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Biographical 71'lemoirs NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

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NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA 13iograplbicat ~emo';rs VOLUME 54 NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS WASHINGTON, D.C. 1983

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The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by Act of Congress as a private, nonprofit, self-governing membership corporation for the furtherance of science and technology, required to advise the federal government upon request within its fields of competence. Under its corporate charter the Academy established the National Research Council in 1916, the National Academy of Engineering in 1964, and the Institute of Medicine in 1970. INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER 0-309-03391-8 LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOG CARD NUMBER 5-26629 Available from NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 CONSTITUTION AVENUE, N.W WASHINGTON, D.C. 20418 ., PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

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CONTENTS PREFACE JESSE WAKEFI ELD BEAMS BY WALTER GORDY ELMER KEISER BOLTON BY ROBERT M. JOYCE WILMOT HYDE BRADLEY BY V. E. MCKELVEY JAMES BRYANT CONANT BY PAUL D. BARTLETT GRIFFITH CONRAD EVANS BY CHARLES B. MORREY RUDOLF KOMPFNER BY J. R. PIERCE COLIN MUNRO MACLEOD BY WALSH MCDERMOTT v V11 3 51 75 91 127 157 83

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CONTENTS SAMUEL MARION McELVAI N BY GILBERT STORK WALTER JOSEPH MEEK BY CHANDLER McC. BROOKS RUDOLPH LEO BERNHARD MINKOWSKI BY DONALD E. OSTERBROCK LEONARD ISAAC SCHIFF BY F. BLOCH ADOLPH HANS SCHULTZ BY T. DALE STEWART EDMUND WARE SINNOTT BY W. GORDON WHALEY WILLIAM HAY TALIAFERRO BY DAVID W. TALMAGE ROBERT ERASTUS WILSON BY L. WILLIAM MOORE AND DONALD L. CAMPBELL 22 25 27 301 325 351 375 409

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PREFACE rrhe Biographical Memoirs is a series of volumes, beginning in IS77, containing the biographies of cleceased members of the National Academy of Sciences ant! bibliographies of their published scientific contributions. The goal of the Academy is to have these memoirs serve as a contribution toward the history of American science. Each biographical essay is writ- ten by an indiviclual familiar with the discipline and the scientific career of the deceased. These volumes, therefore, provide a record of the lives ant! works of some of the most distinguished leaders of American science as witnessed and interpreted by their colleagues and peers. Though the primary concern is the members' professional lives and con- tributions, these memoirs also include those aspects of their lives in their home, school, college, or later life that led them to their soentlilc career. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, honorary organization of scientists and engineers elected on the basis of outstanding contributions to knowledge. Established by a Congressional Act of Incorporation on March 3, IS63, the Academy works to further science ant] its use for the general welfare by bringing together the most qualifier! inclividuals to deal with scientific and technological problems of broad . ~ slgnlilcance. BRYCE CRAWFORD, JR. Home Secretary CAROLINE K. McEUEN Associate Editor . . V11

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