CHAPTER 1
PHYSICAL SCIENCE

Physical Science—Core Materials

1.1 Chemistry of Matter.

3rd ed. Anthea Maton, Jean Hopkins, Susan Johnson, and others. Prentice Hall Science Integrated Learning System series. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1997.

Program Overview The Prentice Hall Science Integrated Learning System series is a program for middle school or junior high school students. Designed to cover all relevant areas of science, this program consists of 19 books, each in a particular topic area, such as sound and light, the planet earth, and chemistry of matter. Seven science themes are incorporated into the program; the themes are energy, evolution, patterns of change, scale and structure, systems and interactions, unity and diversity, and stability. For each unit, teaching materials, ancillary student materials, and some optional components are available.

Student Edition Recommended grade level: 8+. Reading level: 12. The textbook Chemistry of Matter, which introduces students to the chemical properties of matter, is organized in 5 chapters: (1) "Atoms and Bonding," (2) "Chemical Reactions," (3) "Families of Chemical Compounds," (4) "Petrochemical Technology," and (5) "Radioactive Elements." Students learn about ionic, covalent, and metallic bonds and about how to predict bond type. They also learn about chemical reactions, chemical equations, and the energy associated with chemical reactions. They study the nature of solutions and the factors that affect the rate of solution and solubility. Students also investigate acids, bases, and salts, as well as carbon compounds, petrochemical technology, and polymerization. They are introduced to the properties of radioactive elements, find out how nuclear reactions (including transmutation, fission, and fusion) occur, and learn about the uses and dangers of radioactivity.

Each chapter includes a lab investigation. Students explore the melting points and conductivity of ionic and covalent compounds, and they see how the concentration of a substance affects reaction rate. They also experiment with acids and bases to discover their properties, and discover how natural and synthetic polymers compare in strength, absorbency, and resistance to chemical damage.

Each chapter contains comprehensive reading sections that introduce major science concepts. Suggestions are provided for activities in which students "find out by doing," "find out by reading," and "find out by writing." Other skills-oriented activities are also suggested—for example, growing salt crystals and testing the pH of common household substances.



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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science CHAPTER 1 PHYSICAL SCIENCE Physical Science—Core Materials 1.1 Chemistry of Matter. 3rd ed. Anthea Maton, Jean Hopkins, Susan Johnson, and others. Prentice Hall Science Integrated Learning System series. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1997. Program Overview The Prentice Hall Science Integrated Learning System series is a program for middle school or junior high school students. Designed to cover all relevant areas of science, this program consists of 19 books, each in a particular topic area, such as sound and light, the planet earth, and chemistry of matter. Seven science themes are incorporated into the program; the themes are energy, evolution, patterns of change, scale and structure, systems and interactions, unity and diversity, and stability. For each unit, teaching materials, ancillary student materials, and some optional components are available. Student Edition Recommended grade level: 8+. Reading level: 12. The textbook Chemistry of Matter, which introduces students to the chemical properties of matter, is organized in 5 chapters: (1) "Atoms and Bonding," (2) "Chemical Reactions," (3) "Families of Chemical Compounds," (4) "Petrochemical Technology," and (5) "Radioactive Elements." Students learn about ionic, covalent, and metallic bonds and about how to predict bond type. They also learn about chemical reactions, chemical equations, and the energy associated with chemical reactions. They study the nature of solutions and the factors that affect the rate of solution and solubility. Students also investigate acids, bases, and salts, as well as carbon compounds, petrochemical technology, and polymerization. They are introduced to the properties of radioactive elements, find out how nuclear reactions (including transmutation, fission, and fusion) occur, and learn about the uses and dangers of radioactivity. Each chapter includes a lab investigation. Students explore the melting points and conductivity of ionic and covalent compounds, and they see how the concentration of a substance affects reaction rate. They also experiment with acids and bases to discover their properties, and discover how natural and synthetic polymers compare in strength, absorbency, and resistance to chemical damage. Each chapter contains comprehensive reading sections that introduce major science concepts. Suggestions are provided for activities in which students "find out by doing," "find out by reading," and "find out by writing." Other skills-oriented activities are also suggested—for example, growing salt crystals and testing the pH of common household substances.

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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science Determining freezing point

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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science Other features include problem-solving challenges, science career descriptions, and science connections to real-world events or issues. The student edition closes with readings on 3 topics: the "bucky ball" carbon molecule, the use of plant material for fuel, and silicon-based plastics and other new materials. Teacher's Edition In the teacher's wraparound edition, each chapter begins with a 2-page planning guide and a 2-page preview that summarizes each section within the chapter. The teacher's edition also provides suggestions for teaching, guiding, integrating, and closing lessons, as well as enrichments, extensions, and answers to questions in the student text. Supplementary Laboratory Manual The supplementary lab manual provides 15 additional investigations directly correlated with the information presented in the student textbook. Examples of investigations include the synthesis of copper oxide by heating copper metal in air, the decomposition of water by electrolysis, performing a double replacement reaction, determining the effect of temperature on the solution process, and determining the amount of vitamin C in a sample of fruit juice. Program Resources and Support Materials A variety of materials, including some optional components, is available. A teacher's resource package contains the student edition ABOUT THE ANNOTATIONS IN "PHYSICAL SCIENCE—CORE MATERIALS" Entry Numbers Curriculum materials are arranged alphabetically by title in each category (Core Materials, Supplementary Units, and Science Activity Books) in chapters 1 through 5 of this guide. Each curriculum annotation has a two-part entry number: the chapter number is given before the period; the number after the period locates the entry within that chapter. For example, the first entry number in chapter 1 is 1.1; the second entry in chapter 2 is 2.2; and so on. The entry numbers within each curriculum chapter run consecutively through Core Materials, Supplementary Units, and Science Activity Books. Order of Bibliographic Information Following is the arrangement of the facts of publication in the annotations in this section: Title of publication Number of edition, if applicable Authors (an individual author or authors, an institutional author, or a project or program name under which the material was developed) Series title Series developer, if applicable Place of publication, publisher, and date of publication Recommended Grade Level and Reading Level The grade level for each piece of material was recommended by teacher evaluators during the development of this guide. In some instances, the recommended grade level may differ slightly from the publisher's advertised level. The Fry Readability Scale was used to determine the approximate reading level of core materials. Key to Content Standards: 5-8 The key lists the content standards for grades 5-8 from the National Science Education Standards (NSES) that are addressed in depth by the item. A key is provided for core materials and supplementary units. (See appendix C.)

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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science Price and Acquisition Information Ordering information appears at the end of each entry. Included are— Prices (of teacher's guides, student books, lab manuals, and kits or units) Publisher/supplier (The name of a principal publisher/supplier, although not necessarily the sole source, for the items listed in the price category. Appendix A, "Publishers and Suppliers," provides the address, phone and fax numbers, and electronic ordering information, where available, for each publisher and supplier.) Materials (various sources from which one might obtain the required materials) Readers must contact publishers/suppliers for complete and up-to-date listings of the program resources and support materials available for a particular unit. Depending on the developer, these items may be required, optional, or both; they may be offered individually and/or in kits, packages, or boxes. Materials may change with revised editions. The prices given in this chapter for selected resources or materials are based on information from the publishers and suppliers but are not meant to represent the full range of ordering options. Indexes of Curriculum Materials The multiple indexes on pp. 449-78 allow easy access to the information in this guide. Various aspects of the curriculum materials—including titles, topics addressed in each unit, grade levels, and standards addressed—are the focus of seven separate indexes. For example, titles and entry numbers are listed in the "Title Index" on pp. 450-54. The "Index of Authors, Series, and Curriculum Projects," on pp. 455-57, provides entry numbers of any annotated titles in a particular series. Overviews of Core and Supplementary Programs Appendix D, "Overviews of Core and Supplementary Programs with Titles Annotated in This Guide," on pp. 441-48, lists, by program or series, the individual titles annotated in the sections "Core Materials" and "Supplementary Units" in the five curriculum chapters. and annotated teacher's editions of both the textbook and the lab manual, as well as a test book, an activity book, a review-and-reinforcement guide, and English and Spanish audiotapes for auditory and language learners. Other available materials include interactive videodiscs, transparencies, assessment materials, English and Spanish guides for language learners, a study guide, a teacher's desk reference, and a booklet of product-testing activities. Key to Content Standards: 5-8 (see app. C) UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Systems, order, and organization; change, constancy, and measurement. SCIENCE AS INQUIRY: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry. PHYSICAL SCIENCE: Properties and changes of properties in matter; transfer of energy. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Understandings about science and technology. SCIENCE IN PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES: Natural hazards; risks and benefits; science and technology in society. HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE: Science as a human endeavor; history of science. Prices: Student edition (ISBN 0-13-423351-4), $9.97. Teacher's edition (ISBN 0-13-423120-1), $22.97. Teacher's resource package, $112.97. (Contact publisher/supplier for complete price and ordering information.) Publisher/supplier: Prentice Hall. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers.

