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JESSE WAKEFIELD BEAMS December 25, 1898-July 25, 1977 BY WALTER GORDY JESSE W. BEAMS ranks among the greatest experimental physicists whom America has procluced, a group that ~nclucles such men as Joseph Henry, Robert W. Wood, and Ernest 0. Lawrence. Although he carried out many inge- nious experiments, he is best known for his development and diverse applications of the centrifuge. His experiments with the centrifuge began in the early thirties and continued until his death. Their impact on science and technology has been enormous. EARLY LIFE IN KANSAS Jesse Beams was born on a farm in Sumner County, Kansas on Christmas Day IS98. His parents were frontier people in the true American tradition of the nineteenth cen- tury. His father, Jesse WakefielcI Beams, senior, while yet a boy, went west from Kentucky, across the Mississippi River. At the age of seventeen he was driving herds of longhorn cattle from Texas to the prairies of the MidcIle West. Later, he settled on a farm in Sumner County, Kansas. Jesse's mother, Kathryn Wylie, migrated with her parents in a covered wagon from what is now West Virginia to Kansas. After a Tong and difficult journey, the family settlect south of Wichita. 3

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4 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS esse was a son in his father's second family. His father's first wife cried after there were four children in the family, two boys and two girls. Sometime after her cleath, Jesse's father met Kathryn Wylie, whom he married. They hacI two chilclren, Jesse and a younger brother, Harold, who grew up to be a clistinguishecT biologist, a professor at the University of Iowa. Those who seek a genetic or social basis for outstanding achievements and academic excellence may wonder why the two children of the seconct family of Jesse Beams, Sr., reared on the same farm, grew up to be distinguished scientists ant! professors whereas none of the children of the first family, so far as T couIct learn, became known scholars or scientists; apparently, they follower! the farm life of their parents. Al- though Kathryn Wylie's family also lived on a farm, one of her brothers became a physician. Jesse's outstanding accomplishments could hardly be at- tributect to early academic opportunity. His first seven years at school were spent in a one-room schoolhouse, several miles from his isolated farm home. He walked to school, or skated when there was ice and snow. Skating on the river, he said, was the easiest way to get to school on cold clays. Although the teacher he had must have been excellent, the instruction he receiver! in the first seven grades had to be meager. Anyone familiar, as ~ am, with the one-room school knows that a single teacher of several gracles has little time for teaching any one student or even any one grade. After school there was little time for stucly because of the heavy assignments of farm "homework"husking corn, pitching hay, and milking cows. Despite his skimpy grade-school training, Jesse went on to graduate from high school with distinction. Among Jesse's duties on the farm was the turning of a centrifuge cream separator. Can it be that his lifelong fascina- tion with the centrifuge originated from this hand-cranked

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JESSE WAKEFIELD BEAMS 5 separator rather than from something he read in a book? From early childhood he was exposed to spectacular displays of natural phenomena. Many times he must have watched the swirling dust of the whirlwinds that frequently dance over the Kansas plains in summer. He certainly was deeply impressed by the awesome displays of lightning streaking over the wide Kansas skies followecT by rumbling thunder. Second in im- portance to the centrifuge in Jesse's physical experiments were those designed to gain information about electrical dis- charges, including lightning itself. While it is easy to connect Jesse Beams's remarkable experiments in physics with his early experiences on the Kansas farm, there were thousands of children brought up on farms of the western plains who uncloubtecIly participated in the same farm operations, who saw over and over again the manifestations of the same natural phenomena without being so motivated to explore them. There must have been some- thing different in the makeup of the boy Jesse that caused him to see more than the others dicI, to crave more than they to understand what he saw. Jesse Beams obtained his undergraduate training at Fair- mount College, in Wichita, where he worked at various jobs to pay his expenses. He achieved high honors and was pres- ident of his senior class. In consideration of his fascination with physical phenomena, it is not surprising that he chose physics as his major subject. In 1959 his alma mater, which had then become the University of Wichita, conferred upon Jesse the distinguished Alumnus Award. GRADUATE EDUCATION IN PHYSICS, 1921-1925 After graduation from Fairmount College in 1921, Jesse attencled the University of Wisconsin for one year anct ob- tainec3 the M.A. degree in 1922 with a major in physics. In the fall of 1922 he interrupted his graduate education to accept

