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ADOLPH HANS SCHULTZ November 14, 1891-May 26, 1976 BY T. DALE STEWART RESIDENCE IN THREE successive countries Germany, Switzerland, the Uniter! States, and then again Swit- zerIand serves to divide Adolph Schultz's life span of eighty-five years into four segments: one, a German period (from his birth on November 14, TS91 to cat ISLE; two, a first Swiss period (from cat I S97 to 1916~; three, an American period (from 1916 to 19511; and four, a second Swiss period (from 1951 to his cleath on May 26, 19761. The American period was not only the longest, but also the most scientifical- ly productive; it comprised the peak years, between the ages of twenty-five and sixty, of his career. I. GERMANY Of the German period of Schultz's life few facts are avail- able. He was the only son among four children born to Julius and Sophie (Frick) Schultz in Stuttgart. When he was about six years old his German father diect, and his mother, a Swiss by birth, took the four children to Zurich. Some twenty years later he stated in the curriculum vitae appended to his doc- toral dissertation: "Ich . . . besuchte Schulen in Deutschiand und zum grossern Tei! in Zurich und bestand im September 1910 die eidgenossische Maturitatsprufung." ~ i"Anthropologische Untersuchungen an der Schadebasis," Archiv fur Anthropolo- g~e, 16 (1917): 104. 325

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326 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS II. SWITZERLAND Schultz's first Swiss period saw him through not only most of his preparation for college, but his undergraduate and graduate training as well. As an undergraduate he spent three semesters at the University of Zurich and two at the University of Bern. In Bern he served on the side as a visiting assistant lecturer in zoology in Professor }. U. Duerst's Zoo- technisches Institut. Then in April ~ 9 ~ 3, following his return to Zurich, he matriculated in the doctoral program at the Uni- versity there uncler the supervision of Professor O. Schiagin- haufen and seven semesters later received his Ph.D. in anthropology. For his dissertation Schultz undertook an anthropological investigation of the base of the human skull. Although the Anthropological Institute in Zurich had series of skulls from a number of racial groups, with the exception of Ancient Egyptians and recent Swiss (Daniser), none had a sufficient representation for Schultz's purpose. In order to bring all of his skull samples up to adequate size, he visited several insti- tutions in Germany. In Professor W. Walcleyer's anatomy department in Berlin he obtained the skulls of some West African Negroes and Chinese; in Professor G. Schwalbe's anatomy department in Strassburg, Greenland Eskimos; in Professor A. Jacobi's department in the Royal Museum for Zoology-Anthropology-Ethnology in Dresden, Australians and Chinese; and in Professor I. Ranke's department in the Anthropological Institute in Munich, Australians and Chi- nese. In all he studied 394 skulls from six racial groups. Schultz electecl to take the majority of his skull measure- ments with the skull oriented in one or the other of two unconventional horizontals: glabelIa-basion and glabelIa- inion. Otherwise he took a selection of conventional measure- ments not requiring reference to a horizontal. To explain the unconventional measurements, he supplied neatly drawn and lettered diagrams. He also drew by hand the rest of the

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ADOLPH HANS SCHULTZ 327 illustrations. Notable, too, is the fact that the measurements, listed individually, are summarized statistically in the form of means, standard deviations, ant! coefficients of variation, all with their probable errors. I mention all this because later in his career his publications generally became richer in pen- and-ink renderings (inclucling tables) and poorer in statistical analyses. Three papers appeared in print ahead of the dissertation, two in 1915 and one in 1916. The first two refer to some of the same German skull collections from which he obtained data for the dissertation. This suggests that in advance of the visitts) to the German institutions Schultz made plans to col- lect data needed for the investigation of three different prob- lems. Here may be the beginning of the program of data collection for which he became famous. From this time on his examinations of specimens were so well thought out and so complete that, before many years would pass, he could dip into his data bank for much of what he needed to clear with a new problem or to summarize the morphological character- . . . . . . Sacs ot a particular primate species. These four publications also reveal a beginning shift in interest from traditional physical anthropology, which deals mostly with man, the highest primate, to a broader type of study (now called primatology), which deals with all the pri- mates. The first of these publications (1915) makes no men- tion of nonhuman primates, the second (1915) makes slight reference to them, ant] the third (1916) gives them extensive coverage. The dissertation, which was published fourth (1917), was planned, of course, before this shift in interest had time to develop. Reminiscing about this period of his life at the Third International Primatological Congress in Zurich in ~ 970, Schultz saicl: .. . ,% . . . . . ~ In my student years of 1910 to 1916 at the University of Zurich interest in primates happened to be unusually well represented in the Anatomical

