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ROBERT ERASTUS WILSON March 19, 1893-September 1, 1964 BY L. WILLIAM MOORE AND DONALD L. CAMPBELL ROBERT ERASTUS WILSON was inspired by a competitive fervor for excellence, which he applied to such dispar- ate fleeces as science, eclucation, business, and public affairs. He was the son of a mathematics professor, and his interest in science was awakener! early. He developed a high regard for analytical reasoning, which served him well in all of his undertakings. As his college chemistry professor noted, "Bob would make a good research man he's quite sure there's a better way to do everything than the way now used.") This was indeed to become his guiding principle. In 1954 he said about himself: "l have made few out- standing scientific discoveries. My principal contributions to science were probably in the f~elct of generalizing scattered facts, theories, and observations and in applying scientific principles to the solution of practical problems."2 In the exer- cise of this philosophy, he obtained eighty-nine U.S. ant! NOTE: The Academy would like to express its thanks to Manson Benedict for his invaluable contributions to this memoir. Dr. Benedict generously contributed the comprehensive section concerning Dr. Wilson's government service, as well as a good deal of information in the section entitled "Honors and Distinctions." Nor. Robert E. Wilson Retires," Standard Torch, March 1958, p. 5. Robert E. Wilson, "Autobiographical Statement" (1954), p. 2, Archives of the National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C. 409

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410 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS fourteen foreign patents and publishec! more than 100 tech- nical papers. He was recognized with three important scien- tific medals and other awards ant] with eighteen honorary college and university degrees. His serious pursuits were accompanied by an unfailing sense of humor. He was asked once what his middle initial stood for. "I've been trying to keep that a secret," he grinned. "In accordance with family custom, ~ was namer! Robert after one grandfather and Erastus after the other. ~ once checked to see if ~ conic] not have been given the midclle name of the other grandfather, but founct out that it would have been Ebenezer."3 He also was fond of telling friends the story of "four significant facts" about his life, which he duly related to the Academy in 1954: "I. I married a secretary in 1916. 2. I hired my first secretary in 1919 (Catherine V. Ogilvie). '3. Both of them are still with me. 4. They are good friencis!"4 THE EARLY YEARS Robert Erastus Wilson was born March 19, 1893 in Beaver Fails, Pennsylvania. He was reared as the eldest of four chil- dren of William H. Wilson, who was a mathematics professor first at Geneva College, Beaver Falls, Pennsylvania, and then at The College of Wooster (Ohio), from 1900 until his death in 1907. At that time, Bob Wilson was fourteen years oIct. Since the family tract little money, his mother, Madge (Cun- ningham) Wilson, formed a college boarding club in their home near the campus. The chilclren all helped by waiting tables, washing cliches, and performing other chores. All four gra(luatecI from college, and Bob and his brother were able to finance their graduate work almost entirely through schol- arships and their own efforts. 3"Robert E. Wilson Retires," p. 2. 4 Wilson, "Autobiographical Statement," p. 4.

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ROBERT ERASTUS WILSON 411 Bob attended public school through the eighth grade (skipping the first, second, and fifth), then preparatory school and The College of Wooster. He saicI, "I likes! all forms of science, mathematics, and mechanical ctrawing; ~ disliked history or anything else which seemed to rely pri- marily on memory as against reasoning. My professor of chemistry was more responsible than any other individual for awakening my interest in science in general and chemistry in particular."5 Wilson was graduated magna cum laude from The Col- lege of Wooster in 1914 with the degree Ph.B. He took pricle in knowing that his father, in ISS9, and one of his daughters, in 1943, were also graduated from Wooster with top honors. In 1916 he married Pear! M. Rockfellow. They were the parents of three daughters: Doris Mildred (Mrs. Louis 0. Blancharcl, Jr.), Lois Marian (Mrs. James A. Scott), and Janice Marjorie (Mrs. William E. George). In a contemporary ac- count of the parent Wilsons in 195S, an article says, "Their evenings alone are usually spent sitting across from each other at a big, thirty-one-year-oicT, two-siclecT mahogany desk in their apartment overlooking Lake Michigan. While Bob, with his bulging briefcase on the windowsill, reads reports or works on a speech, Pear! works with her househoIc] accounts, on one of her scrapbooks, or writes to one of her two hundred correspondents." After graduation from Wooster, Wilson went to the Mas- sachusetts Institute of Technology, where he receiver} his B.S. in chemical engineering in 1916. He describes his early work as follows: My first scientific contributions were with regard to methods of mea- suring the vapor pressures of hydrated salts, which were described in my 5Ibid., p. 1. 6"Robert E. Wilson Retires," p. 3.