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BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 6 an instructorship in physics offered him by Fred Allison, chairman of the Physics Department of Alabama Polytechnic Institute, now Auburn University. Although he remained at Auburn only one year, he greatly impressed Fred Allison with his exceptional ability as an experimentalist. Much credit must be given to Allison for the future course of Beams's career. At this critical perioc! he urger! Jesse to complete his graduate education at the University of Virginia, where he had obtained his own Ph.D. in experimental physics. No doubt Allison was greatly responsible for Jesse's being of- ferecl a teaching fellowship at the University of Virginia for 1923 and 1924 and for his decision to accept the offer. It is not surprising that Jesse chose as his thesis clirector Professor Carroll M. Sparrow, who had directed the thesis research of Fred Allison. The thesis project that Professor Sparrow assigned to Jesse may have been as exciting to him as lightning over the Kansas farm. Sparrow proposed that he measure the time interval between the arrival of the quantum and the ejection of the electron in the photoelectric effect. Although Jesse slick not achieve this objective for his Ph.D. thesis, his attempts to do so dill leacl to the development of experimental tech- niques and instruments that he and others used later for many important experiments. With light from a high- intensity spark source that was reflected from a mirror rotat- ing at high speed, he produced extremely short flashes of light for which the onset ant! duration were measured with an ingenious light-switching mechanism he developed. The light switch was a Kerr cell that hacl electrical delay lines differing in length between the activating voltage, which opener! the switch, and the spark gap, which shorted out the voltage anct thus closed the switch. This system proved capa- ble of measuring time intervals clown to a hundrect-millionth of a second. By employing liquids of very low viscosity for the

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JESSE WAKEFIELD BEAMS 7 isotropic medium in the Kerr cell, he found that the switch- ing time within the cell itself could be macle negligible. He used these devices to measure, among other things, the rela- tive interval of time between the excitation and the emission of certain fluorescent spectra and the relative times of the appearance of different lines of a spectrum after excitation. THE YALE YEARS, 1926-1928 . Upon receiving the Ph.D. at Virginia in 1925, Beams was awarded a National Research Fellowship, which he hell! for two years, the first year at Virginia arch the second at Yale. He hac! the good fortune at Yale to meet anct work with Ernest 0. Lawrence, a young experimental physicist of considerable imagination and skill, who, like himself, had been reared on an isolated midwestern farm. Their elementary education, or lack of it, was quite similar. Both attended small midwestern colleges, obtained the M.A. degree from a midwestern uni- versity, and receiver! the Ph.D. degree in 1925 from an eastern university (Ernest, from Yate). But these two young physicists hacT something in common that was far more im- portant than their parallel experiences in farm life and eclu- cation. Both were Erect with insatiable curiosity about the physical worm, and both possessed exceptional talent for ex- ploring it. They were clestinec3 to become leacTing experi- mental physicists of the twentieth century. At Yale, Beams and Lawrence collaborates! on several stuclies, primarily on experiments concerned with measure- ments of short time intervals, which probably evolved from Jesse's Ph.D. research. After further refinement of the tech- niques that he clevelopecl at Virginia, Beams, with Lawrence, returned to the problem assigned to him by Professor Spar- row for his Ph.D. thesis: measurement of the time interval between the light quantum and the ejection of the electron in the photoelectric effect. By this time, physicists, including

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8 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Beams and Lawrence, had become more aware of their limi- tations with respect to gaining experimental information about the interactions of individual quanta with single elec- trons. They consequently adopted the more realistic goal of measurement of the time between impending flashes of light and the onset of photoelectric emission. Although this in- terval of time proved too short for them to measure, they were able to set definitive upper limits for the intervals. They concluded, for example, that photoelectric emission begins in less than 3 x 10-9 seconds after the beginning of illumination of a potassium hydride surface. Probably the most widely known collaborative effort that Beams and Lawrence made was their attempt to chop light quanta into segments by means of an air-driven, high-speed, rotating mirror. In a related experiment, they tried to mea- sure the length of a light Bantam ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ These experiments, though doomed to fail, were bold, suggestive ones at this stage in the development of quantum theory. Evidence that Beams and Lawrence recognized these experiments as far out on the border line of the knowable is revealed in their statement: "There is no definite information on the length of ume elapsing cturlng the process of absorption of a quantum of energy photo-electrically by an electron, and [further- more] the so-called length of a light quantum if such a concept has meaning- is equally unknown experimentally." ~ , 1 ~ 1 _ 1 1 . RETURN TO VIRGINIA After the expiration of his National Research Fellowship and a year spent as an instructor at Yale, Jesse Beams re- turned to the UniversitY of Virginia in the fall of 1928 as an assocla~e processor or physics. 1 nls appointment proved to be :~ rid ~_1 ~ /.1 . J. W. Beams and E. O. Lawrence, "On the Nature of Light," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 13(1927):207.