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328 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Institute under the direction of Ruge and in the Anthropological Institute, which had been founded by Martin, who was succeeded by Schlagin- haufen. Together these departments. . . had assembled very extensive collections of entire bodies and skeletons of nonhuman primates largely through the cooperation of the Swiss Buttikofer, the director of the Rotter- dam zoo and distinguished student of Indonesian primates. This material served for great many important papers on primate anatomy by Ruge himself, his staff and his graduate students.... At the same time the Zurich collections had formed the basis for such well-known primatological monographs from the anthropology department, as Mollison's pioneering report on body proportions, Schlaginhaufen's study of dermatoglyphics and Oppenheim's comparative data on cranial variability, for all of which unusually large series of specimens had been available. Last not least, in 1914 there appeared Martin's great Lehrbuch der Anthropolog~e, in which primates were dealt with in every chapter, confirming the close alliance between physical anthropology and primatology.... It is hardly surprising that as a young student of anthropology in the midst of so much primatological interest I soon came to feel that the study of nonhuman primates was really more fascinating and rewarding than that of mere man, whose morphology had already become known to what seemed to me then down to the last details.2 III. TO AMERICA The first Swiss period of Schultz's life encled and his American period began when he came to the United States in the fall of 1916. The circumstances leading to this move are explained by Florence R. Sabin in Franklin Paine Mall; the Story of a Mind (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1934~. One of the projects that Mall had in mind in 1913 for the new Department of Embryology, which he had induced the Carnegie Institution of Washington to establish at the Johns Hopkins Medical School in Baltimore, was an anthro- pometric record of the Department's collection of human embryos. Continuing the account in Sabin's words: . Volta Primatolog?ca, 26 ( 1976): 6-7.

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ADOLPH HANS SCHULTZ 329 Mall did not go abroad in 1913 [as was his custom] but asked me to consult for him the anthropologists in Germany, Switzerland and France and explain his problem of securing someone to measure human embryos with an adequate technique. As a result Dr. Michael Reicher was recruited from the department of Professor Schlagenhaufen in Zurich. He came to Baltimore and started the work, but when the war broke out he was obliged to return to Europe and Dr. Adolph Schultz, also from Schlagenhaufen's laboratory, was appointed [to continue with the work] (pp. 30~51. By the time Reicher left Baltimore the number of his measured specimens had reached 385.3 Although he hoped to return to Baltimore after the war and for this reason left his data behind, Schultz continued the work, ant! by the time he publisher! on the subject in 1922 and 1923, he had ex- tended the coverage to 623 specimens. Not until 1929, how- ever, did Schultz get around to publishing the cletails of the technique he used in measuring the fetuses. Two actions by Schultz during this period indicate how well he was adjusting to life in his adopted country: in 1924 he married, and in 1934 he became a naturalizecl American citizen. Travis Bacler, who became his wife and ultimately was to survive him briefly, was from Virginia. I once visited them at their vacation retreat, an old family house in McGaheys- ville, located in the Shenadoah Valley some 75 miles in a direct line southwest of Baltimore. While Schultz was working on the fetuses, he was also gathering data of other sorts, such as information concerning the prenatal sex ratio and the development of the external nose. The second subject led in 1919 to a contribution to the Carnegie's publication series: it represented the first of his seven Contributions to Embryology between ~ 9 ~ 9 and ~ 949. Schultz's bibliography shows that by 1921 he was also studying primate specimens other than human. One of his papers that year reports the occurrence of a sternal gland in Carnegie Institution of Washington, Yearbook, ~ 3 ( ~ 9 ~ 4): ~ 05, ~ 09.