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412 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS undergraduate thesis at MIT but were not published in the Journal of the American Chemical Society until 1921 "Some New Methods of Determina- tion of Vapor Pressure of Salt-Hydrates." This work led to what was prob- ably my first substantial scientific contribution, though it took the form of posing a question, not giving the answer. The question was: How could one reconcile the kinetic theory of vapor pressure with the phase rule? For example, in a mixture of hydrated and a dehydrated salt, under the kinetic theory one would expect the number of the water molecules escaping to be proportional to the number of "vacant spaces" present on the surface. Under this theory, the vapor pressure should vary roughly in proportion to the degree of hydration of the salt. However, both the phase rule and experimental evidence state that if you have a mixture of hydrated and unhydrated salt, the vapor pressure is the same whether it is 1 per cent or 99 per cent hydrated (assuming the salt has only one crystalline hydrate). I put this question up to several of my professors at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, including such outstanding men as Arthur A. Noyes and Warren K. Lewis, neither of whom was able to give the answer. I was then fortunate enough to be assigned to the General Electric Labora- tory at Schenectady, New York, for a summer job after I was graduated from Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and I put the question to Irving Langmuir. He, too, was unable to answer it but thought the question was quite intriguing and important in connection with a paper he was then writing. The next morning he called me up to ask if I had the answer, which, of course, I did not. He then said that he had the answer and that it would constitute an important part of his forthcoming paper on the characteristics of the solid state. He pointed out that the only way to reconcile the two theories was to assume that, in the case of the hydrated salt, molecules left or entered the crystal surface only at the boundary be- tween the two phases- in other words, the water molecules on an undis- turbed surface of hydrate were relatively stable, and likewise water mole- cules which struck a completely dehydrated surface were not able to stay, but at the boundary between the two phases, the forces were closely in balance, and the vapor pressure was that required to substantially equalize the number of molecules entering and leaving the boundary; at slightly higher vapor pressures, the water molecules would leave until it was all dehydrated and vice versa.7 7 Wilson, "Autobiographical Statement," p. 1.

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ROBERT ERASTUS WILSON 413 Wilson remained at MIT in 1916, serving as research asso- ciate in the Research Laboratory of Applied Chemistry under William H. Walker. In 1917 he became consulting chemical engineer for the Bureau of Mines in Washington, DC. in World War I, he served as captain and then major, at age twenty-f~ve, of the Chemical Warfare Service. He and Dr. James B. Conant were the youngest majors in the service. Wilson directed the cws research division. He made a num- ber of important contributions to the creation of more eff~- cient gas absorbents of various types, including socia limes, impregnated charcoals, and the like, for gas masks. In 1919 Wilson returned to MIT as director of the Research Labora- tory of Applied Chemistry and associate professor of chem- ical engineering. From 1919 to 1922 he was also associated with Arthur D. Little, Incorporated. During his early years at MIT Wilson published outstand- ing papers on the mechanism of corrosion of iron, the mech- anism of lubrication, and the flow of fluids through pipelines, "all of which tended to bring order out of rather chaotic subjects," as he put it. He also developed accurate methods of measuring the effective volatility of motor fuels. THE TRANSITION TO INDUSTRY Wilson moved from the MIT campus to industry in 1922. He brought with him the insight into the problems of busi- ness he hac] developed as he helped MIT set the pattern of cooperation with industry, working with such university clients as Vacuum Oil Company, US Steel, Stanciard Oil (New Jersey), General Motors, Gooclyear, Pittsburgh Plate Glass, and others. To leave a job he liked, with an income of $ ~ 0,000 a year, he set his price high, at $14,000, when he was invited to join Standard Oil Company (Indiana) in the position of assistant director of research in the company's laboratory

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414 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS near Chicago. That seemed too high a salary for a young man of twenty-nine, in the estimation of Standards chairman, Robert W. Stewart. Stewart balked at the figure until he talked with the young man. That convinced him, and Wilson was hired at his own figure. He remained with the company for thirty-six years. in the field of oil refining, Wilson developecl many new methods of reducing evaporation Tosses in storage, improve- ments in cracking, and the coking of residual fuels by what is known as the "delayed coking process." He also contributed substantially to the assembly of fundamental data concerning the properties of petroleum hydrocarbons, the solvent ex- traction of lubricating oils, and the use of propane as a refin- ing agent for the separation of wax or, under other concli- tions, the separation of asphalt from the heavier fractions of petroleum. Dr. Wilson, as he was commonly addressed both within and outside the company continuously showocl his mettle as he progressed in the corporation. From his beginning posi- tion in Standard Oil, he acivancect to director of research and heacT of the Development and Patent Department and then to membership on the Board of Directors. He moved into broad management responsibilities in 1934 when he became vice chairman and later president of a principal subsidiary, Pan American Petroleum and Transport Company, with head- quarters in New York City. PAPTCO functions were later trans- ferred to Standard Oil's American Oil Company (now Amoco Oil Company). When the time came for Standard to replace its top man- agement in 1945, it Coked to Dr. Wilson and A. W. Peake, whose company experience had been in crude of! and natural gas exploration and production. Under a relatively new team-management concept, Dr. Wilson was elected chairman of the Board of Directors anc! chief executive officer, with