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J ESSE WAKEFI ELD B EAMS 9 fortunate for the university as well as for Jesse Beams. At that time, L. G. Hoxton, chairman of the Physics Department, was concerned about the state of the program of graduate studies and research in physics and was anxious to build them up. As future events proved, he coup not have clone better than to attract young Beams back to his alma mater, even at a two- rank promotion over his Yale instructorship. In his history of the Physics Department of the University of Virginia, F. L. Brown, professor of physics at the University of Virginia from 1922 to 1961, began the chapter concerning the period from 1928 to 1936 with this statement: "With the return of Dr. I. W. Beams to the University of Virginia as associate professor a new period of growth and clevelopment can truly be said to have begun."2 Increasing numbers of physics stu- clents of high quality chose Virginia as their graduate school and Beams as the director of their thesis research. These students came first from the southern states, then later from throughout the nation as Beams's reputation as a clever experimentalist spread. Two students who came early to work with him were Edward P. Ney of the University of Minnesota and I. C. Street of Harvard, both now members of the National Academy of Sciences. There were no government grants when Jesse returned to Virginia in 1928 and apparently no state funds allocatect for research in physics. At that time graduate students supported themselves by teaching the unclergraduate laboratories. For- tunately, minimal funds were requires! for research equip- ment and supplies. A year later the financial outlook was notably improved; the Du Font Company established several fellowships at the University, some of which were available for physics. About the same time, a fund for research in the physical sciences was established by the General Eclucation 2F. L. Brown, A Brief History of the Physics Department of the University of Virginia, 1922-1961 (Charlottesville: University of Virginia, 1967), ch. 5, p. 1.

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10 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Board, apparently with an agreement that the State of Vir- ginia would contribute enough to maintain the fund at a level of $45,000 a year, of which the physics (department was to receive a maximum of $1 1,670.3 Although paltry indeed in comparison with present levels of support for physics re- search, these funds in support of the ingenious experiments of Jesse Beams had an enormous impact on the development of science in this country. What influence Jesse's return had on these encouraging clevelopments in the physics program at Virginia I clo not know, but ~ suspect it was considerable. Evidence that the administration recognized Beams's worth to the University was his promotion to a full professor- ship in 1930, only five years after he receive(1 his doctorate there. Lest the reader conclude that the administrators of the University of Virginia in the predepression years differed from university administrators today in their rapid, vol- untary recognition of the worth of a young staff member, ~ shall briefly indicate how Jesse's promotion to professorship came about. According to his wife, Maxine, while Jesse was an associate professor at Virginia he received a "wonclerful offer" from another university. Though she did not mention the name of the university, T concluclect that it was somewhere in the Mid- west, near his native Kansas. The offer was so attractive that he went for an extended visit to consider it. While away he became inclined to accept the offer. Upon his return, he went to the president of the Univer- sity of Virginia to resign his position. The president re- sponded, "Young man, you are just causing me much trou- ble." Then he quickly offered to raise lessees salary and to promote him to full professorship. 3Ibid .

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JESSE WAKEFIELD BEAMS 11 Having concrete evidence that his talents were appre- ciatecT by the highest levels of the university administration, Jesse never again came so close to leaving the University of Virginia, despite the many wonderful offers he received through the years. Whenever he receiver! an enticing offer with a considerably higher salary than he was receiving, Jesse wouIcI ask Maxine what he should C3O. Each time she gave him the same answer, "Jesse, you should do what you want to do, what you think is best." Each time the result was the same he refused the offer and after the decision was made, again to quote Maxine, "He was so happy." DEVELOPMENT OF THE ULTRACENTRIFUGE After 1930 Beams's principal research programs were concerned with axially rotating systems from the very, very fast to the very, very slow. This does not mean that his pro- grams lacked breadth and diversity far from it. Under his continuous cultivation the centrifuge became a family of in- struments capable of solving a variety of basic problems in chemistry and biology as well as in physics; it had many im- portant technological or inclustrial applications, from testing the strength of materials to the separation of uranium iso- topes for nuclear energy. He converted the centrifuge, capa- ble of rotating only a few thousand times a minute, to the ultracentrifuge, capable of rotating a hundred! million times a minute (A I.5 million rotations per second), with peripheral speeds greater than 2500 miles an hour. At the highest speed, the peripheries of some of the small, spherical rotors experi- ence a force of acceleration a billion times that of the earth's gravitation. The speecI is limitecI only by the strength-to- density ratio of the material composing the rotor. The rotor is magnetically suspencled in a highly evacuated container, in which the resistance to rotation is so small that the rotor, once