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330 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS an orang, anct another describes fetuses of the Guiana howling monkey. Thereafter papers of this sort graclually increased in frequency; in other words, his shift in interest from physical anthropology to primatology, aireacly evident before he left Zurich, was continuing and expanding in Baltimore. This shift took another form in 1923 when Schultz par- ticipatecl in the first of four primate collecting trips to Central America. On the first trip, which hacI as its destination east- ern Nicaragua, he was accompanied by O. O. Heard. George WisIocki and F. F. Snicier joined them in 1924 on the second trip to the same area, generally described as the middle course of the Princapolka River and a tributary thereof, the Yao-ya River. The thirst and fourth trips, in 1929 ant! 1932, were organized by Herbert C. Clark of the Gorgas Memorial Institute for Tropical Medicine and centered on Chiriqui in western Panama. Originally clesigned primarily to acquire embryos and fetuses, the success otherwise of all these trips may be judged from the number of mature skulls alone col- lected: a total of 379 from among three species (howlers, capuchins, and spiders). A by-product of the second trip was an anthropological study of twenty-five and twelve adult In- dian men of the Rama and Sumu tribes, respectively. The first trip to Nicaragua was financed by Schultz per- sonally, the second by the Carnegie and the Johns Hopkins Meclical School. The participation of Johns Hopkins suggests that the school was already interested in having Schultz join its staff. In 1925 he accepted the position of associate profes- sor of physical anthropology in the Department of Anatomy, the first such position in any American meclical school. To fill the vacancy created by Schultz's cleparture, G. 12. Streeter, who tract succeeded Mall as director of the Carne- gie's Laboratory of Embryology, brought in C. G. Hartman from the University of Texas. This was a happy arrangement

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1 ADOLPH HANS SCHULTZ 33 for Schultz, because Hartman at once set about establishing a colony of rhesus macaques on the top floor of the Carnegie buiTcting next door to the anatomy building, and he invited Schultz to maintain the colony's growth records. Schultz was also offered the remains of any members of the colony that died. In turn he generously shared these remains with his anatomical colleagues. Out of this collaborative effort grew the precedent-setting book, The Anatomy of the Rhesus Monkey, edited by Hartman and Straus (1933~. The chapter therein by Schultz, "Growth and Development," contains his observations and measure- ments of more than twenty animals born in the Hartman colony. Between 1927 and 1938 Schultz tract a small primate col- ony of his own populated by six chimpanzees (counting off- spring) and an orang. These animals were kept in improvised quarters in a former stable behind the anatomy builcling. As a medical student at Hopkins in this period, ~ remember well the vocal and mechanical din created by these caged animals. The colony came to an ens] when the strength of the largest mate chimpanzeenamed "Dayton" by Schultz after the antievolution trial in Dayton, Tennessee macle it impossible to keep him confined to quarters. Besides observing the living nonhuman primates around him, Schultz was always seeking the remains of those dying in captivity. Animal dealers, directors of zoos, and owners of circuses responded generously, but their shipments of deact animals occasionally led to amusing incidents. For example, there is the tale of the zealous prohibition agents in Washing- ton's Union Station, who, after apprehending a zoo attendant bound for Baltimore, were abashed to finct that the bag he was carrying, when opened in the midst of a crowd, con- tainect a dead monkey and not the suspected liquid contra- bancI. Other tales concern phone calls to Schultz at incon-

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332 . BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS venient hours from irate clerks in the office of the express company demanding that he come at once and claim stinking packages. The odor was so bact sometimes, it is said, that he was forced to expose and examine these specimens on the fire escape of the anatomy building. Of course, not all of the shipments were in such wretched condition. Among the most notable acquisitions were the huge gorillas "Congo" and "Gargantua." The latter gained for Schultz considerable publicity because Life magazine (De- cember 5, 1949) publishecl a large picture of him, caliper in hand, bending over the corpse stretched out on an embalm- ing table. Given a choice, Schultz preferred animals shot in the wild to animals that had died in capitivity. This being the case, he was quick to accept an invitation from Harold Coolidge to participate in a primate collecting expedition headed for southeast Asia in 1937. The other scientists on the Asiatic Primate Expeclition (APE) included C. R. Carpenter and S. L. Washburn. In Thailand, the first stop for fierce work, the party proceeded to the city of Chiang Mai, 375 miles north of Bangkok; before leaving the country two months later they had amassed a total of 233 gibbons, along with representa- t~ves of other kinds of primates. Subsequently Schultz and Washburn spent three months near Sandakan in North Bor- neo collecting forty-four gibbons, seven orange, and series of several kinds of lower primates. Most of the skeletons were returned to the United States in a roughecl-out and dried state. Back in Baltimore, Schultz cleaned up those acquired for his personal collection, as well as those going elsewhere but which he intended to study. The Anatomy Department at Hopkins provided few assistants for the staff. This mattered little to Schultz, be- cause he was quite capable of dealing with his specimens once they were skeletonized; anct this he often did, even to