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ROBERT ERASTUS WILSON 415 direct responsibility for all staff departments, and Mr. Peake was elected president in charge of operations. When Dr. Wil- son retired from company service thirteen years later, the company, one of the ten largest corporations in the United States, had doubled its net worth. GOVERNMENT SERVICE In 1940, while president of Pan American, Wilson was placed in charge of the Natural Gas and Petroleum Section of the National Defense Advisory Commission. Working three days a week as a dollar-a-year man, he served as technical adviser to the government on oil-inclustry matters and stimu- lated manufacture of 100-octane gasoline and synthetic rub- ber. In 1940 and 1941 he served as consultant to the Petro- leum Unit of the Office of Production Management, where he fostered close relationships between the Army and Navy and the petroleum industry and helped establish petroleum product specifications. In 1942 he served on four committees of the Petroleum Industry War Council, composed of seventy-eight oil company executives. In 1945, at the request of the U.S. Treasury, he served as one of the four managing directors of the General Aniline and Film Corporation, a German company seized at the end of the war. Before his retirement from the petroleum industry, Wil- son prepared for his second career by accepting an appoint- ment from President Eisenhower in 1956 as a member of the nine-man General Advisory Committee of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. Wilson served so effectively on this advisory committee that in ~ 960 President Eisenhower named him one of the five commissioners of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. As a commissioner, he led the successful effort to amend the Atomic Energy Act to permit private ownership of special (missile) nuclear material, and he stimulated expansion of U.S.

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416 B IOGRAPH ICAL MEMOIRS nuclear generating capacity. He was interested in the use of nuclear power as an instrument of national policy anct as an economic benefit to the Unites! States in foreign tracie. He formulated U.S. policy in cooperating with friendly nations to develop nuclear power and to provide an assurer] source of enriched uranium with safeguards to prevent its diversion for military uses. Wilson strongly supported clevelopment of the centrifuge method for enriching uranium, because of its reclucecT power consumption compared with gaseous diffusion. He differed with the Commission's decision to delay development of the centrifuge because of its capability to produce weapon-grade uranium-235. He stated very strongly that one conic! not legislate against technical prog- ress; he believecT that one shouic! utilize new developments anc! solve the political problems associates! with them. If Wil- son's advice had been followed, the United States might not have lost its worm leadership in supplying enriched uranium. Wilson resigner! from the Commission on February I, 1964 because of failing health. He receiver! a personal letter from President Johnson that read, in part: Your outstanding performance as a commissioner and the high esteem and respect with which you are regarded by your fellow commissioners as a scientist, a businessman, and a public servant must be a source of great satisfaction to you as your years of public service come to an end. As a result of your foresight and determination, we have a stronger and more self-reliant private atomic energy industry today. I join all of your friends and a grateful nation in thanking you for your years of fruitful and beneficial service. Chairman Glenn T. Seaborg of the Atomic Energy Com- mission stated: "The entire atomic energy program will miss Dr. WiTson's services. He brought to the Commission not only an extensive technical background, but a broact experience in business and finance."

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ROBERT ERASTUS WILSON 417 Later in 1964 Dr. Wilson contributed further to the national atomic energy program by serving as an official arl- viser to the U.S. cielegation to the Third United Nations International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy held in Geneva, Switzerland. There his career as a scientist, engineer, and public servant was cut short by a stroke. He died in the Geneva Cantonal Hospital on Septem- ber 1, 1964. At that time Glenn Seaborg saicI: "Dr. Wilson's wide experience and wisclom, imparted with vigor and gen- erous spirit, greatly enriched the (development of atomic energy in the United States and in the world." THE PUBLIC AND PRIVATE MAN Although for many years he held senior inclustrial execu- tive positions, Wilson was recognized as one of the eminent chemical engineers in the United States. He was awardect the Chemical Industry Meclal in 1939, the Perkin Meclal in 1943, the Lord Cadman Memorial Medal in ~ 951, the North- western University Centennial Award in ~ 95 I, and the Wash- ington Award in 1956. Dr. Wilson maintained his participation in professional organizations through the years. He was chairman of both the Division of Physical Chemistry and the Division of Inclus- trial and Engineering Chemistry of the American Chemical Society, certainly an unusual combination. He also served as a director of the American Chemical Society and of the Soci- ety of Automotive Engineers. All his life he was never far from the concerns of formal education. He was a life member of the Corporation of Mass- achusetts Institute of Technology, a trustee of the University of Chicago, and chairman of the board of The College of Wooster (Ohio). Moreover, his deep interest in the future of education led him to establish, in 1952, a philanthropic foun-