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12 B I OGRAPH I CAL MEMOI RS set in motion and allowed to coast, would continue to rotate for many years without a driving force. To appreciate the difficulties Beams and his group had to overcome to produce the ultracentrifuges that rotate up to I.5 million times a second, let us review briefly the history of the (development of the centrifuge to the time he began work- ing with it. The simplest centrifuge is one mounted on a shaft and rotates! by some external system attached to the shaft, such as the motor-ciriven wheels of an auto or the rotating blacles of an electric fan. Alternately, a moving fluid may be used to cirive the shaft-mountecT rotor, as was done for cen- turies in waterwheels and wincimilIs. Serious difficulties are encountered when one attempts to spin the shaft-mounted rotors at speeds up to a few huncired rotations a second. These ctifficulties come from inability to make the inertial axis of the rotor coincide exactly with the axis of the shaft about which it is forced to turn. Anyone driving a car at high speeds knows the problems caused by wheel imbalance, but the wheels of a car driven at the national speed limit make only a clozen turns a seconct. In ~ SS3 a Swedish engineer, Car! G. P. cle Lava, overcame some of the clifficulties by mounting a steam-ciriven turbine rotor on a tong, flexible shaft that could shift under the force of an imbalance to the inertial axis of the turbine wheel. With this innovation, do Laval constructed a small steam turbine capable of turning at seven hundred rotations a second. Be- tween 1920 and 1925, Theodor Sveciberg, at the University of Uppsala, with meticulous design and exceptional work- manship, constructed small centrifuges mounted on non- flexible shafts, which achieved rotational speeds of the order of a thousand rotations a second. When the rotor was mounted uncler hydrogen gas at subatmospheric pressures to recluce frictional heating, Svedberg succeeded in separating out and weighing large biological molecules through the

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JESSE WAKEFIELD BEAMS 1928 39 With E. O. Lawrence. On relaxation of electric fields in Kerr cells and apparent lag of the Kerr effect. }. Franklin Inst., 206: 169-79. The time lag of the spark gap. I. Franklin Inst., 206:809-15. The mechanical production of short flashes of light. Nature, 121:863. With E. O. Lawrence. The element of time in the photoelectric effect. Phys. Rev., 32:478-85. 1929 With L. G. Hoxton and F. Allison. An interferometer using plane- polarized light. J. Opt. Soc. Am., 19:90-92. With I. C. Street. The time lags of spark gaps in air at various pressures. Phys. Rev., 33:280. 1930 Spectral phenomena in spark discharges. Phys. Rev., 35:24-33. The propagation of luminosity in discharge tubes. Phys. Rev., 36:997-1001. An apparatus for obtaining high speeds of rotation. Rev. Sci. In- strum., 1:667-71. A review of the use of Kerr cells for the measurement of time intervals and the production of flashes of light. Rev. Sci. In- strum., 1:780-93. 1931 Deviations from Kerr's law at high field strengths in polar liquids. Phys. Rev., 37:781-82. With E. C. Stevenson. The electro-optical Kerr effect in gases. Phys. Rev., 38:133-40. With J. C. Street. The fall of potential in the initial stages of elec- trical discharges. Phys. Rev., 38:416-26. With A. I. Weed. A simple ultracentrifuge. Science, 74:41- 46. 1932 With l. W. Flowers. The initiation of electrical discharges in effec- tively ion-free gases. Phys. Rev., 41:394.