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ADOLPH HANS SCHULTZ 333 the point of numbering the bones and constructing the boxes to house them. He also measured the bones, wrote his manu- scripts in longhand, and illustrated them with masterly pen- and-ink drawings. All this he carried out in a single large room with two windows on one side and storage shelves going to the ceiling on the other three sides. Considering that he expended so much of his time getting his data assembled and analyzed, it is remarkable that he published as much as he did. I think it is unlikely that Schultz ever had one of his well-organized and beautifully illustrated manuscripts re- jected by an editor. It should be noted, however, that during his years in Baltimore he had close connections with the founders and/or editors of the more important new journals devoted, at least in part, to primate studies: in Washington ~ ~ ~ 11-V 1 ~ . 1 ~ - ~, A. mra~c~a ot tne American f ournal of Physical! Anthropology (1918~; also in Washington, N. Hollister of the Journal of Mammai/ogy ( 19 ~ 9~; and in Baltimore, R. Pear! of the Quarterly Review of Biology ( 1926) and Human Biology ( 19291. Between 1918 and 1949 these four journals alone carried 36 of his articles. Among the larger pieces may be mentioned the 1930 article in Human Biology (136 pages, 23 hand-drawn figures) and the 1944 article in theAmerican Journal of Physical Anthro- pology (129 pages, 30 hand-drawn figures). Schultz's early intensive efforts to report the growth and development of particular primates, primarily through mea- . , ~ , ~ surements, gradually became interspersed with efforts to provide interpretive summaries. A few titles will suggest the points he wished to emphasize: "Man as a Primate" (1931), "Characters Common to Higher Primates and Characters Specific for Man" (1936), "Variability in Man and Other Primates" (1947), "The Physical Distinctions of Man" (19501. These general articles, perhaps more than the others, left enduring impressions on the thinking of primatologists.

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334 B IOGRAPH ICAL MEMOI RS In the late 1940s a new trend in the field! of anatomy, known as "histochemistry," arrived in force at Hopkins as a new head of the department took over. Schultz could find no indication in this change that the encouragement and support he had always received would continue, so in 1951, when he reached the age of sixty, he retired and went back to Zurich, taking with him his primate collection. Thus, after thirty-five years in Baltimore, Schultz's highly productive American period came to an encI. IV. BACK TO SWITZERLAND The second Swiss period of Schultz's life began auspi- ciously with his resumption of Swiss citizenship. SchIaginhau- fen, who in 1951 had reached his fortieth year as director of the University of Zurich's Institute of Anthropology, relin- quished the position. Schultz was appointed director of the Institute and was also designated professor of anthropology in the University. The Institute provided a repository for his collection and a natural place for him to continue his studies; the professorship gave him further status with only limiter] academic duties. The portion of his bibliography covering this final period shows that, except for the year 1951, he continued to publish at about the same rate as he had in Baltimore: two to four articles a year, but now more often in German. The incorporation of Schultz's personal collection of primate specimens into the Tnstitute's collection resulted in a virtually unequalled primatological resource. From the com- bined collections Schultz selected for exhibition some of the more unusual specimens ant] others that illustrated evolu- tionary changes and phylogenetic relationships. Perhaps be- cause he had never before tract a display facility, he took special pleasure and pride in showing off the arrangements he had created.