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418 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS cation financially supported by Standarc] Oil (Incliana) ant! declicatec] to the sect of educational and other public institu- tions. It is now named Amoco Founciation. Both as a scientist and as a businessman, Dr. Wilson felt a strong need to communicate his views. In adclition to his technical writings, he wrote scores of articles for a wicle range of publications, including the Saturday Evening Post (1953), appeared on radio and television programs, and cleliverecl more than five hundred public addresses; he had to turn away requests for fully a thousand more. His subjects ranged from atomic energy to religion, anal his convictions were strong. He used to joke, "Among businessmen ~ pose as a scientist; among scientists, as a businessman."8 Among churchmen he spoke for both business anc! science: "Most scientists, as they learn more about the wonclers of nature, grow in respect for the Creator, many of whose wonders they are barely beginning to unclerstancI, let alone duplicate."9 In his speeches, Dr. Wilson often compressed man's five hun- cirec! thousand years of development into fifty years, in orcler to illustrate recent progress. In this time scale, man had his first printing press only two weeks ago and only within the last day slid he have raclio, television, rayon, nylon, sulfa cirugs, and 100-octane gasoline. In 1956 the Illinois Society of Certified Public Accountants bestowed its first annual Public Information Award on Dr. Wilson. Dr. Wilson was a teetotaler ant! also refrainer! from the use of tobacco, but he enjoyed cancly and desserts. Once at a dinner with business associates, he was teasingly asked whether he was aware that there was some alcohol in the cherries jubilee he was relishing at\the end of the repast. He instantly responclect, the story goes, that it was quite all right if one took it with a spoon. 8"Robert E. Wilson Retires," p. 6. '9Ibid.

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424 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS With D. P. Barnard. Lubrication. Mass. Inst. Technol. Tech. Eng. (January): 20~20. Mechanism of corrosion of iron. Ind. Eng. Chem., 15:427. The mechanism of the corrosion of iron and steel in natural waters and the calculation of specific rates of corrosion. Ind. Eng. Chem., 15:127-33. Also in: Mass. Inst. Technol. Bull. 64. With M. A. Youtz. The importance of diffusion in organic electro- chemistry. l. Ind. Chem., 15:603. Also in: Mass. Inst. Technol. Bull. 62. With Edward P. Wylde. The vapor pressure of volatile solvents. Ind. Eng. Chem., 15:801-9. With E. D. Ries. Surface films as plastic solids. Colloid Symp. Monogr., 1923: 145-73. With C. A. Hasslacher and E. Masterson. The removal of small amounts of carbon monoxide from gases by passage through heated granular soda lime. Ind. Eng. Chem., 15:698-701. Also in: Mass. Inst. Technol. Chem. Eng. Bull. 65. With H. S. Davis. Measurement of the relative absorption efficien- cies of gas-absorbent oils. Ind. Eng. Chem., 15:947-50. Also in: Mass. Inst. Technol. Bull. 71. 1924 With W. H. Bahlke. Physical properties of paraffin hydrocarbons. Ind. Eng. Chem., 16:115-22. With R. E. Wilkin. Use of koehler safety lamp in testing tanks for combustible gases or vapors. Ind. Eng. Chem., 16: 1154. With R. E. Wilkin. The solvent-index of refraction method of deter- mining oil in wax. Ind. Eng. Chem., 16:9-12. With A. R. Fortsch. The viscosity of oils at high temperatures. Ind. Eng. Chem., 16: 789-92. With W. H. Bahlke. A boiling point correction chart for normal liquids. Ind. Eng. Chem., 16:1131-32. 1925 With W. H. Bahlke. Temperature of vapor above boiling salt solu- tions. Chem. Metall. Eng., 32:327-29. With D. P. Barnard. Dew points of gasoline-air mixtures. Ind. Eng. Chem., 17:428-29.