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40 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Some evidence indicating a removal of positive ions from cold sur- faces by electric fields. Phys. Rev., 41:687-88. Electric and magnetic double refraction. Rev. Mod. Phys., 4:133-72. 1933 With L. B. Snoddy. Production of high-velocity ions and electrons. Phys. Rev., 44:784-85. Field electron emission from liquid mercury. Phys. Rev., 44:803-7. With A. T. Weed and E. G. Pickels. The ultracentrifuge. Science, 78:338-40. 1934 With E. G. Pickels and A. }. Weed. Ultracentrifuge. I. Chem. Phys., 2:143. With H. Trotter, fir. Acceleration of electrons to high energies. Phys. Rev., 45: 849-50. Measuring a millionth of a second. Sci. Mon., 38:471-73. 1935 With E. G. Pickels. The production of high rotational speeds. Rev. Sci. Instrum., 6:299-308. 1936 Experiments on the production of high-velocity ions by impulse methods. Proc. Am. Philos. Soc., 76:771-72. With E. I. Workman and L. B. Snoddy. Photographic study of lightning. Physics, 7:375-79. With L. B. Snoddy and I. R. Dietrich. Propagation of potential in discharge tubes. Phys. Rev., 50:469-71. With F. B. Haynes. The separation of isotopes by centrifuging. Phys. Rev., 50:491-92. With W. T. Ham, Jr., L. B. Snoddy, and H. Trotter, Jr. Transmis- sion of high-voltage impulses at controllable speed. Nature, 138:167. 1937 With L. B. Snoddy. The electrically driven ultracentrifuge. Science, 85: 185-86.

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JESSE WAKEFIELD BEAMS 4 With L. B. Snoddy. A simple method of measuring rotational speeds. Science, 85:273-74. With F. W. Linke and C. Skarstrom. A tubular vacuum type centri- fuge. Science, 86:293-94. High rotational speeds. J. Appl. Phys., 8:795-806. With L. B. Snoddy. The separation of mixtures by centrifuging. J. Chem. Phys., 5:993-94. With L. B. Snoddy, H. Trotter, Jr., and W. T. Ham. Impulse cir- cuits for obtaining a time separation between the appearance of potential at different points in a system. I. Franklin Inst., 223:55-76. With F. T. Holmes. Frictional torque of an axial magnetic suspen- sion. Nature, 140:3~31. With A. Victor Masket. Concentration of chlorine isotopes by cen- trifuging. Phys. Rev., 51:384. With I. R. Dietrich. Propagation of potential in discharge tubes. Phys. Rev., 52:739~6. With F. W. Linke. An inverted air-driven ultracentrifuge. Rev. Sci. Instrum., 8: 16~61. 1938 With }. R. Dietrich and L. B. Snoddy. Impulse breakdown charge tubes. Phys. Rev., 53:923. . . In C .1S- High speed centrifuging. Rev. Mod. Phys., 10:245-63. With F. W. Linke and P. Sommer. A vacuum type air-driven centri- fuge for biophysical research. Rev. Sci. Instrum., 9:248-52. A tubular vacuum type centrifuge. Rev. Sci. Instrum., 9:413-16. Centrifuging of liquids. Science, 88:243~4. 1939 With L. B. Snoddy. Electrical discharge between a stationary and a rotating electrode. Phys. Rev., 55:504. The separation of gases by centrifuging. Phys. Rev., 55:591. With L. B. Snoddy. Spark discharge on surfaces. Phys. Rev., 55:663. With L. B. Snoddy. Progressive breakdown in a conducting liquid. Phys. Rev., 55:879. With C. Skarstrom. The concentration of isotopes by the evapora- tive centrifuge method. Phys. Rev., 56:266-72.

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42 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS With S. A. Black. Electrically driven, magnetically supported, vacuum type ultracentrifuge. Rev. Sci. Instrum., 10:5~63. A high resolving power ultracentrifuge. Science, 89:543-44. 1940 With C. Skarstrom. A laboratory study of spark discharge between conducting clouds. Phys. Rev., 57:63. With L. B. Snoddy and Hugh F. Henry. Electrical discharge on liquid surface. Phys. Rev., 57:350. With F. C. Armistead. Concentration of chlorine isotopes by centri- fuging at dry-ice temperature. Phys. Rev., 57:359. With C. Skarstrom. The electrically driven, magnetically sup- ported, vacuum type ultracentrifuge. Rev. Sci. Instrum., 11: 398-403. Ultracentrifuging. In: Science in Progress, Ed Ser., vol.9, p.232. New Haven: Yale University Press. 1941 With A. L. Stauffacher and L. B. Snoddy. A new analytical ultracen- trifuge. Phys. Rev., 59:468. High-speed centrifuging. Rep. Prog. Phys., 8:31-39. 1942 The production and maintenance of high centrifugal fields for use in biology and medicine. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 43: 177-93. 1946 With J. W. Moore and J. L. Young. The production of high centrif- ugal fields. I. Appl. Phys. 17:88~90. With I. L. Young III. The production of high centrifugal fields. Phys. Rev., 69:537. 1947 With A. R. Kuhlthau, A. C. Lapsley, I. H. McQueen, L. B. Snoddy, and W. D. Whitehead. Spark light source of short duration. I. Opt. Soc. Am., 37:868-70. High centrifugal fields. J. Wash. Acad. Sci., 37:221-41. With J. L. Young III. Centrifugal fields. Phys. Rev., 71:131. The radial density variation of gases and vapors in a centrifugal field. Phys. Rev., 72:433-34.