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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science 1.2 Electricity and Magnetism. 3rd ed. Anthea Maton, Jean Hopkins, Susan Johnson, and others. Prentice Hall Science Integrated Learning System series. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1997. Program Overview The Prentice Hall Science Integrated Learning System series is a program for middle school or junior high school students. Designed to cover all relevant areas of science, this program consists of 19 books, each in a particular topic area, such as sound and light, the planet earth, and electricity and magnetism. Seven science themes are incorporated into the program; the themes are energy, evolution, patterns of change, scale and structure, systems and interactions, unity and diversity, and stability. For each unit, teaching materials, ancillary student materials, and some optional components are available. Student Edition Recommended grade level: 8+. Reading level: middle 10. Concepts that students explore in Electricity and Magnetism include the atomic basis of electric charge, static electricity, voltage, current, and resistance. They also learn about magnetism and magnetic poles, fields, lines of force, domains, the earth's magnetic force, and compasses. Then they are introduced to electromagnetism and electromagnetic induction. Students gain an understanding of the real-world application of these concepts as they learn how electronic devices such as vacuum tubes, transistors, integrated circuits, radios and televisions, and computers work. The safe use of electricity is discussed. In laboratory investigations, students produce electricity from a lemon, they plot a magnetic field using a bar magnet, and they investigate what factors affect the strength of an electromagnet and what materials are attracted to it. Electricity and Magnetism has 4 chapters: (1) "Electric Charges and Currents," (2) "Magnetism," (3) "Electromagnetism," and (4) "Electronics and Computers." Each chapter contains comprehensive reading sections that introduce major science concepts. Suggestions are provided for activities in which students "find out by doing," "find out by reading," and "find out by writing." Other skills-oriented activities are also suggested—for example, using common materials to observe static electricity and writing a report about the discovery and history of lodestones. Each chapter includes a formal lab investigation. Other features include problem-solving challenges, science career descriptions, and science connections to real-world events or issues. The student edition closes with readings on 3 topics: the search for superconductors, the possible danger of electromagnetic radiation to humans, and the potential for the development of a "living" computer some day. Teacher's Edition In the teacher's wraparound edition, each chapter begins with a 2-page planning guide and a 2-page preview that summarizes each section within the chapter. The teacher's edition also provides suggestions for teaching, guiding, integrating, and closing lessons, as well as enrichments, extensions, and answers to questions in the student text. Supplementary Laboratory Manual The supplementary lab manual provides 7 additional investigations directly correlated with the information presented in the student textbook. Examples of activities include constructing series and parallel circuits and measuring their current and voltage, using bar magnets and iron filings to explore magnetism and magnetic fields, investigating electromagnetic induction, and constructing a simple computer circuit that converts decimal numbers into binary numbers. Program Resources and Support Materials A variety of materials, including some optional components, is available. A teacher's resource package contains the student edition and annotated teacher's edition of both the textbook and the lab manual, as well as a test book, an activity book, a review-and-reinforcement guide, and English and Spanish audiotapes for auditory and language learners. Other available materials include videotapes, interactive videodiscs, transparencies, assessment materials, English and Spanish guides for language learners, a study guide, a teacher's desk reference, and a booklet of product-testing activities. Key to Content Standards: 5-8 (see app. C) UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Systems, order, and organization; change, constancy, and measurement. SCIENCE AS INQUIRY: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry. PHYSICAL SCIENCE: Transfer of energy. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Understandings about science and technology. SCIENCE IN PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES: Risk and benefits; science and technology in society. HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE: Nature of science; history of science. Prices: Student edition (ISBN 0-13-423344-1), $9.97. Teacher's edition (ISBN 0-13-423112-0), $22.97. Teacher's resource package, $112.97. (Contact publisher/supplier for complete price and ordering information.) Publisher/supplier: Prentice Hall. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers.

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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science 1.3 Exploring Physical Science. 2nd ed. Anthea Maton, Jean Hopkins, Susan Johnson, and others. Prentice Hall Exploring Life, Earth, and Physical Science series. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1997. Program Overview The Prentice Hall Exploring Life, Earth, and Physical Science series is a program for middle school students. Designed to cover all relevant areas of science, this integrated program consists of 3 textbooks (1 for each major discipline) and incorporates 7 science themes—energy, evolution, patterns of change, scale and structure, systems and interactions, unity and diversity, and stability. Each of the 3 year-long courses contains about 6 units. The units are also available, possibly with some modifications, as individual textbooks in the Prentice Hall Science Integrated Learning System series (see, e.g., 1.1). For each course, teaching materials, ancillary student materials, and some optional components are available. Student Edition Recommended grade level: 7-8. Reading level: middle 7. Exploring Physical Science offers a complete course on matter and energy. The units in this textbook are entitled (1) "Matter: Building Block of the Universe"; (2) "Chemistry of Matter"; (3) "Motion, Forces, and Energy"; (4) "Heat Energy"; (5) "Electricity and Magnetism"; and (6) "Sound and Light." Throughout the course, students learn about physical and chemical changes, the classification of matter, atoms and bonding, radioactivity, energy and its role in motion, forces and machinery, electricity and magnetism, electronics and computers, the nature and characteristics of waves, and optical instruments. Examples of the lab investigations that students conduct during the 6 units are these: determining how concentration affects reaction rate, producing electricity from a lemon, building a shoe-box-sized model of a solar collector, exploring the connection between mass and inertia, observing the physical and chemical properties of a lighted and an unlighted candle, exploring how a change in mass affects the velocity of an object if its kinetic energy is kept constant, and recording the temperatures of different regions of an electromagnetic spectrum. Each of the 6 units in Exploring Physical Science typically has 4 to 6 chapters. Each chapter contains comprehensive reading sections that introduce major science concepts. Other skills-oriented activities are also suggested for discovering, doing, calculating, thinking, and writing about science. The activities range from observing and explaining how many paper clips can stick to the surface of a bar magnet to writing a report about quarks. Each chapter includes a laboratory investigation as well as a review and study guide. Other features of this textbook include problem-solving challenges, science connections to real-world events or issues, and careers in science. An "Activity Bank" at the back of the book provides at least 1 additional laboratory investigation for each chapter. Examples include calculating the density of objects with an irregular shape, growing and observing crystals, testing foods for fats and starches, measuring the effects of phosphates on plant growth, building and flying paper airplanes to calculate speed and distance, and building a simple model of a passive solar heating system. Teacher's Edition In the teacher's wraparound edition, each chapter begins with a 2-page planning guide and a 2-page preview that summarizes each section within the chapter. The teacher's edition also provides suggestions for teaching, guiding, integrating, and closing lessons, as well as enrichments, extensions, and answers to questions in the student text. Supplementary Laboratory Manual The supplementary lab manual provides 61 additional investigations directly correlated with the information presented in the student textbook. Examples include investigating phase changes; examining the properties of ionic and covalent compound polyester threads; determining the center of gravity of an irregularly shaped object; using balls to investigate energy and falling motion; constructing series and parallel circuits and measuring their current and voltage; and constructing a pinnacle viewer and a periscope. Program Resources and Support Materials A variety of support materials is available, including a box of teaching resources (with activities, worksheets, and assessment materials for each chapter), a teacher's desk reference, an integrated science activity book, a computer test bank, videos, videodiscs, transparencies, a classroom manager guide, and a book of product-testing activities. Key to Content Standards: 5-8 (see app. C) UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Systems, order, and organization; change, constancy, and measurement. SCIENCE AS INQUIRY: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understanding about scientific inquiry. PHYSICAL SCIENCE: Properties and changes of properties in matter; motions and forces; transfer of energy. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Abilities of technological design; understandings about science and technology.