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ROBERT ERASTUS WILSON 425 With M. V. Atwell, E. P. Brown, and G. W. Chenicek. Prevention of evaporation losses from gasoline storage tanks. Ind. Eng. Chem., 17:1030. With W. H. Bahlke. Special corrosion problems in oil refining. Ind. Eng. Chem., 17:355-58. With A. R. Fortsch. Measurement of absolute viscosity of light dis- tillates with the Saybolt thermo-viscometer. Ind. Eng. Chem., 17:291-94. 1926 With R. E. Wilkin. A suggested remedy for crankcase-oil dilution. I. Soc. Automot. Eng., 18:163. "Introduction" (speech before joint meeting, divisions of industrial and engineering chemistry and petroleum chemistry, seventy- first meeting of the American Chemical Society, Tulsa, Okla- homa). Ind. Eng. Chem., 18~5~:452. With R. E. Wilkin. Principles underlying the use of equilibrium oils for automotive engines. Ind. Eng. Chem., 18:48~90. With H. G. Schnetzler. Effect of pressure and temperature on total volume of partially vaporized mid-continent crude. Ind. Eng. Chem., 18:523. 1927 With others. Measurement of antiknock value of gasoline, discus- sion. Am. Pet. Inst., 8~61: 187-202. Also in: Chem. Abstr. 1542. With others. Paint as a protective coating (in the oil industry), dis- cussion. Am. Pet. Inst., 8~6~:367-70. Also in: Chem. Abstr. 1543. With others. Corrosion, an economical refinery problem, discus- sion. Am. Pet. Inst., 8~6~:370-83. 1928 With D. P. Barnard. The significance of various tests applied to motor oils. Am. Soc. Test. Mat. Proc., 28~21:674-85. Fifteen years of the Burton process. Ind. Eng. Chem., 20:109 1101.

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426 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1929 Dew point of gasoline-air mixture is defined. Natl. Pet. News, 21~31~:70. Corrosion of underground steel structures and its prevention. I. West. Soc. Eng., 34:578-95. 1930 Significance of tests for motor fuels. J. Soc. Automot. Eng., 27~11: 33-42. Also in: Oil Gas. J., 29~91:40, 98, 100; (10~:38, 127-28. 1931 Possibilities of low grade motor fuels overestimated. l. Soc. Auto- mot. Eng., 28:1, 93. What is octane number? Pet. Age, 25:10, 32. 1933 The science of motor oil. Radio Talk, November 8,1933, sponsored by Science Service. 1934 With P. C. Keith, fir. Recent developments in propane technique. Proc. 15th Ann. Meeting Am. Petroleum Inst., III: 15, 106-19. With D. P. Barnard. Chemical hay for mechanical horses (pre- sented at SAE Tractor and Industrial Power Equipment Meeting, Milwaukee, April 18-l9~. J. Soc. Automot. Eng., 35:4, 359. With P. C. Keith, Jr. Economic aspects of solvent refining of lubri- cating oils. Refiner Nat. Gas. Manuf., 13:252-58. Also in: Oil C;as J. (July 191:14; Proc. A.P.I. 4th Mid-Year Meeting 38 (May 22-241. With P. C. Keith, fir. Solvent extraction costs lower on midcontinent lubes than conventional processes. Natl. Pet. News, 26:20D. 1936 With P. C. Keith, Jr., and R. E. Haylett. The use of liquid propane in dewaxing, deasphalting and refining heavy oils. Ind. Eng. Chem., 28:9, 1065. Also in: Trans. Am. Inst. Chem. Eng., 32: 364~106; Chem. Eng. Congr. World Power Conf. (Advance Proof), No. F8, 3:348-90.

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ROBERT ERASTUS WILSON 1939 427 Refinery gas: A raw material of growing importance (Society of Chemical Industry 1939 Medal Address). Chem. Ind. (London), 58:51, 1095. 1943 Research and patents. Ind. Eng. Chem. News, 35:177-85. 1944 Liquid fuel from nonpetroleum sources. Ind. Eng. Chem. News, 22: 124~50. 1945 The challenge of the future to the Chicago Section. Chem. Bull., 32(10~:43~36. 1946 The petroleum industry's real reserve, technology. Min. Mag., 36: 187-91, 200. Also in: Chem. Abstr. 55497. The CFR A twenty-five-year bond between two great industries. N.Y. Coord. Res. Council. (Sept. 18~. 1947 Incentives for research. Tech. Rev., 49:217-19, 232,234, 236, 238. 1948 With ]. K. Roberts. Petroleum and natural gas; uses and possible replacements. Seventy-five years of progress in the mineral in- dustry 1871-1946. Am. Inst. Min. Metall. Engrs.: 722-44. Also in: Chem. Abstr. 6708-9. Early recollections of Tom (Midgley) and Ethyl (anti-knock gaso- line.) Ethyl News (anniversary issue): 11-14. Also in: Chem. Abstr. 21461. Supplying the Midwest with petroleum products. J. Soc. Automot. Eng., 56~71:18-20. 1949 The attitude of management toward research. Chem. Eng. News, 27:27~77. Also in: Chem. Abstr. 3117e.