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JESSE WA KEFI ELD B EA MS 43 Rotors driven by light pressure. Phys. Rev., 72:987-88. With F. W. Linke and P. Sommer. Speed control for the air-driven centrifuge. Rev. Sci. Instrum., 18:57-60. 1948 With A. C. Lapsley and L. B. Snoddy. The use of a cavity oscillator as a Kerr cell electro-optical shutter. J. Appl. Phys., 19: 111- 12. With }. H. McQueen and L. B. Snoddy. Light scattering in super- sonic streams. Phys. Rev., 73: 260; 74: 1551-52. Centrifugal fields. Sci. Mon., 66:25~58. 1949 With L. B. Snoddy. Pulsed electron beam for high-speed photog- raphy. Phys. Rev. 75: 1324. 1950 Magnetic suspension balance. Phys. Rev., 78:471-72. Magnetic suspension for small rotors. Rev. Sci. Instrum., 21: 182-84. 1951 With H. Morton. Transmission line Kerr cell. I. Appl. Phys., 22:523. With l. D. Ross and I. F. Dillon. Magnetically suspended, vacuum type ultracentrifuge. Rev. Sci. Instrum., 22:77-80. 1952 With E. C. Smith and I. M. Watkins. High contrast speed rotating mirror. I. Soc. Motion Pict. Telev. Eng., 58: 159-68. With W. E. Walker and H. Morton. Mechanical properties of thin films of silver. Phys. Rev., 87:524-25. Molecular weight determination by the equilibrium ultracentri fuge. Science, 116:516. 1953 Single crystal metal rotors. Phys. Rev., 92:502. With C. I. Davisson. A new variation of the rotation by magnetiza- tion method of measuring gyromagnetic ratios. Rev. Mod. Phys., 25:246-52.

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44 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS With H. M. Dixon. An ultracentrifuge double cell. Rev. Sci. In- strum., 24:228-29. 1954 Technique of spinning high-speed rotors at low temperature. In: Proceedings, Third International Conference on Low Temperature Physics and Chemistry, p. 64 ff. Houston, Tex.: Rice Institute. Shadow and schlieren methods. In: Physical Measurements in Gas Dynamics and Combustion, ed. R. W. Ladenburg, vol.9, pp.2~46. Princeton, N.T.: Princeton University Press. Magnetic suspension ultracentrifuge circuits. Electronics, 27~31: 152-55. With }. H. Hildebrand, B. I. Alder, and H. M. Dixon. The effects of hydrostatic pressure and centrifugal fields upon critical liquid-liquid interfaces. I. Phys. Chem., 58:577-79. With N. Snidow, A. Robeson, and H. M. Dixon. Interferometer for the measurement of sedimentation in a centrifuge. Rev. Sci. Instrum., 25:295-96. Production and use of high centrifugal fields. Science, 120:619-25. 1955 With H. M. Dixon, A. Robeson, and N. Snidow. The magnetically suspended equilibrium ultracentrifuge. J. Phys. Chem., 59: 915-22. Effect of centrifugal field upon the rate of transfer through a helium II film. Phys. Rev., 98: 1138. With I. B. Breazeale and W. L. Bart. Mechanical strength of thin films of metals. Phys. Rev., 100: 1657-61. With C. W. Hulburt, W. E. Lotz, ir., and R. M. Montague, {r Magnetic suspension balance. Rev. Sci. Instrum., 26: 1181-85. 1956 The tensile strength of liquid helium II. Phys. Rev., 104:88~82. 1957 The magnetically supported equilibrium ultracentrifuge. Proc. Am. Philos. Soc., 101: 63-69. .