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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science SCIENCE IN PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES: Science and technology in society. HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE: Science as a human endeavor; nature of science; history of science. Prices: Student edition (ISBN 0-13-418716-4), $41.47. Teacher's edition (ISBN 0-13-422-8332), $70.47. Lab manual, teacher's edition (1995), $24.47. Teaching resources, $306.47. (Contact publisher/supplier for complete price and ordering information.) Publisher/supplier: Prentice Hall. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers. 1.4 Floating and Sinking. Science and Technology for Children (STC) series. Developed by National Science Resources Center (Washington, D.C.). Burlington, N.C.: Carolina Biological Supply, 1995. Program Overview The Science and Technology for Children (STC) series consists of 24 inquiry-centered curriculum units for grades 1-6, with 4 units at each grade level. Students learn about topics in the life, earth, and physical sciences. The technological applications of science and the interactions among science, technology, and society are addressed throughout the program. The STC units, each of which takes about 16 class sessions to complete, encourage participatory learning and the integration of science with mathematics, language arts, social studies, and art. The components of an STC unit are a teacher's guide, a student activity book with simple instructions and illustrations, and a kit of materials. Teacher's Guide Recommended grade level: 5-6. Reading level: 7. Floating and Sinking introduces students to the phenomenon of buoyancy through a series of investigations with freshwater and saltwater. Students first make and test predictions about which objects will float or sink. Then they consider the variables involved. After calibrating a spring scale for weighing objects, they use the scale to investigate weight and buoyant force. Students design and construct clay boats and explore how weight can be distributed to make a sinker into a floater. They load the boats with marbles to test the efficiency of the designs. To investigate the effect of size on buoyancy, students build and test aluminum-foil boats of different sizes but with the same design. They measure buoyant force by pulling objects under water, compare the apparent weights of objects in and out of water, and construct a hydrometer to compare the buoyancy of objects in freshwater and saltwater. In the final activity, students apply what they have learned to predict whether a mystery cylinder will float or sink. Throughout the unit, students make and test predictions, record observations and test results, and construct charts and graphs to facilitate data analysis. Floating and Sinking is a 16-lesson unit. The teacher's guide includes a unit overview, the 16 lesson plans, an annotated bibliography, reproducible masters, and instructions on repairing the spring scale. The module includes science background information, detailed instructions on planning for and conducting each activity, an extensive assessment component, and extensions for integration and enrichment. The student activity book that accompanies this unit provides helpful illustrations and directions for completing activities. Key to Content Standards: 5-8 (see app. C) UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Systems, order, and organization; evidence, models, and explanation; change, constancy, and measurement; form and function. SCIENCE AS INQUIRY: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry. PHYSICAL SCIENCE: Properties and changes of properties in matter; motions and forces. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Abilities of technological design; understandings about science and technology. SCIENCE IN PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES: Science and technology in society. HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE: Science as a human endeavor; nature of science; history of science. Prices: Teacher's guide (ISBN 0-89278-726-0), $24.95. Student activity book (ISBN 0-89278-727-9), $3.75. Unit, $429.95. Publisher/supplier: Carolina Biological Supply. Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in kit. 1.5 Food Chemistry. Science and Technology for Children (STC) series. Developed by National Science Resources Center (Washington, D.C.). Burlington, N.C.: Carolina Biological Supply, 1994. Program Overview The Science and Technology for Children (STC) series consists of 24 inquiry-centered curriculum units for grades 1-6, with 4 units at each grade level. Students learn about topics in the life, earth, and physical sciences. The technological applications of science and the interactions among science, technology, and society are addressed throughout the program. The STC units, each of which takes about 16 class sessions to complete, encourage participatory learning and the integration of science with mathematics, language arts, social studies, and art. The components of an STC unit are a teacher's guide, a student activity book with simple instructions and illustrations, and a kit of materials.

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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science Teacher's Guide Recommended grade level: 5-6. Reading level: 6. In Food Chemistry, students investigate the basic nutrients in foods they eat. They conduct a series of physical and chemical tests to discover which nutrients—starches, glucose, fats, and proteins—are in common foods. They learn about the role nutrients play in human growth and development, read about the importance of vitamins and other nutrients, and examine food labels for nutritional information. In a final activity, students apply testing techniques they learn in the unit to analyze the nutritional components of a marshmallow. Throughout the unit, students gather, organize, and interpret data. By comparing results from tests, they learn the important concept that chemical tests are not always clearly positive or negative. Food Chemistry is a 16-lesson unit. The teacher's guide includes a unit overview, the 16 lesson plans, an annotated bibliography, reproducible masters, and instructions for making test solutions and papers. The module includes science background information, detailed instructions on planning for and conducting each activity, an extensive assessment component, and extensions for integration and enrichment. The student activity book that accompanies this unit provides helpful illustrations and directions for completing activities. Key to Content Standards: 5-8 (see app. C) UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Systems, order, and organization; evidence, models, and explanation; change, constancy, and measurement; form and function. SCIENCE AS INQUIRY: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry. PHYSICAL SCIENCE: Properties and changes of properties in matter. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Understandings about science and technology. SCIENCE IN PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES: Personal health; science and technology in society. HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE: Science as a human endeavor; nature of science; history of science. Prices: Teacher's guide, $24.95. Student activity book, $3.75. Unit, $349.95. Publisher/supplier: Carolina Biological Supply. Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in kit. 1.6 Glencoe Physical Science. Charles W. McLaughlin and Marilyn Thompson. Glencoe Life, Earth, and Physical Science series. New York, N.Y.: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill, 1997. Program Overview The Glencoe Life, Earth, and Physical Science series includes 3 full-year courses—one in life, one in earth, and one in physical science—for students in grades 8 and above. Four major themes are developed: (1) energy, (2) systems and interactions, (3) scale and structure, and (4) stability and change. An extensive set of materials and resources, including many optional components, is available for students and teachers. Student Edition Recommended grade level: 8. Reading level: middle 9. Glencoe Physical Science is divided into 7 units: (1) "Physical Science Basics"; (2) "Energy and Motion"; (3) "The Nature of Matter"; (4) "Kinds of Substances"; (5) "Interactions of Matter"; (6) "Waves, Light, and Sound"; and (7) "Electricity and Energy Resources." During this course, students learn about motion and forces; acceleration and momentum; energy; simple machines; solids, liquids, and gases; atomic structure; chemical bonds; organic and biological compounds; solutions; chemical reactions; acids, bases, and salts; waves and sound; light; mirrors and lenses; electricity; magnetism and its uses; electronics and computers; nuclear reactions; and energy sources. Sample lab activities in this textbook include making a model of a simple accelerometer, constructing a pendulum to compare the exchange of potential and kinetic energy, and constructing and analyzing a model of a 4-stroke engine. Students also design an experiment to show the relationship between the temperature and volume of a gas, they compare the solubility of a solute at different temperatures, and they distinguish between weak and strong acids by comparing ease of ionization. Glencoe Physical Science has 25 chapters in its 7 units. Each chapter begins with a self-guided activity in which students make observations and generate questions about chapter concepts and topics. Reading sections on science concepts are then interwoven with various types of activities, including open-ended activities, minilabs (activities that can be done in class or at home). and skill-building or problem-solving activities. In activities for designing their own experiments, students brainstorm hypotheses, make a decision to investigate a hypothesis that can be tested, plan procedures, and think about why their hypothesis was supported or not. At the end of each unit is a cooperative "project" investigation, designed for students to work on throughout the unit. Special features of the textbook include "connect to" marginal notes that relate basic questions in physics, chemistry, earth science, and life science to one another. The book also provides "science and society" features that invite students to confront real-life problems; profiles of people in science; and reading selections about connections between science, history, literature, and the arts.