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428 B I OGRAPH I CAL M EM OI RS AP! wildcatting in some interesting areas. Proc. Am. Pet. Inst., 29(1) 15-23. 1951 Liquid fuels for the future. World Popul. Future Res.,212-28. Also in: Chem. Abstr. 7253h. Process in petroleum technology. Adv. Chem., ser. 5: 1-2. 1952 The petroleum industry. In: Industrial Science, Present and Future, pp. 13-26. Washington, D.C.: American Association for the Ad- vancement of Science. Also in: Chem. Abstr. 11509b. Competitive and cooperative research in the American petroleum industry (Third Cadman Memorial Lecture). I. Inst. Pet., 37: 407-24. Also in: Chem. Abstr. 713. 1953 We, the accused. Sat. Eve. Post, 24 Jan. 1955 Maintaining the pace of scientific development. Chem. Eng. News 33: 166~69. Also in: Chem. Abstr. 7302.

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ROBERT ERASTUS WILSON PATENTS 1918 429 1,330,032. Manufacture of permanganate. (Filed 2/27/18; issued 2/3/20.) 1,453,562. With L. W. Parsons and S. L. Chisholm. Manufacture of permanganate. (Filed 9/27118; issued 5/1/23.) 1,335,949. With C. P. McNeil. Soda-lime-slow setting cement com- position for use an an absorbent. (Filed 10/2/18; issued 416/20.) 1,360,700. With W. G. Horsch. Electrolytic production of perman- ganate. (Filed 11/28/18; issued 11/30/20.) 1919 1,393,474. Lead arsenate powder protected by colloids. (Filed 3/1/19; issued 10/11/21.) 1920 1,540,445. Ferric hydroxide gel absorbent. (Filed 1/28/20; 6/2125.) 1,496,757. With W. K. Lewis and C. S. Venable. Separation of gases by diffusionuse of sweet gas- multistage. (Filed 7126/20; issued 6/3124.) 1,433,732. With W. K. Lewis. Production of"Smoke Screens" by interaction of two or more dilute streams. (Filed 11/10/20; is- sued 10/31/22.) issued 1921 1,519,470. With I. C. Whetzel. Carbon impregnation (gas masks) with metallic copper, etc. (Filed 1/22/21; issued 12/15124.) 1,494,090. Countercurrent extraction of solids and pastes. (Filed 10/8/21; issued 5/23/24.) 1922 1,540,448. Highly porous metal (iron) by reduction of porous me- tallic oxide gels. (Filed 3/10/22; issued 6/2/25.) 1,791,020. True temperature measuring device for use on gases in presence of much radiant heat. (Filed 515122; issued 2/3/31.) 1,603,568. Continuous process removing volatile fluids from solids using solid absorbents. (Filed 6/ 1/22; issued 10/ 19/26.)

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430 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1,544,115. With L. W. Parsons and S. L. Chisholm. Permanganate manufacture. (Filed 7117122; issued 6130125.) 1,592,480. With L. W. Parsons and S. L. Chisholm. Alkali earth permanganate manufacture. (Filed 7/17/22; issued 7113/26.) 1,471,765. Evaporation to recover solids from solutions and dis- persions spray- internal heat. (Filed 7/18122; issued 10/23/23.) 1,719,350. Antisolvent dewaxing. 7/18/22; issued 712/29.) Aliphatic alcohols. (Filed 1,533,053. Removing volatile fluids from solids by absorption in solids in absence of air. (Filed 7122/22; issued 4/7125.) 1923 1,596,385. Balloon assembly construction used to prevent evapora- tion loss. (Filed 5/4123; issued 8117/26.) 1,597,399. Floating roof storage tank construction folding fabric seal. (Filed 514/23; issued 8124/26.) 1,489,725. Conservation of volatile liquids solid absorption of condensables. (Filed 6/22/23; issued 418/24.) 1,566,943. With E. P. Brown. Fabric impervious to hydrocar- bon vapors for conservation balloons. (Filed 6/27/23; issued 12/22/25.) 1,603,888. "Even Money" gasoline 7/19/23; issued 10/19/26.) 1,589,025. "Even Money" 11/12/23; issued 6/15/26.) 1,592,587. "Even Money" gasoline 12/31/23; issued 7/13/26.) _ _ t~ ~ gasoline 1924 dispensing pump. (Filed dispensing pump. (Filed dispensing pump. (Filed 1,566,944. Single vent tank through solid absorbent bed to reduce evaporation losses. (Filed 1/30/24; issued 12/22/25.) 1,630,044. Rotary kiln for regenerating fuller's earth. Internal heat. Special distributing system for air. (Filed 2/23/24; issued 5/24/27.) 1,589,026. Mechanical-liquid seal for gasoline storage tanks. (Filed 3/24/24; issued 6/15/26. ) 1,669,183. Apparatus for preventing evaporation loss. Breather balloon construction. (Filed 3126/24; issued 518/28.) 1,520,493. Regeneration of fuller's earths containing combustible matter. (Filed 5/19/24; issued 12123/24.)

