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Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests: Answers to Commonly Asked Questions

SUBCOMMITTEE ON ZINC CADMIUM SULFIDE

COMMITTEE ON TOXICOLOGY

BOARD ON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND TOXICOLOGY

COMMISSION ON LIFE SCIENCES

NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
WASHINGTON, D.C.,
1997



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Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests: Answers to Commonly Asked Questions. Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests: Answers to Commonly Asked Questions SUBCOMMITTEE ON ZINC CADMIUM SULFIDE COMMITTEE ON TOXICOLOGY BOARD ON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND TOXICOLOGY COMMISSION ON LIFE SCIENCES NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS WASHINGTON, D.C., 1997

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Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests: Answers to Commonly Asked Questions. NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. The project was supported by contract DAMD 17-89-C-9086 between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Army. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project. International Standard Book Number 0-309-05799-X Additional copies of this report are available from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Ave., NW Box 285 Washington, DC 20055 800-624-6242 or 202-334-3313 (in the Washington Metropolitan Area) http://www.nap.edu Copyright 1997 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America.

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Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests: Answers to Commonly Asked Questions. Subcommittee on Zinc Cadmium Sulfide ROGENE F. HENDERSON (Chair), Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute, Albuquerque, New Mexico GERMAINE M. BUCK, State University of New York at Buffalo, New York JOHN E. CONNETT, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota ELAINE FAUSTMAN, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington CHARLES E. FEIGLEY, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina DONALD E. GARDNER, Inhalation Toxicology Associates, Raleigh, North Carolina DAVID W. GAYLOR, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, Arkansas ROBERT A. GOYER, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina LOREN D. KOLLER, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon STEPHEN U. LESTER, Citizens Clearing House for Hazardous Waste, Falls Church, Virginia THOMAS E. MCKONE, University of California, Berkeley, California MICHAEL J. THUN, American Cancer Society, Atlanta, Georgia BAILUS WALKER, JR., Howard University, Washington, D.C. SUSAN D. WILTSHIRE, JK Research Associates, Inc., Hamilton, Massachusetts HANSPETER R. WITSCHI, University of California, Davis, California Staff KULBIR S. BAKSHI, Project Director DIANE J. MUNDT, Senior Program Officer ERIN M. BELL, Research Associate SUSAN N.J. PANG, Research Associate NORMAN GROSSBLATT, Editor LUCY V. FUSCO, Project Assistant Sponsor: U.S. Army

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Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests: Answers to Commonly Asked Questions. Committee on Toxicology ROGENE F. HENDERSON (Chair), Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute, Albuquerque, New Mexico DONALD E. GARDNER (Vice-Chair), Inhalation Toxicology Associates, Raleigh, North Carolina GERMAINE M. BUCK, State University of New York at Buffalo, New York DEBORAH A. CORY-SLECHTA, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York KEVIN E. DRISCOLL, Procter & Gamble Company, Cincinnati, Ohio ELAINE M. FAUSTMAN, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington CHARLES E. FEIGLEY, University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina DAVID W. GAYLOR, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, Arkansas IAN A. GREAVES, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota SIDNEY GREEN, Corning Hazleton, Inc., Vienna, Virginia WILLIAM E. HALPERIN, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Atlanta, Georgia LOREN D. KOLLER, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon GEORGE B. KOELLE, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania DANIEL KREWSKI, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario THOMAS E. MCKONE, University of California, Berkeley, California MICHELE A. MEDINSKY, Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina JOHN L. O'DONOGHUE, Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester, New York ROBERT SNYDER, Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Piscataway, New Jersey BERNARD M. WAGNER, Wagner Associates, Inc., Millburn, New Jersey BAILUS WALKER JR., Howard University, Washington, D.C. ANNETTA P. WATSON, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennesee HANSPETER R. WITSCHI, University of California, Davis, California GAROLD S. YOST, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah Staff KULBIR S. BAKSHI, Program Director MARGARET E. MCVEY, Program Officer SUSAN N.J. PANG, Research Associate ABIGAIL STACK, Research Associate RUTH E. CROSSGROVE, Editor CATHERINE M. KUBIK, Senior Program Assistant LINDA V. LEONARD, Senior Project Assistant LUCY V. FUSCO, Project Assistant

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Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests: Answers to Commonly Asked Questions. Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology PAUL G. RISSER (Chair), Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon MAY R. BERENBAUM, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois EULA BINGHAM, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio PAUL BUSCH, Malcolm Pirnie, Inc., White Plains, New York EDWIN H. CLARK II, Clean Sites, Inc., Alexandria, Virginia ELLIS COWLING, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina GEORGE P. DASTON, The Procter & Gamble Co., Cincinnati, Ohio PETER L. DEFUR, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia DAVID L. EATON, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington DIANA FRECKMAN, Colorado State University, Ft. Collins, Colorado ROBERT A. FROSCH, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts DANIEL KREWSKI, Health & Welfare Canada, Ottawa, Ontario RAYMOND C. LOEHR, The University of Texas, Austin, Texas WARREN MUIR, Hampshire Research Institute, Alexandria, Virginia GORDON ORIANS, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington GEOFFREY PLACE, Hilton Head, South Carolina BURTON H. SINGER, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey MARGARET STRAND, Bayh, Connaughton and Malone, Washington, D.C. BAILUS WALKER, JR., Howard University, Washington, D.C. GERALD N. WOGAN, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts TERRY F. YOSIE, E. Bruce Harrison Co., Washington, D.C. Staff JAMES J. REISA, Director DAVID J. POLICANSKY, Associate Director and Program Director for Natural Resources and Applied Ecology CAROL A. MACZKA, Program Director for Toxicology and Risk Assessment LEE R. PAULSON, Program Director for Information Systems and Statistics RAYMOND A. WASSEL, Program Director for Environmental Sciences and Engineering

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Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests: Answers to Commonly Asked Questions. Commission on Life Sciences THOMAS D. POLLARD (Chair), The Salk Institute, La Jolla, California FREDERICK R. ANDERSON, Cadwalader, Wickersham & Taft, Washington, D.C. JOHN C. BAILAR III, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois PAUL BERG, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California JOHN E. BURRIS, Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Massachusetts SHARON L. DUNWOODY, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin URSULA W. GOODENOUGH, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri HENRY W. HEIKKINEN, University of Northern Colorado, Greeley, Colorado HANS J. KENDE, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan SUSAN E. LEEMAN, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts THOMAS E. LOVEJOY, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. DONALD R. MATTISON, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania JOSEPH E. MURRAY, Wellesley Hills, Massachusetts EDWARD E. PENHOET, Chiron Corporation, Emeryville, California EMIL A. PFITZER, Research Institute for Fragrance Materials, Hackensack, New Jersey MALCOLM C. PIKE, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California HENRY C. PITOT III, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin JONATHAN M. SAMET, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland CHARLES F. STEVENS, The Salk Institute, La Jolla, California JOHN L. VANDEBERG, Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research, San Antonio, Texas PAUL GILMAN, Executive Director

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Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests: Answers to Commonly Asked Questions. TOXICOLOGIC ASSESSMENT OF THE ARMY'S ZINC CADMIUM SULFIDE DISPERSION TESTS: ANSWERS TO COMMONLY ASKED QUESTIONS

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Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion Tests: Answers to Commonly Asked Questions. This page in the original is blank.