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ADOLPH HANS SCHULTZ BIBLIOGRAPHY 1915 339 *Einfluss der Sutura occipitalis transverse auf Grosse und Form des Occipitale und des ganzen Gehirnschadels. Arch. Suisses An- thropol. Gen., 1: 184-91. *Form, Grosse und Lage der Squama temporalis des Menschen. Z. Morphol. Anthropol., 19:353-80. 1916 older Canalis cranio-pharyngeus persisters beim Mensch und bei den Affen. Morphol. Garb., 50:417-26. 1917 Anthropologische Untersuchungen an der Schadelbasis. Arch. Anthropol., N. F. 16: 1- 103. *Ein paariger Knochen am Unterrand der Squama occipitalis. Anat. Rec., 12: 357-62. 1918 *Studies in the sex-ratio of man. Biol. Bull., 34:257-75. *The fontanella metopica and its remnants in an adult skull. Am. }. Anat., 23:259-71. *The position of the insertion of the pectoralis major and deltoid muscles on the humerus of man. Am. }. Anat., 23:155-73. *Relation of the external nose to the bony nose and nasal cartilages in whites and Negroes. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol., 1:329-38. ~Observations on the canalis basilaris chordae. Anat. Rec., 15:225- 29. 1919 *Changes in fetuses due to formalin preservation. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol., 2: 35-41. The development of the external nose in whites and Negroes. Carnegie Inst. Washington Publ. 272, Contrib. Embryol., 9 (341: 173-90. Asterisk denotes articles in which the author's first name is spelled "Adolf."

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340 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1920 *Rassenunterschiede in der Entwicklung der Nase und in den Nasenknorpeln. Verh. Schweiz. Naturforsch. Ges. Neuenburg, 101 :259-61. An apparatus for measuring the newborn. Johns Hopkins Hosp. Bull., 31:131-32. 1921 The occurrence of a sternal gland in orang-utan. }. Mammal., 2: 194-96. Fetuses of the Guiana howling monkey. Zoologica (N.Y.), 3: 242-62. Sex incidence in abortions. Carnegie Inst. Washington Publ. 275, Contrib. Embryol., 12~56~: 177-91. 1922 Das numerische Verhaltnis der Geschlechter. Nat. Mensch, 3:66- 76. Das fotale Wachstum des Menschen. Verb. Schweiz. Naturforsch. Ges. Bern, T. II:295-99. Zygodactyly and its inheritance. J. Hered., 13: 113-17. 1923 Bregmatic fontanelle bones in mammals. I. Mammal., 4:65-77. Fetal growth in man. Am. }. Phys. Anthropol., 6:389-99. 1924 Preparation and preservation of anatomical and embryological material in the field. J. Mammal., 5: 16-24. Growth studies on primates bearing upon man's evolution. Am. }. Phys. Anthropol., 7:149-64. Observations on Colobus fetuses. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 49: 443-57. 1925 Embryological evidence of the evolution of man. J. Wash. Acad. Sci., 15:247-63. With G. B. Wislocki. On the nature of modifications of the skin in the sternal region of certain primates. l. Mammal., 6:236-44.

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ADOLPH HANS SCHULTZ 341 Studies on the evolution of human teeth. Dent. Cosmos, 5:67, 935-47, 1053-63. Man's embryonic tail. Sci. Mon., 21:141-43. 1926 Variations in man and the 60:297-323. Fetal growth of man and other primates. Q. Rev. Biol.,1 :465-521. Anthropological studies on Nicaraguan Indians. Am. I. Phys. An- thropol., 9:65-80. Studies on the variability of platyrrhine monkeys. I. Mammal., 7:286-305. ir evolutionary significance. Am. Nat., 1927 Les variations chez lthomme et leur signification au point de vue de ['evolution. Bull. Soc. Etude Formes Humaines, 5:59-77. Studies on the growth of gorilla and of other higher primates with special reference to a fetus of gorilla, preserved in the Carnegie Museum. Mem. Carnegie Mus., 11: 1-86. La croissance foetale chez l'homme et autres primates. Bull. Soc. Etude Formes Humaines, 5:270-334. 1929 The metopic fontanelle, fissure, and suture. Am. l. Anat.,44:475- 99. The technique of measuring the outer body of human fetuses and of primates in general. Carnegie Inst. Washington Publ. 394, Contrib. Embryol., 20~1171:213-57. 1930 Notes on the growth of anthropoid apes with especial reference to deciduous dentition. Rep. Lab. Mus. Comp. Pathol., Zool. Soc. Philadelphia: 34-45. The promise of a youthful science. iohns Hopkins Alum. Mag., 18: 185-206. The skeleton of the trunk and limbs of higher primates. Hum. Biol., 2:303-438.