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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science Teacher's Edition The wraparound teacher's edition provides information on curriculum integration, assessment, planning, and meeting the diverse needs of students. Each chapter contains a 4-page planning guide; strategies for preparing, teaching, and closing lessons; answers to in-text questions; tips on connecting physical science to other sciences, disciplines, or community resources; and different assessment options. Supplementary Laboratory Manual The supplementary lab manual offers 1 or more additional labs for each chapter. It has set-up diagrams, data tables, and space for student responses. Examples of investigations include observing how the concentration of a liquid affects its viscosity, using a calorimeter to determine the specific heat of a metal, distinguishing between physical and chemical changes, and using indicators to test unknown solutions for starch and sugar. In other investigations, students determine the relationship between reaction rate and temperature for the decomposition of sodium hypochlorite, measure the effects of distance and direction on light intensity, and record the growth patterns of plants grown from seeds that have been exposed to different amounts of radiation. Program Resources and Support Materials Glencoe Physical Science offers an extensive list of support materials and program resources, including the following: activity and reinforcement worksheets, science integration activities that relate earth and life science to specific physical science chapters, a critical-thinking/problem-solving book, a concept-mapping book, chapter review masters, a study guide, enrichment worksheets, a book on multicultural connections, technology-integration masters, assessments, computer test banks, color transparencies, a Spanish resources book, and interactive CD-ROM and videodisc programs. Key to Content Standards: 5-8 (see app. C) UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Systems, order, and organization; change, constancy, and measurement. SCIENCE AS INQUIRY: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry. PHYSICAL SCIENCE: Properties and changes of properties in matter; motions and forces; transfer of energy. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Abilities of technological design; understandings about science and technology. SCIENCE IN PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES: Science and technology in society. HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE: Science as a human endeavor; nature of science. Prices: Student edition (ISBN 0-02-827879-8), $41.79. Teacher's edition (ISBN 0-02-827880-1), $57.86. Student lab manual, $8.25. Teacher's lab manual, $14.00. Teacher's classroom resources, $321.87. (Contact publisher/supplier for complete price and ordering information.) Publisher/supplier: Glencoe/McGraw-Hill. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers. 1.7 Hard As Ice. Michigan Science Education Resources Project. New Directions Teaching Units. Lansing, Mich.: Michigan Department of Education, 1993. Program Overview The New Directions Teaching Units focus on developing scientific literacy and conceptual understanding. They were designed to reflect the ideas about teaching, learning, and curriculum in the Michigan Essential Goals and Objectives for K-12 Science Education, which were developed by the Michigan Science Education Resources Project. Several New Directions Teaching Units can be used with middle school students. Teacher's Guide Recommended grade level: 5-6. Hard As Ice introduces students to the concept of molecules and the molecular structure of matter. It helps them develop an understanding of the many different forms of water on earth and of the changes that occur when solids melt into liquids and liquids freeze into solids. During the unit, students write detailed descriptions of the different forms of water found on earth; they observe and measure the weight and temperature of different forms of water (such as slush, crushed ice, and snow); and they discuss ways in which people use water in everyday life. They construct an explanation in molecular terms for why ice is hard and water is flowing, and they make ice and develop an explanation of what happens when water freezes. Students experiment with chocolate or crayons to observe the process of melting in substances other than water. They also freeze substances other than water and explain the change in terms of molecules. They figure out whether snow is a solid, a liquid, or something else. Although some lessons in Hard As Ice refer to examples from the history and geography of Michigan, these lessons could easily be adapted for other regions of the country. This unit has 11 lessons and requires approximately 17 class sessions to complete. The teacher's guide contains background information; lab preparation notes; answers to questions posed in the unit's separate, reproducible student pages; and information about student misconceptions and how to address them. Key to Content Standards: 5-8 (see app. C) UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Systems, order, and organization; evidence, models, and explanation; change, constancy, and measurement. SCIENCE AS INQUIRY: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry.

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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science PHYSICAL SCIENCE: Properties and changes of properties in matter; transfer of energy. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Abilities of technological design. Price: $18 (including an audiotape). Publisher/supplier: Battle Creek Area Math/Science Center. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers. 1.8 Heat Energy. 3rd ed. Anthea Maton, Jean Hopkins, Susan Johnson, and others. Prentice Hall Science Integrated Learning System series. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 1997. Program Overview The Prentice Hall Science Integrated Learning System series is a program for middle school or junior high school students. Designed to cover all relevant areas of science, this program consists of 19 books, each in a particular topic area, such as sound and light, the planet earth, and heat energy. Seven science themes are incorporated into the program; the themes are energy, evolution, patterns of change, scale and structure, systems and interactions, unity and diversity, and stability. For each unit, teaching materials, ancillary student materials, and some optional components are available. Student Edition Recommended grade level: 8+. Reading level: early 8. Heat Energy introduces students to heat as a form of energy as they learn about conduction, convection, and radiation. Students study about the nature of temperature as a measure of the kinetic energy of molecules, and they learn to measure heat transfer indirectly by measuring changes in temperature. They also relate heat transfer to phase changes and identify heat of fusion and heat of vaporization. Then they explore thermal expansion and its practical applications. Students also study practical applications of heat, such as the use of the principles of heat energy in direct and indirect heating systems, insulation, cooling systems, and heat engines. In lab investigations, students measure the temperature of a mixture of hot and cold water, comparing it with the temperatures of the original hot and cold samples. In a second investigation they build a shoe-box-sized solar collector. Heat Energy has 2 chapter: (1) "What is Heat?" and (2) "Uses of Heat." Each chapter contains comprehensive reading sections that introduce major science concepts. Suggestions are provided for activities in which students "find out by doing," "find out by reading," and "find out by writing." Other skills-oriented activities are also suggested—for example, calculating the number of calories in a food product and finding out what the R-value of insulating materials is based on. Each chapter includes a lab investigation. Other features of this book include problem-solving challenges, science career descriptions, and science connections to real-world events or issues. The student edition closes with readings on 3 topics: (1) a female scientist who is doing research on a sulfur-eating microbe, (2) the "greenhouse effect," and (3) solar energy houses. Teacher's Edition In the teacher's wraparound edition, each chapter begins with a 2-page planning guide and a 2-page preview that summarizes each section within the chapter. The teacher's edition also provides suggestions for teaching, guiding, integrating, and closing lessons, as well as enrichments, extensions, and answers to questions in the student text. Supplementary Laboratory Manual The supplementary lab manual provides 5 additional investigations directly correlated with the information presented in the student textbook. Examples include determining the heat of combustion of a candle and constructing a solar furnace with the capacity to boil water. Program Resources and Support Materials A variety of materials, including some optional components, is available. A teacher's resource package contains the student edition and annotated teacher's editions of both the textbook and the lab manual, as well as a test book, an activity book, a review-and-reinforcement guide, and English and Spanish audiotapes for auditory and language learners. Other available materials include interactive videodiscs, transparencies, assessment materials, English and Spanish guides for language learners, a study guide, teacher's desk reference, and a booklet of product-testing activities. Key to Content Standards: 5-8 (see app. C) UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Systems, order, and organization; change, constancy, and measurement. SCIENCE AS INQUIRY: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry. PHYSICAL SCIENCE: Properties and changes of properties in matter; transfer of energy. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Abilities of technological design; understandings about science and technology. SCIENCE IN PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES: Science and technology in society. HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE: Nature of science; history of science. Prices: Student edition (ISBN 0-13-423294-1), $9.97. Teacher's edition (ISBN 0-13-423104-X), $22.97. Teacher's resource package, $112.97. (Contact publisher/supplier for complete price and ordering information.) Publisher/supplier: Prentice Hall. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers.

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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science 1.9 Introductory Physical Science. 6th ed. Uri Haber-Schaim, Reed Cutting, H. Graden Kirksey, and Harold A. Pratt. Belmont, Mass.: Science Curriculum, 1994. Program Overview Introductory Physical Science is a full-year course focused on the study of matter leading to the development of the atomic model. The course addresses 3 broad areas: the empirical framework for developing an atomic model, an introduction to the atomic model, and the electric dimension of the atomic model. This division provides natural breaking points for spreading the course over more than a year, if preferred. Student Edition Recommended grade level: 8+. Reading level: middle 7. The central theme of Introductory Physical Science, a lab-centered textbook, is the study of matter leading to the development of the atomic model. The topics that students study include the following: volume and mass, mass changes in closed systems, properties of substances and objects, solubility, the separation of mixtures, compounds and elements, radioactivity, the atomic model of matter, sizes and masses of molecules and atoms, electric charge, atoms and electric charge, and cells and charge carriers. Students perform 47 experiments. Sample lab activities include using the water displacement method to measure the volume of a solid, finding the density of a liquid, and comparing the concentrations of saturated solutions. In other lab activities, students distill a mixture of liquids and examine the properties of the fractions. They also examine the mass ratio of reactants and products in a single replacement reaction, conduct flame tests, and determine the quantity of charge needed to release one atom of zinc from a solution containing zinc. In its 12 chapters, Introductory Physical Science offers reading sections that lay the groundwork for new concepts and for labs. Also provided are directions for experiments and a large selection of problems designed to reinforce ideas immediately after the ideas are encountered in the text or laboratory. The introduction of new ideas is based on students' experiences in the laboratory; new terms are consistently introduced after the need for them has been established. The laboratory instructions in this textbook provide a minimum of directions and raise questions to call students' attention to the important parts of an experiment. Most labs take between 45 and 50 minutes and can be completed by students individually or in pairs. Some experiments are designed to familiarize students with an instrument or technique; others require them to record data carefully, draw graphs, and calculate results. Each chapter ends with a set of problems for review, as well as applications and extensions. Teacher's Guide and Resource Book The teacher's guide and resource book includes the following: information on the structure of the course; science background information for each chapter or experiment; suggestions for guiding students' experiments; tips on conducting prelab and postlab discussions; and answers to the problems at the end of each chapter. Assessment Guide The Assessment Guide contains 2 sets of tests—multiple choice questions and essay questions—for each of the 12 chapters. The sets differ in degree of difficulty. In addition, a series of lab tests is available, as is diagnostic software for Macintosh computers for the chapter tests. The software allows teachers to provide individual test scores, overall class results, and a diagnostic interpretation, or analysis, of many of the wrong choices. Key to Content Standards: 5-8 (see app. C) UNIFYING CONCEPTS AND PROCESSES: Systems, order, and organization; evidence, models, and explanation; change, constancy, and measurement. SCIENCE AS INQUIRY: Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry; understandings about scientific inquiry. PHYSICAL SCIENCE: Properties and changes of properties in matter. HISTORY AND NATURE OF SCIENCE: Nature of science. Prices: Student edition (ISBN 1-882057-04-X), $31. Teacher's edition (ISBN 1-882057-05-8), $60. Assessment package, $35. Publisher/supplier: Science Curriculum (textbooks and guides). Delta Education (materials kit). Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in kit. 1.10 Levers and Pulleys. Full Option Science System (FOSS) series. Developed by Lawrence Hall of Science (Berkeley, Calif.). Hudson, N.H.: Delta Education, 1993. Program Overview The Full Option Science System (FOSS) program is a K-6 science curriculum consisting of 27 stand-alone modules. The 8 modules for grades 5-6 are organized under topics in the life, physical, and earth sciences and in scientific reasoning and technology. They can be used in any order. The FOSS program is designed to engage students in scientific concepts through multisensory, hands-on laboratory activities. All modules of the program incorporate 5 unifying themes—(1) pattern, (2) structure, (3) interaction, (4) change, and (5) system. The components of a FOSS module are a teacher's guide and a kit of materials.