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JESSE WAKEFIELD BEAMS 1958 45 Tensile strength of liquids at low temperature. In: Proceedings Fifth International Conference of Low Temperature Physics and Chemistry, pp. 84-85. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. With L. B. Snoddy and A. R. Kuhlthau. Tests of the theory of isotope separation by centrifuging. In: Proceedings Second U.N. International Conference on Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, vol. 4: pp. 428-34. Geneva: United Nations. 1959 Tensile strengths of liquid argon, helium, nitrogen, and oxygen. Phys. Fluids, 2: 1-4. High-speed rotation. Phys. Today, 12~7~:2~27. Molecular pumping. Science, 130: 140~7. Mechanical properties of thin films of gold and silver. In: Proceed- ings International Conference on Structure and Properties of Thin Films, ed. C. A. Neugebauer, J. B. Newkirk, and D. A. Vermilya, pp. 183-92. New York: John Wiley. 1961 With P. E. Hexner and L. E. Radford. Achievement of sedimenta- tion equilibrium. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 47: 1848-52. With R. D. Boyle and P. E. Hexner. Magnetically suspended equilibrium ultracentrifuge. Rev. Sci. Instrum., 32:645-50. Ultrahigh-speed rotation. Sci. Am., 204: 135-47. Bakable molecular pumps. In: Transactions of Seventh National Sym- posium on Vacuum Technology, pp. 1-5. New York: Pergamon Press. 1962 With P. E. Hexner, D. W. Kupke, H. G. Kim, F. N. Weber, Jr., and R. F. Bunting. Molecular weight of virus by equilibrium ultra- centrifugation. {. Am. Chem. Soc., 84:2457-58. With P. E. Hexner and R. D. Boyle. Molecular weight determina- tion with a magnetically supported ultracentrifuge. J. Phys. Chem., 66: 1948-51. With R. D. Boyle and P. E. Hexner. Equilibrium ultracentrifuge for molecular weight measurement. J. Polym. Sci., 57:161-74.

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46 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS With D. M. Spitzer, ir., and I. P. Wade, Jr. Spinning rotor pressure gauge. Rev. Sci. Instrum., 33:151-55. With A. M. Clarke. Magnetic suspension balance method for deter- mining densities and partial specific volumes. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 33:75~53. With A. M. Clarke and D. W. Kupke. Determination of densities and partial specific volumes by magnetic balance methods. Sci- ence, 138:984. With C. E. Williams. A magnetically suspended molecular pump. In: Transactions of the Eighth National Vacuum Symposium Combined with the Second International Congress on Vacuum Science and Tech- nology, ed. Luther E. Preuss, vol. 1, pp. 295-99. New York: Pergamon Press. 1963 With A. M. Clarke and D. W. Kupke. Partial specific volumes of proteins by a magnetic balance technique. J. Phys. Chem., 67: 92~30. With T. K. Robinson. Radio telemetering from magnetically sus- pended rotors. Rev. Sci. Instrum., 34:63-64. Some interferometer techniques for observing sedimentation. Rev. Sci. Instrum., 34: 13~42. Double magnetic suspension. Rev. Sci. Instrum., 34: 1071-74. With F. N. Weber, Jr., and D. W. Kupke. Molecular weight: mea- surement with gravity cells. Science, 139:837-38. High centrifugal fields. Phys. Teacher, 1 (31: 1 03-7, 1 1 9. 1964 Magnetic bearings. In: Transactions of the Automotive Engineering Congress, pp. 1-5. New York: Society of Automotive Engineers. Gas centrifugal separation. In: Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, ed. Anthony Standen, vol. 4, pp. 755-56. New York: Interscience. With D. V. Ulrich and D. W. Kupke. An improved magnetic densi- tometer: the partial specific volume of ribonuclease. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 52:34~56. With W. L. Piotrowski. Centrifugal method of cutting crystals. Rev. Sci. Instrum., 35: 1726-27.