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342 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1931 The density of hair in primates. Hum. Biol., 3:303-21. Man as a primate. Sci. Mon., 33:385-412. 1932 The hereditary tendency to eliminate the upper lateral incisors. Hum. Biol., 4:3~40. Human variations. Sci. Mon., 34:360-62. The generic position of Symphalangus klossii. ], . Mammal., 13: 368- 69. 1933 Observations on the growth, classification and evolutionary spe- cialization of gibbons and siamangs. Hum. Biol., 5:212-55, 385-428. Growth and development. In: The Anatomy of the Rhesus Monkey, ed. C. G. Hartman and W. L. Straus, Tr., pp. 10-27. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins. Die Korperproportionen der erwachsenen catarrhinen Primaten, mit spezieller Berucksichtigung der Menschenaffen. Anthro- pol. Anz., 10:154-85. Chimpanzee fetuses. Am. }. Phys. Anthropol., 18:61-79. Notes on the fetus of an orang-utan. Rep. Lab. Mus. Comp. Pathol., Zool. Soc. Philadelphia:28-39. 1934 Some distinguishing characters of the mountain gorilla. }. Mam- mal., 15:51-61. Inherited reductions in the dentition of man. Hum. Biol., 6: 627-31. Davidson Black. Anthropol. Anz., 11:276-79. 1935 Eruption and decay of the permanent teeth in primates. Am. }. Phys. Anthropol., 19:489-581. The nasal cartilages in higher primates. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol., 20:205-12. With F. F. Snyder. Observations on reproduction in the chimpan- zee. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp., 57:193-205.

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ADOLPH HANS SCHULTZ 1936 343 Characters common to higher primates and characters specific for man. Q. Rev. Biol., 11:259-83, 425-55. 1937 Die Korperproportionen der afrikanischen Menschenaffen im foetalen und im erwachsenen Zustand. In: Neue Forschungen in Tierzucht und Abstammungslehre (Festschrift zum 60; Geburtstag von Prof. Dr. J. Ulrich Duerst), pp.284-302. Bern: Verbands- druckerei. Fetal growth and development of the rhesus monkey. Carnegie Inst. Washington Publ.479, Contrib. Embryol.,2641551:71-98. Proportions, variability and asymmetries of the long bones of the limbs and the clavicles in man and apes. Hum. Biol., 9:281- 328. 1938 To Asia after apes. Johns Hopkins Alum. Mag., 26:37-46. Genital swelling in the female orang-utan. I. Mammal., 19:363-66. The relative length of the regions of the spinal column in Old World primates. Am. I. Phys. Anthropol., 24:1-22. With W. M. Krogman. Anthropoid ape materials in American collections. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol., 24:199-234. The relative weight of the testes in primates. Anat. Rec., 72:387- 94. 1939 Notes on diseases and healed fractures of wild apes and their bearing on the antiquity of pathological conditions in man. Bull. Hist. Med., 7:571-82. 1940 The size of the orbit and of the eye in primates. Am. }. Phys. Anthropol., 26:389-408. Growth and development of the chimpanzee. Carnegie Inst. Washington Publ. 518, Contrib. Embryol., 28~1701:1-63. The place of the gibbon among the primates. Introduction: C. R. Carpenter, "A field study in Siam of the behavior and social

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344 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS relations of the gibbon (Hylobates tar)," Comp. Psych. Monogr., 16:3-12. 1941 Growth and development of the orang-utan. Carnegie Inst. Wash- ington Publ. 525, Contrib. Embryol., 29~182~:57-110. Chevron bones in adult man. Am. I. Phys. Anthropol., 28:91-97. With H. Lumer. Relative growth of the limb segments and tail in the macaques. Hum. Biol., 13 :283-305. The relative size of the cranial canacitv in nrim~te.c Am ~ Phvc Anthropol., 28:273-87. ~ _ , 1 ~ rid -- J ~ Iv 1942 Morphological observations on a gorilla and an orang of closely known ages. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol., 29:1-21. Growth and development of the proboscis monkey. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harv. Coll., 89:279-314. Conditions for balancing the head in primates. Am. I. Phys. An- thropol., 29:483-97. 1944 Age changes and variability in gibbons: a morphological study on a population sample of a man-like one Am ~ Ph`~c pot., n.s. 2: 1-129. ... ,..,. Anthro- 1945 Ales Hrdlicka. In: Biographical Memoirs, 23 :305-38. Columbia Univ. Press for the National Academy of Sciences. With W. L. Straus, Jr. The numbers of vertebrae in primates. Proc. Am. Philos. Soc., 89:601-26. 1947 Variability in man and other primates. Am. i. Phys. Anthropol., n.s. 5:1-14. With H. Lumer. Relative growth of the limb segments and tail in Ateles geoffroyi and Cebus capucinus. Hum. Biol., 19:53-67. 1948 The number of young at a birth and the number of nipples in primates. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol., n.s. 6:1-23.