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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science 1.80 Pendulums. Ron Marson. Task Card Series 1. Canby, Oreg.: TOPS Learning Systems, 1992. Recommended grade level: 7-8. The 20 easy-to-follow activities in Pendulums—one of many units in the Task Card Series—relate to the science of pendulums. In the first activity, students construct a support for a pendulum from a cereal box; the support has a length and amplitude background grid. Then they use this support for many activities in the module. For example, students explore and graph how the frequency of a pendulum varies with length. They evaluate the relative effects of length, amplitude, and bob weight on the period of a pendulum. They also examine a pendulum system with 2 distinct pivot points and develop an equation for calculating its period. The activities in Pendulums require a stopwatch and readily available materials (such as paper clips, masking tape, and washers). Certain activities can be omitted or sequences changed to meet specific class needs. The unit contains reproducible "task cards" with directions for students, teaching notes with answers, and review questions. Prices: $9.50 (ISBN 0-941008-71-1). Publisher/supplier: TOPS Learning Systems. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers. 1.81 Personal Science Laboratory Light Experiments. 2nd ed. Personal Science Laboratory (PSL) series. Boulder, Colo.: Team Labs, 1995. Recommended grade level: 7-8+. This annotated teacher's guide on Light Experiments, part of the Personal Science Laboratory series, is designed to help teachers run and teach 8 microcomputer-based investigations that explore light. The investigations use special photometric and radiometric light probes, interfaced with a personal computer, that allow students to enter measurements or data directly into the software—PSL Excelerator—linked to the experiment. Topics covered include specular and diffuse reflection, angle of incidence, the relationship between light intensity and distance, polarization, the relationship between scattering and polarization, and light absorption by colored materials. Among the investigations, students measure and compare light reflected from a planar mirror, a white surface, and a black surface. They also compare the reflective properties of planar, concave, and convex mirrors, and use a light probe and polarizing film to test the light passing through a box filled with soapy liquid to determine whether the light is polarized. In other experiments they use polarized light to distinguish between "left-handed" and "right-handed" chemicals, and measure how the intensity of transmitted light varies as the concentration of dye in a liquid increases. Students complete the experiments by logging onto a computer, selecting an experiment, following a series of prompts or directions, entering data from the activities or having the probes directly transmit the information, and completing follow-up activities. The computer program also organizes student-generated experimental data into charts, graphs, and tables. The guide contains teaching notes and an introduction to Personal Science Laboratory hardware and software. Prices: Teacher's guide, $44. Student-version master, $226. PSL hardware, $520. (Contact publisher/supplier for complete price and ordering information.) Publisher/supplier: Team Labs. Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or from Team Labs. 1.82 Personal Science Laboratory Motion Experiments. 2nd ed. Personal Science Laboratory (PSL) series. Boulder, Colo.: Team Labs, 1995. Recommended grade level: 7-8+. This annotated teacher's guide on Motion Experiments, part of the Personal Science Laboratory series, is designed to help teachers run and teach 10 microcomputer-based investigations that explore motion. The investigations use special distance probes (they emit ultrasound pulses), interfaced with a personal computer, that allow students to enter measurements or data directly into the software—PSL Excelerator—linked to the experiment. Topics covered include velocity; acceleration; vectors; harmonic motion; the relationship among acceleration, force, and mass; and kinetic and potential energy. Among the investigations, students study distance-versus-time and velocity-versus-time graphs and write descriptions of movements that would produce those graphs. They experiment with rolling cylinders on ramps and measure their acceleration. They also explore (and graph) the up-and-down movements made by a mass on a spring, and calculate the acceleration of free fall of a rolling cart with a mass on it. Students complete the experiments by logging onto a computer, selecting an experiment, following a series of prompts or directions, entering data from activities or having the probes directly transmit the information, and completing follow-up activities. The computer program also organizes student-generated experimental data into charts, graphs, and tables. The guide contains teaching notes, limited background information on Newton's first

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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science law of motion, and an introduction to Personal Science Laboratory hardware and software. Prices: Teacher's guide, $44. Student-version master, $226. PSL hardware, $455. (Contact publisher/supplier for complete price and ordering information.) Publisher/supplier: Team Labs. Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or from Team Labs. 1.83 Personal Science Laboratory pH Experiments. 2nd ed. Personal Science Laboratory (PSL) series. Boulder, Colo.: Team Labs, 1996. Recommended grade level: 7-8+. This annotated teacher's guide on pH Experiments, part of the Personal Science Laboratory series, is designed to help teachers run and teach 10 microcomputer-based investigations that explore acids, bases, and pH. The investigations use special probes for pH and temperature, interfaced with a personal computer, that allow students to enter measurements or data directly into the software—PSL Excelerator—linked to the experiment. Topics covered include properties of acids and bases, titration as a method of analysis, acid-base indicators, antacids and neutralization, acid rain and the aquatic environment, volumetric analysis, and the molar heat of acid-base reactions. Among the investigations, students determine the pH range of several indicators and compare the neutralization rates of several commercial antacids. They also determine the relative buffering capacity of a simulated lake system to observe the effects of acid rain, and they determine the concentration of phosphoric acid in colas. Students complete the experiments by logging onto a computer, selecting an experiment, following a series of prompts or directions, entering data from activities or having the probes directly transmit the information, and completing follow-up activities. The computer program also organizes student-generated experimental data into charts, graphs, and tables. The guide contains teaching notes, limited background information on the meaning and measurement of pH, and an introduction to Personal Science Laboratory hardware and software. Prices: Teacher's guide, $44. Student-version master, $226. (Contact publisher/supplier for complete price and ordering information.) Publisher/supplier: Team Labs. Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or from Team Labs. 1.84 Personal Science Laboratory Temperature Experiments. 2nd ed. Personal Science Laboratory (PSL) series. Boulder, Colo.: Team Labs, 1995. Recommended grade level: 7-8+. This annotated teacher's guide on Temperature Experiments, part of the Personal Science Laboratory series, is designed to help teachers run and teach 8 microcomputer-based investigations that explore heat and temperature concepts. The investigations use special temperature probes, interfaced with a personal computer, that allow students to enter measurements or data directly into the software—PSL Excelerator—linked to the experiment. Topics covered include temperature versus heat content, insulation, how heating and cooling affects liquids and solids, heat of crystallization, the relationship between heat and motion, regulating body temperature, and temperature changes in soil and water. Among the investigations, students compare the cooling curves of water and paraffin. They mix various chemicals with water and discover which reactions are endothermic and which are exothermic. They measure the insulating effect of a glove on the skin, and they also measure the temperature change of air as it is compressed in a flask. Students complete the experiments by logging onto a computer, selecting an experiment, following a series of prompts or directions, entering data from activities or having the probes directly transmit the information, and completing follow-up activities. The computer program also organizes student-generated experimental data into charts, graphs, and tables. The guide contains teaching notes, background information on heat and temperature, and an introduction to Personal Science Laboratory hardware and software. Prices: Teacher's guide, $44. Student-version master, $226. (Contact publisher/supplier for complete price and ordering information.) Publisher/supplier: Team Labs. Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or from Team Labs. 1.85 Physical Science Activities for Elementary and Middle School. 2nd ed. Mark R. Malone. CESI Sourcebook V. Washington, D.C.: Council for Elementary Science International (CESI), 1994. Recommended grade level: 1-7. Physical Science Activities for Elementary and Middle School, a sourcebook of physical science activities, contains materials developed for teachers by teachers who have tested them with their own students. Topics include sound, light and color, electricity, forces and motion, simple machines, heat, matter, chemistry, and space. Activities include making a kazoo from a cardboard tube to investigate sound, making paper dolls dance from static electricity, predicting the velocity of a rolling ball by observing its motion along a rail, using shadows