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ROBERT ERASTUS WILSON 431 1,767,196. Vapor outlet forstills deentrainment.(Filed5/22/24; issued 6/24130.) 1,540,446. Aluminum hydroxide gel absorbent. (Filed 719124; is- sued 6/2125.) 1,540,447. Gel like copper oxide absorbent. (Filed 7/9/24; issued 6/2/25.) 1,647,424. Evaporation loss preventioninterconnected vapor spaces with collapsible container (balloon). (Filed 10/8/24; issued 1 1/1/27.) 1,615,407. With F. M. Rogers. Continuous distillation of petro- leum-vacuum-pipe still. (Filed 10/11/24; issued 1/25/27.) 1,815,753. Antiknock fluid compositions. Additional component to reduce freezing point. (Filed 11/8/24; issued 7/21/31.) 1,599,108. Bromine manufacture from brines. (Filed 11124124; is- sued 917126.) 1,654,200. With H. V. Atwell. Continuous coking method. Deposit and removal on nickeliferrous metal. (Filed 11/26/24; issued 12/27127.) 1,676,610. Distillation of oilsstripping residue and recycling stripper vapors through furnace coil. (Filed 12122/24; issued 7/10/28.) 1925 1,632,259. With W. H. Bahlke. Continuously indicating hydrom- eter which compensates for variation in temperature. (Filed 115125; issued 6/14/27.) 1,547,141. Prediluted motor oil. (Filed 1/15/25; issued 7/21/25.) 1,731,479. Fractioning column construction pancake reflux coils, etc. (filed 1/15/25; issued 10/15/29.) 1,716,939. With R. D. Hunneman, W. H. Bahlke, and F. M. Rogers. Bubble tower construction. (Filed 1/31/25 ; issued 6/1 1/29.) 1,898,414. Pressure shell pipe still cracking. Segregation of shell into zones. (Filed 3/13/25; issued 2/21133.) 1,791,209. With R. D. Hunneman. Vacuum-steam distillation. Temp. 675-760F. Pressure 75 mm. (Filed 4/1/25; issued 2/3/31.) 1,751,182. Vacuum pipe still steam distillation with centrifugal separator. (Filed 413/25; issued 3/18/30.) 1,758,590. Superheated steam vacuum distillation. Nozzle and target. (Filed 414125; issued 5/13/30.)

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432 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1,700,392. Automobile radiator cooling fluid. Specific hydro- carbon fraction. (Filed 4/21/25; issued 1/29/29.) 1,712,187. Pressure shell cracking of oils followed by lower pres- sure tube cracking of residue. (Filed 6/29/25; issued 5/7129.) 1926 1,924,520. With E. I. Shaeffer, G. W. Watts, and E. P. Brown. Flash distillation of hot pressure tar. (Filed 4/10/26; issued 8/29/33.) 1,825,378. Control valve for use on hot cracked streams. (Filed 5/27/26; issued 9/29/31.) 2,021,471. Cracking stripping tar with light vapors from crack- ing. (Filed 10/18/26; issued 1 1/19/35.) 1,996,091. Crackingmethods of heating oil in furnaces. (Filed 1 1/1/26; issued 4/2/35.) 1927 1,654,201. With H. V. Atwell. Continuous coking apparatus of U.S. 1,654,200. (Filed 1/21/27; issued 12/27/27.) 1,737,347. "Solid Billet" heat exchanger. (Filed 1/22/27; issued 1 1/26/29.) 19,701 (Reissue). "Billet" heat exchanger. (Filed 1/22127; issued 9/10/35.) 1,726,281. With I. E. Moore and C. W. Chenicek. Breather bag construction method of weighting. (Filed 411127; issued 8/27/29.) 1,778,475. With W. H. Bahlke. Bubble towerdam construction and location. (Filed 8/6/27; issued 10/14/30.) 1928 1,966,746. Distillation equipment multicoil pipe still multiple columns. (Filed 5/16/28; issued 7/17/34.) 1,831,053. Prediluted oildiluted prior to dewaxing and de- waxed. (Filed 712128; issued 11/10/31.) 1,859,322. Underwater storage of volatile hydrocarbonssub- merged open bottom hemispherical tank. (Filed 7/5128; issued 5/24132.) 2,090,245. Coking "Delayed." (Filed 12/31/28; issued 8117/37.)