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ADOLPH HANS SCHULTZ 345 The relation in size between premaxilla, diastema and canine. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol., n.s. 6:163-79. 1949 The palatine ridges of primates. Carnegie Inst. Washington Publ. 583, Contrib. Embryol., 33~2151:43-66. Sex differences in the pelves of primates. Am. I. Phys. Anthropol., n.s. 7:401-23. Ontogenetic specializations of man. Arch. Julius Klaus-Stift., 24: 197-216. 1950 Morphological observations on gorillas. In: The Anatomy of the Gorilla, ed. W. K. Gregory, pp. 227-53. New York: Columbia University Press. The physical distinctions of man. Proc. Am. Philos. Soc., 94:428- 49. The specializations of man and his place among the catarrhine primates. Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol., 15:37-53. Our simian benefactors. Johns Hopkins Mag., 2~3~:4-8. 1952 Vergleichende Untersuchungen an einigen menschlichen Spezial- isationen. Bull. Schweiz. Ges. Anthropol. Ethnol., 28:25-37. Uber das Wachstum der Warzenfortsatze beim Menschen und den Menschenaffen, mit kurzer Z,usammenfassung anderer ontogenetischer Spezialisationen der Primaten. Homo, 3: 105-9~ 1953 Man's place among the primates. Man, 53~4~:7-9. The relative thickness of the long bones and the vertebrae in primates. Am. l. Phys. Anthropol., n.s. 11:277-311. 1954 Studien uber die Wirbelzahlen und die Korperproportionen von Halbaffen. Vierteljahresschr. Naturforsch. Ges. Zuerich, 99: 39-75. Die Foramina infraorbitalia der Primaten. %. Morphol. Anthro- pol., 46:404-7.

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346 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS Bemerkungen zur Variabilitat und Systematik der Schimpansen. Saugetierkd. Mitt., 2: 159-63. 1955 Das Bild ausgestorbener Menschen. Umschau, 55:143~5. The position of the occipital condyles and of the face relative to the skull base in primates. Am. }. Phys. Anthropol., n.s. 13:97- 120. Primatology in its relation to anthropology. In: Yearbook of Anthro- pology, ed. W. L. Thomas,.Jr., pp. 47-60. New York: Wenner- Gren Foundation. 1956 Postembryonic age changes. Primatologia, 1 :887-964. The occurrence and frequency of pathological and teratological conditions and of twinning among non-human primates. Pri- matologia, 1 :965-1014. 1957 The palatine ridges of primates (Vestibulum oris and cavum oris). Primatologia, 3~1~:127-38. Die Bedeutung der Primatenkunde fur des Verstandnis der An- thropogenese. Dtch. Ges. Anthropol., Ber., 5:13-28. Past and present views of man's specializations. Ir. t. Med. Sci., 6th ser. 379:341-56. 1958 Cranial and dental variability in Colobus monkeys. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 130: 7~ 105. Ein fossiler Menschenschadel von Italien aus noch unbestimmtem %eitalter. Anthropol. Anz., 22:78-83. Acrocephalo-oligodactylism in a wild chimpanzee. }. Anat., 92: 568-79. 1960 Einige Beobachtungen und Masse am Skelett von Oreopithecus (im Vergleich mit anderen catarrhinen Primaten). Z. Morphol. An- thropol., 50:13~49. Age changes and variability in the skulls and teeth of the Central American monkeys Alouatta, Cebus and Afteles. Proc. %ool. Soc. London, 133 :337-90.