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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science to tell time, and learning about bonding by making slime. The lesson plan for each of the 119 activities in this guide includes the following components: a short description of the concepts and/or skills developed by the activity; a list of materials and equipment needed; suggestions for planning, organizing, and implementing the activities; ideas for extending the lesson; and a list of references. Price: $19. Publisher/supplier: CESI. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers. 1.86 Plastics and Polymers. Robert C. Mebane and Thomas R. Rybolt. Everyday Material Science Experiments series. New York, N.Y.: Twenty-First Century Books, 1995. Recommended grade level: 7-8. Plastics and Polymers, 1 of 5 activity books in a series on everyday materials, contains 16 simple experiments that help students learn about the physical properties of polymers and plastics. Examples of these experiments include examining some of the differences between high-density and low-density polyethylene, and using a polymer present in flour (that is, starch) to thicken a liquid. Students also compare the flow of heat through 2 different forms of polystyrene, and determine how the bouncing height of a tennis ball is affected by temperature. Designed to be student-directed, many of these stand-alone activities could be done at home or as teacher demonstrations. The activities are narrative in form, and contain questions to help guide inquiry. No background material is supplied, but science concepts or brief explanations for the results observed in the experiments are provided in the text. Price: $15.98 (ISBN 0-8050-2843-9). Publisher/supplier: Von Holtzbrinck (VHPS). Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers. 1.87 Pressure. Ron Marson. Task Card Series 16. Canby, Oreg.: TOPS Learning Systems, 1992. Recommended grade level: 7-8. In the 32 easy-to-follow activities in Pressure—one of many units in the Task Card Series—students become familiar with some of the concepts and principles associated with pressure. For example, they estimate the average pressure, in newtons per square centimeter, that one exerts while standing on the floor. They use sandwich bags and rubber tubing to demonstrate how force increases as pressure is applied over larger areas, and they construct a model to understand how the diaphragm regulates air pressure in the chest cavity. Students also construct a U-tube manometer to investigate the relationship between pressure and fluid depth, and they design and build a vacuum pump. In other activities, they observe how changes in temperature and volume affect pressure, and they build an instrument that measures atmospheric pressure. The activities in Pressure require readily available materials (such as Ping-Pong balls, candles, and cereal boxes). Each activity has between 2 and 5 steps. Certain activities can be omitted or sequences changed to meet specific class needs. The unit contains reproducible "task cards" with directions for activities, a reproducible pressure scale, teaching notes with answers, and review questions. Price: $14.50 (ISBN 0-941008-86-X). Publisher/supplier: TOPS Learning Systems. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers. 1.88 Project SEED: Sourcebook of Demonstrations, Activities, and Experiments. 2nd ed. Alan Cromer and Christos Zahopoulos. Boston, Mass.: Northeastern University Center for Electromagnetics Research, 1993. Recommended grade level: 6-8+. Project SEED (which stands for Science Education through Experiments and Demonstrations) describes dozens of inexpensive physical science demonstrations, activities, and experiments. This sourcebook was originally written for workshop leaders and teachers participating in a Project SEED teacher-training program but will be of value to other teachers as well. Although it does not include complete lesson plans and might need some adaptations for the classroom, it is useful for teachers who wish to increase their use of concrete demonstrations and experiments in teaching science. Topics covered in Project SEED include measurement, density and buoyancy, pressure, work and simple machines, motion, earth as a planet, elements and compounds, sound, optics, temperature and heat, electricity, and magnetism. Teachers can learn, for example, how to use plastic soda bottles with holes to demonstrate Pascal's law, or how to set up an experiment that shows the decomposition of water, measure the sun's diameter by using a pinhole in a piece of paper, or make a battery with a copper wire, iron nail, and a lemon. Throughout, the emphasis is on ways of clarifying fundamental science concepts and principles rather than on pedagogy. The book makes regular use of the mathematics of ratios and proportions. Price: $16.48 (ISBN 1-56870-117-9). Publisher/supplier: RonJon. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers.

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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science 1.89 Projects That Explore Energy. Martin J. Gutnik and Natalie Browne-Gutnik. An Investigate! Book. Brookfield, Conn.: Millbrook Press, 1994. Recommended grade level: 7-8+. Projects That Explore Energy is a small activity book, written for students, containing directions for 11 simple science projects or experiments about what energy is and how it works. The book begins by introducing students to components of the scientific method: observation, classification, making an inference, prediction, formulating a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, and drawing a conclusion. Simple directions that follow the scientific method then allow each student to complete the projects. (The projects could also be useful for individual student research or for hands-on activities for a whole class.) The topics addressed in Projects That Explore Energy include the first law of thermodynamics, photosynthesis, food chains, fossil fuels, and alternative forms of energy. Among the projects, for example, students make and use a calorimeter, create and observe an aquatic food chain, observe the effect of motor oil on Elodea plants, build and use a solar cooker, and build and use a wind vane. Limited background information is provided. Price: $15.40 (ISBN 1-56294-334-0). Publisher/supplier: Millbrook Press. Materials: Available locally. 1.90 Pulleys. Enfield, Conn.: LEGO Dacta, 1993. Recommended grade level: 5-6. This booklet contains information about pulleys, simple pulley activities, and appropriate diagrams and illustrations. It is designed to go with the LEGO Dacta Pulley Set, which uses the popular LEGO construction blocks. Students first learn the definition of a pulley. Then they arrange pulleys to investigate the direction of rotation of the driver and the follower. They also find out how the turning ratio of one pulley to another is determined by the size of the pulleys. Students are challenged to design and build 2 devices: a conveyor-belt system that uses a belt drive to carry packages, and a boat mover that winches a boat onto the shore. Each activity in Pulleys states the main idea involved and provides illustrated instructions, additional information, and extension ideas. The guide lists the process and critical-thinking skills involved in the activities. Prices: Teacher's guide (ISBN 0-914831-84-4), $5.25. Classroom pack, $183.75. Individual set, $15.25. Publisher/supplier: LEGO Dacta. Materials: Available from LEGO Dacta. 1.91 Quick Energy and Beyond: Ideas for the 90's. Rev. ed. Compiled by Colorado Energy and Resource Educators. Estes Park, Colo.: Colorado Energy and Resource Educators, 1991. Recommended grade level: 5-8. Quick Energy and Beyond contains 41 interdisciplinary activities related to energy. Among other activities, students observe the formation of oxygen as an aquatic plant carries out photosynthesis in a Ziplock bag. They also study the way a rubber band absorbs and releases heat, construct simple electric circuits, and observe the cooling effect of an ice-salt mixture. In other activities, students look for energy words hidden in a puzzle, and use multiplying skills to solve problems based on electric rates schedules. The "starter" activities in the book are designed to stimulate students' thinking about energy, its sources, and its future. Other activities focus on issues of energy consumption and on various aspects of energy production. Many of the activities in Quick Energy and Beyond take fewer than 15 minutes to complete, require readily available materials, and require little teacher preparation (although there are some exceptions). Each activity includes brief information for the teacher, a reproducible page for students (with blank charts and directions), and extension ideas. Price: $10. Publisher/supplier: National Energy Foundation. Materials: Available locally. 1.92 Renewables Are Ready: A Guide to Teaching Renewable Energy in Junior and Senior High School Classrooms. Rev. ed. Union of Concerned Scientists. Cambridge, Mass.: Union of Concerned Scientists, 1994. Recommended grade level: 6-8+. Renewables Are Ready is a "pick-and-choose" guide of 12 multidisciplinary activities that emphasize group work and help teachers introduce students to various renewable energy technologies as well as to some of the political and economic conditions necessary for their implementation. Among the activities, for example, students discover where and how they get the energy they use. They also build a solar box cooker from simple materials, construct a wind machine for generating electricity, play a game that simulates some of the economic changes necessary to make renewables succeed as large-scale electricity sources, and participate in a mock public meeting to determine a site for a new energy facility in a community. The guide provides directions for the activities. It also offers a list of lesson ideas on topics such as