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JESSE WAKEFIELD BEAMS 1965 Multiple rotormagnetic suspension system. Rev. Sci. Instrum., 36:95. Magnetic support for nonferromagnetic bodies. Rev. Sci. Instrum., 36:1892. 1966 47 Centrifuge. In: Encyclopedia of Physics, ed. R. M. Besancon, pp. 93-96. New York: Reinhold. With W. L. Piotrowski and D. C. Larson. Plastic deformation of spinning iron whiskers. J. Appl. Phys. 37:3153-56. Speed control of magnetically suspended ultracentrifuge. Rev. Sci. Instrum., 37:667-69. Ultraszybki ruch obrotowy. In: Biblioteka Problemow W Laboratoriach Fizybow, ed. S. Ignatowicz et al., pp. 32~43. Warsaw, Poland: Panstwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe. 1968 Potentials on rotor surfaces. Phys. Rev. Lett., 21:1093-96. 1969 With R. D. Rose, H. M. Parker, R. A. Lowry, and A. R. Kublthau. Determination of the gravitational constant G. Phys. Rev. Lett., 23 :655-58. With P. F. Fahey and D. W. Kupke. Effect of pressure on the apparent specific volume of proteins. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 63:548-55. Magnetic suspension densimeter. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 40: 167-68. 1970 With S. H. French. Contact-potential changes produced on metal surfaces by tensile stresses. Phys. Rev., B1:3300-3303. Constancy of inertial mass in a centrifugal field. Phys. Rev. Lett., 24:840-43. 1971 With W. R. Towler, H. M. Parker, R. A. Lowry, and A. R. Kuhlthau. Measurement of the Newton gravitational constant. In: Precision

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48 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Measurement and Fundamental Constants (National Bureau of Standards Special Publication no. 343), ed. D. N. Langenberg and B. N. Taylor, pp.485-492. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Govern- ment Printing Office. Finding a better value for G. Phys. Today, 24~51:34-40. Improved method of spinning rotors to high speeds at low temper- ature. Rev. Sci. Instrum., 42:637-39. With M. G. Hodgins. Magnetic densimeter-viscometer. Rev. Sci. Instrum., 42: 1455-57. 1972 With R. A. Lowry, W. R. Towler, H. M. Parker, and A. R. Kulthau. The gravitational constant G. In: Atomic Masses and Fundamental Constants, ed. }. H. Saunders and A. H. Wapstra, vol. 4, pp. 521-28. London: Plenum Press. With D. W. Kupke and M. G. Hodgins. Simultaneous determina- tion of viscosity and density of protein solutions by magnetic suspension. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 69:2258-62. With D. W. Kupke. Magnetic densimetry: Partial specific volume and other applications. In: Methods in Enzymology, ed. C. H. W. Hirs and S. N. Timasheff, vol. 26, pp. 74-107. New York: Aca- demic Press. 1973 With M. G. Hodgins and D. W. Kupke. A magnetic suspension osometer. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 70:3785-87. 1974 With }. H. McGee, D. W. Kupke, and W. Godschalk. Equilibrium sedimentation of turnip yellow mosaic virus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 71:386~68. With I. H. McGee and D. W. Kupke. Constant speed drive for magnetically supported equilibrium ultracentrifuge. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 45: 1607-8. Centrifuge. In: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th ea., vol. 3, pp. 1143- 47. Chicago: Encyclopacdia Britannica. With Kenneth L. Nordvedt and lames E. Failer. Gravitation. In: Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th ea., vol. 8, pp. 28~94. Chicago: Encyclopacdia Britannica.

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JESSE WAKEFI ELD B EAMS 1975 49 With M. G. Hodgins, O. C. Hodgins, and D. W. Kupke. Quasielastic behavior of solutions of viral capsid and RNA at very low shearing stresses. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 72:3501-4. Early History of the Gas Centrifuge Work in the U.S.~. (Special report: University of Virginia and Union Carbide Corporation Nuclear Division in Oak Ridge). Charlottesville: University of Virginia. 1976 With W. R. Towler. Magnetic suspension for lecture and classroom demonstrations. Am. I. Phys. 44:478-80. With G. G. Luther, W. R. Towler, R. D. Deslattes, and R. Lowry. Initial results from a new measurement of the Newtonian gravi- tational constant. In: Atomic Masses and Fundamental Constants. ed. }. H. Saunders and A. H. Wapstra, vol. 5, pp. 629-35. London: Plenum Press. 1977 With W. D. Kupke. Simultaneous measurements of viscosity and density in solutions undergoing change. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 74:4430_33. 1978 With R. C. Ritter, G. T. Gillies, and R. T. Rood. Dynamic measure- ment of matter creation. Nature, 271:228-29. With Rogers C. Ritter. A laboratory measurement of the constancy of G. In: On the Measurement of Cosmological Variations of the Grav- itational Constant, pp. 29-70. Gainesville: University Press of Florida.