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ADOLPH HANS SCHULTZ 347 Age changes in primates and their modification in man. In: Human Growth, ed. I. M. Tanner, pp. 1-20. Oxford, U.K.: Pergamon Press. Significance of recent primatology for physical anthropology. In: Men and Cultures: Selected Papers of the Fifth International Congress of Anthropological and Ethnological Sciences, Philadelphia 1956, ed A. F. C. Wallace, pp. 698-702. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. 1961 Die stammesgeschichtliche Entwicklung des Menschen. Repertor- ium der Ur- und Fruhgeschichte der Schweiz (Resumes der Vortrage am 23, Ur~eschichtskurs in Zurich. Oktober 1960). Heft 6:21-24. Vertebral column and thorax. Primatologia, 4~51: 1-66. Some factors influencing the social life of primates in general and of early man in particular. In: Social Life of Early Man, ed. S. L. Washburn, Viking Fund Publ. Anthropol., 31:58-90. Physical anthropology. In: Twentieth Annual Report on the Founda- tion A ctivities, 1 941 -1 961, pp. 1 ~25. New York: Wenner-Gren Foundation. 1962 Die Schadelkapazitat mannlicher Gorillas und ihr Hochstwert. Anthropol. Anz., 25:197-203. The relative weights of the skeletal parts in adult primates. Am. I. Phys. Anthropol., n.s. 20:1-10. Metric age changes and sex differences in primate skulls. Z. Mor- phol. Anthropol., 52:239~55. (Reprinted in: Yearb. Phys. An- thropol., 10 (1962~: 12~54; Mexico, 1964.) 1963 The relative lengths of the foot skeleton and its main parts in primates. Symp. Zool. Soc. London, 10:199-206. Relations between the lengths of the main parts of the foot skele- ton in primates. Folia Primatol., 1: 15~71. Age changes, sex differences and variability as factors in the classi- fication of primates. In: Classification and Human Evolution, ed. S. L. Washburn, Viking Fund Publ. Anthropol., 37:85-115.

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348 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1964 A gorilla with exceptionally large teeth and supernumerary pre- molars. Folia Primatol., 2: 14~60. 1965 Die resenten Hominoidea. In: Menschliche Abstammungslehre: Fort- schritte der "Anthropogenie," 1863-1964, ed. G. Heberer, pp. 5 102. Stuttgart: Gustav Fischer. The cranial capacity and the orbital volume of hominoids accord- ing to age and sex. In: Homenaje a Plan Comas en su 65 Aniver- sario, ed. A. Caso et al., vol. 2, pp. 337-57. Mexico, D. F.: Editorial Libros. 1966 Der Mensch als Primat. Schr. Ver. Verbr. Naturwiss. Kennt. Wien, 106:47-88. Changing views on the nature and interrelations of the higher primates. Yerkes Newsl., 3:1~29. 1968 Form und Funktion der Primatenhande. In: Handgebrauch and Verstandigung bei Affen und Frnkmenschen, ed. B. Rensch, pp. ~30. Bern: Huber. The recent hominoid primates. In: Perspectives on Human Evolu- tion, ed. S. L. Washburn and P. C. Jay, vol. 1, pp. 122-95. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston. 1969 Observations on the acetabulum of primates. Folia Primatol., 11: 181-99. The skeleton of the chimpanzee. In: The Chimpanzee, ed. G. H. Bourne, vol. 1, pp. 50-103. Basel: Karger. The Life of Primates. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. 1970 The comparative uniformity of the Cercopithecoidea. In: Old World Monkeys ed. {. R. and P. H. Napier, pp.40-51. New York: Academic Press.

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ADOLPH HANS SCHULTZ 1971 349 The rise of primatology in the twentieth century. In: Proceedings of the Third International Congress of Primatology, Zurich, 1970, ed. J. Biegert and W. Leutenegger, vol. 1, pp. 2-15. Basel: Karger. (Reprinted in Folia Primatol., 26 (1976~:5-23.) 1972 Die Primaten/Les Primates. Lausanne: Editions Rencontre. Developmental abnormalities. In: Pathology of Simian Primates, ed. R. N. T-W. Fiennes, vol. 1, pp. 158-89. Basel: Karger. Polydactylism in a siamang. Folia Primatol, 17:241-47. 1973 Age changes, variability and generic differences in body propor- tions of recent hominoids. Folia Primatol., 19:338-59. The skeleton of the Hylobatidae and other observations on their morphology. In: Gibbon and Siamang, ed. D. M. Rumbaugh, vol. 2, pp. 1-54. Basel: Karger. 1974 I Primati. Milano: Aldo Garzanti. 1979 Los Primates. Barcelona: Ed. Destino.