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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science researching photovoltaic efficiency and designing a model waterwheel. It contains suggestions for student-led education and action projects, such as organizing a renewable energy fair and writing articles, and presents a short resource bibliography. Most of the activities in the guide take between 1 and 5 periods of 45 minutes each. They include instructions for teachers and reproducible handouts for students. The ideas suggested for the additional lessons and projects are often in note form rather than filled out. Price: $5. Publisher/supplier: Union of Concerned Scientists. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers. 1.93 Science Experiments: Chemistry and Physics. Tammy K. Williams. Science Experiments Book 1. Lewistown, Mo.: Mark Twain Media, 1995. Recommended grade level: 6-8. Science Experiments: Chemistry and Physics is an activity book containing 36 simple experiments that introduce students to concepts in chemistry and physics. The activities also help students become familiar with models, carefully controlled experiments, and simulations. A section on laboratory skills is also included. In the section on chemistry, students create hydrogen gas from a chemical reaction, collect it in a balloon, and explode it; make an acid-base indicator from red cabbage; and separate salt from saltwater. In the physics section, students simulate the decay of radioactive particles, make convex and concave lenses from water drops, and investigate the properties of magnets. In the section on reviewing and strengthening laboratory skills, students classify objects by different appearances, conduct experiments to measure a water droplet's splatter size, and construct balloon rockets to investigate Newton's third law. The experiments in this volume involve both individual and group work. Reproducible directions, data charts, and graphs are supplied on tear sheets. No background material is provided. Price: $10.95. Publisher/supplier: Carson-Dellosa. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers. 1.94 Science Investigations for Intermediate Students. Rev. ed. Carl Pfeiffer. SciQuest series. Fort Atkinson, Wis.: Nasco, 1994. Recommended grade level: 6-8. Science Investigations for Intermediate Students, presented in 3-ring-binder format, provides directions for more than 100 physical science activities. Each activity is categorized by grade level. A wide range of concepts is covered: the properties of air and water, motion, simple machines, heat, light, sound, magnetism, electromagnetism, electricity, acids and bases, and earth and space science. Seven activities on food and nutrition are included. Among the activities, students investigate the periodic motion of a pendulum, explore the relationship between heat and temperature, experiment with magnets and iron filings to determine a magnetic line of force, build and use a sundial, and conduct simple chemical tests to identify the presence of carbohydrates in food. Each activity in the volume includes reproducible directions, data sheets, and evaluation forms. No background material for teachers is supplied. Prices: Teacher's guide, $25.00. Complete kit, $420.05. Set of 14 teacher videos (optional), $280.00. Publisher/supplier: Nasco. Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in kit. 1.95 Science Projects about Chemistry. Robert Gardner. Science Projects series. Springfield, N.J.: Enslow, 1994. Recommended grade level: 6-8. Science Projects about Chemistry, 1 of 6 in a series written for students, contains 34 simple experiments or activities related to chemical concepts, including matter, solutions, chemical composition, chemical reactions, and acids and bases. Among the activities, students compare the densities of air and carbon dioxide; they test a number of solids (such as starch, flour, and baking soda) to see if they are soluble in water; and they investigate the effect of temperature on the speed at which a seltzer tablet reacts with water. In other activities, they explore 4 acid-base indicators (cabbage juice, unsweetened grape juice, tumeric, and phenolphthalein); and they determine what fraction of air is oxygen. Designed to be student-directed, many of the stand-alone activities in Science Projects about Chemistry could be done at home or as teacher demonstrations, or used as the basis for science fair projects. The activities are narrative in form; the text contains questions to help guide inquiry. No background material is supplied, but brief explanations for the results observed in the experiments are provided in the text. Most activities include suggestions of further investigations for students to conduct on their own. Price: $18.95 (ISBN 0-89490-531-7). Publisher/supplier: Enslow. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers.

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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science 1.96 Science Projects about Electricity and Magnets. Robert Gardner. Science Projects series. Springfield, N.J.: Enslow, 1994. Recommended grade level: 6-8. Science Projects about Electricity and Magnets, 1 of 6 in a series, contains 23 simple experiments or activities that allow students to investigate electricity and magnetism. For example, students test a number of materials to see how they behave with respect to magnets. They also build series and parallel circuits, investigate the conductivity of different materials, make a lightbulb, and build a tiny electric motor. Designed to be student-directed, many of these stand-alone activities could be done at home or as teacher demonstrations, or used as the basis for science fair projects. The activities are narrative in form; the text contains questions to help guide inquiry. No background material is supplied, but brief explanations for the results observed in the experiments are provided in the text. Most activities include suggestions of further investigations for students to conduct on their own. Price: $18.95 (ISBN 0-89490-530-9). Publisher/supplier: Enslow. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers. 1.97 Science Projects about Light. Robert Gardner. Science Projects series. Springfield, N.J.: Enslow, 1994. Recommended grade level: 7-8. Science Projects about Light, 1 of 6 in a series written for students, contains 37 short experiments or activities related to light. The topics addressed in these activities, which emphasize the processes of science, include mirrors and lenses, light and color, absorbed heat and light, and the human eye and how it works. For example, students conduct experiments with curved mirrors, pinholes, and convex lenses. They also use a diffraction grating to find out which colors of light are absorbed and which are transmitted by a colored liquid. In other activities, they build a model solar collector and experiment with afterimages. Designed to be student-directed, many of these stand-alone activities could be done at home or as teacher demonstrations, or used as the basis for science fair projects. The activities are narrative in form; the text contains questions to help guide inquiry. No background material is supplied, but brief explanations for the results observed in the experiments are provided in the text. Most activities include suggestions of further investigations for students to conduct on their own. Price: $18.95 (ISBN 0-89490-529-5). Publisher/supplier: Enslow. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers. 1.98 Science Projects about Temperature and Heat. Robert Gardner and Eric Kemer. Science Projects series. Springfield, N.J.: Enslow, 1994. Recommended grade level: 7-8. Science Projects about Temperature and Heat, 1 of 6 in a series written for students, contains 24 simple experiments or activities related to temperature and heat. Among these activities, which emphasize the processes of science, students explore how changes in temperature affect the volume of solids and liquids. They also build and use an air expansion thermometer, compare the specific heats of different metals, determine the latent heat of vaporization of water, and investigate how heating by radiation depends on color. Designed to be student-directed, many of these stand-alone activities could be done at home or as teacher demonstrations, or used as the basis for science fair projects. The activities are narrative in form; the text contains questions to help guide inquiry. No background material is supplied, but brief explanations for the results observed in the experiments are provided in the text. Most activities include suggestions of further investigations for students to conduct on their own. Price: $18.95 (ISBN 0-89490-534-1). Publisher/supplier: Enslow. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers. 1.99 Simple and Motorized Machines Activity Pack. Enfield, Conn.: LEGO Dacta, 1997. Recommended grade level: 4-8. This literature pack is designed to teach students the principles of simple and motorized machines. The pack includes a teacher's guide with 31 sequential activities and student worksheet copymasters for each activity. The pack is designed to support LEGO Dacta simple and motorized machines sets. The activities are organized in 6 units: (1) "Structures and Forces," (2) "Levers," (3) "Wheels and Axles," (4) "Gears," (5) "Pulleys," and (6) "More Mechanisms." Students, for instance, can build models of a deck chair and a drawbridge and use them to investigate rigidity, flexibility, and linkages; construct a model of a wheeled vehicle and use it to explore friction, flywheels, and energy; design and build a mixing mechanism; and assemble a motorized model of a conveyor belt and use it to investigate how a motor can drive a system of pulleys. Each activity requires students to identify a problem related to a simple machine and its principles, and then design, implement, and evaluate a solution. The activities are intended to be used by students

