing membership corporation for the furtherance of science and technology, required to advise the federal government upon request within its fields of competence. Under its corporate charter the Academy established the National Research Council in 1916, the National Academy of Engineering in 1964, and the Institute of Medicine in 1970. INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER 0-309-03287-3 LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOG CARD NUMBER 5-26629 Available from NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 CONSTITUTION AVENUE, N.W., WASHINGTON, D.C. 20418 PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

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CONTENTS PREFACE ROGER ADAMS BY D. STANLEY TARBELL AND ANN TRACY TARBELL ALFRED BLALOCK BY A. McGEHEE HARVEY IRA SPRAGUE BOWEN BY HORACE W. BABCOCK RALPH ERSKINE CLELAND BY ERICH STEINER WILLIAM DAVID COOLIDGE BY C. G. SUITS ALFRED EDWARDS EMERSON BY EDWARD O. WILSON AND CHARLES D. MICHENER v V11 49 83 121 141 159

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V1 RALPH WALDO GERARD BY SEYMOUR S. KETY CONTENTS JOHN HEYSHAM GIBBON, JR. BY HARRIS B SHUMACKER, JR. CHESTER RAY LONGWELL BY JOHN RODGERS ALFRED SH ERWOOD ROMER BY EDWIN H. COLBERT JOHN CLARKE SLATER BY PHILIP M. MORSE STEPHEN P. TIMOSHENKO BY C. RICHARD SODERBERG RICHARD BALDWIN TURNER BY MARSHALL GATES DAVID LOCKE WEBSTER II BY PAUL KIRKPATRICK 179 213 249 265 297 323 351 367

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PREFACE rrhe Biographical Memoirs is a series of volumes, beginning in 1877, containing the biographies of deceased members of the National Academy of Sciences and bibliographies of their publisher! scientific contributions. The goal of the Academy is to have these memoirs serve as a contribution toward the history of American science. Each biographical essay is writ- ten by an inctividual familiar with the discipline and the scientific career of the deceased. These volumes, therefore, provide a record of the lives ant! works of some of the most distinguished leaclers of American science as witnessed anc! interpreted by their colleagues and peers. Though the primary concern is the members' professional lives ant! con- tributions, these memoirs also include those aspects of their lives in their home, school, college, or later life that lecl them ~ to their scenic career. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, honorary organization of scientists and engineers elected on the basis of outstanding contributions to knowledge. Established by a Congressional Act of Incorporation on March 3, 1863, the Academy works to further science and its use for the general welfare by bringing together the most qualified individuals to deal with scientific and technological problems of broad . ~ s~gn~cance. BRYCE CRAWFORD, jR. Home Secretary CAROLINE K. McEUEN Associate Editor . . V11

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