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ROBERT ERASTUS WILSON 1929 433 1,899,918. Bubble tower construction. (Filed 10/14/29; issued 2128133.) 1,841,691. Aeroplane fuel tank breather. Absorbs water and vapors. (Filed 11/29/29; issued 1/19/32.) 1930 1,950,201. Molecular (vacuum) distillation apparatus. (Filed 1/2/30; issued 4125133.) 1,906,033. "Molecular" or vacuum surface distillation apparatus. (Filed 1/2/30; issued 4/25133.) 1,871,937. Furnace construction vertical cylindrical radiant sec- tion, refractory target protects superimposed convection sec- tion. (Filed 3128130; issued 8116/32.) 1,960,885. Destructive hydrogenation of pressure tar two coil common reactor chamber. (Filed 5/2 1/30; issued 5/29134.) 1,883,211. Method of concentrating caustic soda. Pipe stilling. (Filed 10/20/30; issued 10/18/32.) 1,958,528. Destructive hydrogenation liquid followed by vapor phase. (Filed 11/28/30; issued 5/15/34.) 1,991,971. Coking. Coking zone superimposed by a fractionating column. (Filed 12/31/30; issued 2119135.) 1931 2,123,457. Tree spray white oil and antioxidant. (Filed 1/16/31; issued 7/1 2138.) 2,009,367. Cracking oils fractionation of products in a series of fractionating towers at successively lower pressure. (Filed 6/1/31; issued 7/23135.) 2,077,656. Dewaxing propane and light diluent. (Filed 8/31/31; issued 4/20137.) 2,004,560. Antioxidant it-amino hydroxy benzene stabilized leaded motor fuel. (Filed 9/18/31; issued 6/11/35.) 2,029,687. Countercurrent liquid liquid extractor. (Filed 12/18/31; issued 214136.) 1932 1,992,014. With T. H. Rogers. Gasoline plus color-unstable anti- oxidant plus color stabilizer. Ex alpha naphthol plus tributyl amine. (Filed 1126132; issued 2/19/35.)

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434 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 2,023,110. Color unstable antioxidant in motor fuel stabilized by addition of polyhydroxy benzene compound. (Filed 512132; is- sued 12/3/35.) 2,026,336. Propane dewaxingchilling method. (Filed 6/20/32; issued 12/31/35.) 1,907,924. Process for carbureting air with normally gaseous hydrocarbons. (Filed 6130/32; issued 5/9133.) 2,096,949. Liquid fractionation propane (deasphalting) pres- sure tar increasing bitumen content. (Filed 7/5/32; issued 10/26/37.) 2,096,950. Solvent extraction and dewaxing of lubricating oils solvent recovery. (Filed 10/6/32; issued 10/26/37.) 2,029,688. Countercurrent liquid liquid extractor. (Filed 12/3/32; issued 214136.) 1933 2,029,690. Countercurrent liquid-liquid extractor. (Filed 7/10/33; issued 214136.) 1934 2,064,708. Cracking back flushing pressure relief lines. (Filed 6/30/34; issued 6/30/34.) 2,086,487. With W. H. Bahlke and F. W. Sullivan, fir. Solvent ex- traction deasphalting multiple solvents. (Filed 5/29134; issued 7/6/37.) 1935 2,090,907. Furnace construction multiple radiant sections with wall tubes, single roof section, single convection section. (Filed 1/26/35; issued 8/24/37.) 2,143,882. With P. C. Keith, Tr., and M. l. Livingston. Propane deresinating of oils. (Filed 8/15/35; issued 1/17/39.) 1937 2,221,708. Heater construction (furnace with several vertical banks of tubes fired from both sides). (Filed 6/16137; issued 8/13/40.)