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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science working in pairs, and take approximately 45 minutes each. Some activities require the use of a 9-volt LEGO motor. The teacher's guide provides background information, notes on the student worksheets, sample answers to worksheet questions, and extension ideas. Prices: Activity pack, $37.50. Motorized simple machines resource pack, $462.50. (Contact the publisher/supplier for complete price and ordering information.) Publisher/supplier: LEGO Dacta. Materials: Available in resource pack. 1.100 The Sky's the Limit! with Math and Science. Rev. ed. Stan Adair, Bill Barker, Dennis Ivans, and others. Activities Integrating Mathematics and Science (AIMS) series. Fresno, Calif.: AIMS Education Foundation, 1994. Recommended grade level: 6-8. The Sky's the Limit! with Math and Science offers 23 classroom activities on the science of aerodynamics. Among the activities, students make and use a clinometer to find the heights of various objects. They also construct various symmetric shapes and explore their flight properties, investigate the behavior of a paper rotor, construct various parachutes and calculate their rates of descent, use toy water rockets to explore the effects of variables on thrust, and discover how the design of a paper airplane affects how long it will stay in the air. In other activities, students manipulate design features of paper airplanes so the airplanes can perform certain stunts, and they explore the flight characteristics of 3 simple paper kites. Each activity includes procedures, discussion questions, extensions, and reproducible student record sheets or handouts. Connections to standards of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) and to Project 2061 Benchmarks are also listed. Price: Teacher's guide (ISBN 1-881431-44-4), $16.95. Publisher/supplier: AIMS Education Foundation. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers. 1.101 Soap Films and Bubbles. Ann Wiebe. Activities Integrating Mathematics and Science (AIMS) series. Fresno, Calif.: AIMS Education Foundation, 1990. Recommended grade level: 4-8. Students learn about molecules, surface tension, light waves, air pressure, and patterns by experimenting with soap film in Soap Films and Bubbles. In a series of introductory activities, students first explore the effects of wet and dry surfaces on bubbles. They discover that all free-floating bubbles are spherical in shape, and they explore various combinations of bubbles and the structures and patterns they form. Students construct models of water and soap molecules as they investigate surface tension and the chemistry of soap film. In advanced activities, students take a quantitative look at geometric shapes; they discover the mathematical relationship between the size of 2 equal rings and the distance soap film will stretch between them (catenary curves). They experiment to determine the minimum distances between given numbers of points (Steiner's problem). They find a formula relating the parts of polyhedrons. Soap Films and Bubbles provides reproducible student worksheets, including data charts, tables, and graphs. A complete lesson plan is included for each of the 21 activities. Price: Teacher's guide (ISBN 1-881431-25-8), $16.95. Publisher/supplier: AIMS Education Foundation. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers. 1.102 Solutions. Ron Marson. Task Card Series 12. Canby, Oreg.: TOPS Learning Systems, 1990. Recommended grade level: 7-8+. The 28 easy-to-follow activities in Solutions—which is one of many units in the Task Card Series—constitute a mini-overview of the chemistry of solutions, including the subjects of solvents, solutes, dissolving, filtering, and purifying processes. For example, students compare and contrast a coarse suspension, colloidal dispersion, and a true solution. They clear a mixture of soil and water by settling and filtration so that they can observe how soil particles tend to sort by size. They build a simple solar distillation apparatus that will purify a true solution. They also discover how temperature influences the rate of dissolving, analyze various sources of drinking water for the presence of dissolved minerals, read and interpret a solubility graph, and find out that the solubility of some solutes in water decreases with increasing temperature. The activities in Solutions require readily available materials (such as rice, sugar cubes, and plastic straws). Certain activities can be omitted or sequences changed to meet specific class needs. The unit contains reproducible "task cards" that include directions for each activity, teaching notes, and review questions. Price: $13 (ISBN 0-941008-82-7). Publisher/supplier: TOPS Learning Systems. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers. 1.103 Sound. Ron Marson. Task Card Series 18. Canby, Oreg.: TOPS Learning Systems, 1990. Recommended grade level: 7-8. The 20 short, easy-to-follow activities in Sound help students learn about the properties of sound, including frequency,

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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science pitch, and intensity. For example, students discover that sound is produced by vibrating objects; they measure frequency by counting cycles over measured units of time; and they discover that sound intensity increases with the amplitude of the vibrating source. In other activities, they observe how objects with the same natural frequency resonate as one is sounded in the presence of another; they investigate the mathematical relationship between vibrating wires that sound octaves apart; and they build a working model of a phonograph with cans, a piece of rolled paper, and a straight pin. The activities, which have between 2 and 5 steps each, require readily available materials (such as dinner forks, plastic soda bottles, and rubber bands). Some basic mathematical skills are needed to conduct the activities. Certain activities can be omitted or sequences changed to meet specific class needs. The unit contains reproducible "task cards" with directions for each activity, teaching notes with answers, and review questions. Price: $9.50 (ISBN 0-941008-6). Publisher/supplier: TOPS Learning Systems. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers. 1.104 Sparks and Shocks: Experiments from the Golden Age of Static Electricity. Developed by The Bakken Library and Museum (Minneapolis, Minn.). Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt, 1996. Recommended grade level: 6-8+. Sparks and Shocks, a well-organized, sequential activity book, contains 6 investigative experiments and 12 demonstrations on static electricity, adapted by the Bakken Library and Museum from the original studies of scientists who lived during the eighteenth century. Concepts covered include positive and negative charge, conductors, electrization by induction, potential, and capacitance. During the experiments, students discover what materials attract what things when rubbed; they learn that some substances transmit electricity whereas others do not; and they make and use a Leyden jar. In addition to clear and detailed instructions on how to conduct the demonstrations and experiments, the book offers historical background and anecdotes about famous scientists and their experiments. It also includes tricks on getting static-electricity experiments to work in unfavorable weather and provides student handouts, a chronology of the study of static electricity, and a resource guide. An equipment kit and video can be purchased but are not required, since the book contains a separate chapter of instructions for inexpensively building the equipment needed—for example, a thread electroscope, an electrostatic generator, Leyden jars, an electrophorous, and an electrometer. Sparks and Shocks is an expanded, revised version of The Bakken 18th Century Electricity Kit and Curriculum published in 1991. Prices: $14.95 (ISBN 0-7872-1644-5). Kit, $200.00. Publisher/supplier: Kendall/Hunt (book). Bakken Library and Museum (materials kit). Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in kit. 1.105 Structures. Bernie Zubrowski. Models in Physical Science (MIPS) series. White Plains, N.Y.: Cuisenaire, 1993. Recommended grade level: 5-8. Structures contains 5 model-building activities. These activities introduce students to the basic concepts of force, tension, compression, and equilibrium of forces underlying structures they see in their everyday environment—for example, houses, apartment buildings, bridges, and television towers. Using simple, inexpensive materials such as plastic drinking straws, students build a model house and test its strength. In another activity, they investigate how a single column of straws responds to the force of a cup of nails. They also build and test a model bridge, build and test a model tower, and assemble and use a testing apparatus to compare the strength of several different kinds of truss designs. Students must solve a variety of problems in order to keep their drinking-straw models rigid and strong. The overall concept that connects all the investigations is that of the truss as a basic structural system. In the course of these activities, students also have opportunities to practice proportional reasoning and graphical representation. The guide includes directions for the assembly and use of equipment and materials, suggestions for ways of introducing and leading the activities, ideas for follow-up discussions, and embedded assessments. Prices: Teacher's guide (ISBN 0-938587-35-8), $11.50. Complete kit, $225.00. Publisher/supplier: Cuisenaire/Dale Seymour Publications. Materials: Available locally, or in kit. 1.106 Students and Research: Practical Strategies for Science Classrooms and Competitions. 2nd ed. Julia H. Cothron, Ronald N. Giese, and Richard J. Rezba. Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt, 1993. Recommended grade level: 8+. Students and Research contains background information, activities, experiments, and strategies designed to help educators teach students the skills they need to successfully conduct, analyze, and report an experiment. (See also 5.74—the student version of

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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science this teacher's guide.) The book is a guide to teaching the major concepts of experimental design. It helps students acquire better understanding of the ideas of variables, control, hypothesis, and methods of gathering and analyzing data. Topics covered in Students and Research include techniques for helping students design experiments, generate ideas, construct tables and graphs, write simple and formal reports, use library resources, and apply descriptive and inferential statistics. Other topics include management strategies for classroom teaching and independent research, assessments, how to encourage parental and community support, methods for maximizing student success and attitudes about science competitions, and ideas for making effective oral presentations and displays. The volume includes blackline masters for the activities. Price: $25.14 (ISBN 0-7872-0170-7). Publisher/supplier: Kendall/Hunt. Materials: Available locally. 1.107 Sweet Success. Terry Hilton. Making Use of Science and Technology series. Heslington, York, England: Chemical Industry Education Centre, University of York, 1993. Recommended grade level: 8+. In Sweet Success, a unit with 3 activities, students investigate why large sugar crystals sometimes form in the fondant of Cadbury creme eggs. During the activities, students use a microscope to investigate the structure of fondants in products bought from local stores. They design an experiment to test the hypothesis that large crystals grow at the expense of small crystals in confectionery products. They also investigate the effects of temperature and agitation on crystal growth. In the role of chemical engineers, students devise specifications for an industrial sugar crystallizer that would produce sugar crystals all the same size. The equivalent of 2 or 3 lessons of 40 to 60 minutes each is needed if all 3 activities are used. The unit includes teacher directions, a list of required materials, instructions for preparing solutions, and student record sheets. Price: $10 (ISBN 1-85342-536-2). Publisher/supplier: Chemical Industry Education Centre. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers. 1.108 Targeting Students' Science Misconceptions: Physical Science Concepts Using the Conceptual Change Model. Joseph Stepans. Riverview, Fla.: Idea Factory, 1996. Recommended grade level: 6-8+. Targeting Students' Science Misconceptions, a teacher's guide containing directions for approximately 100 activities, is designed to help students identify and change their common, naive preconceptions and misconceptions about science topics. In doing these activities, students first state their ideas about a wide range of physical science concepts, and then they rethink or reconsider them after experimentation in the classroom. Topics addressed in this guide include matter, density and buoyancy, air pressure, liquids, forces, levers, motion, pendulums, electricity, magnetism, heat, waves, sound, light and color, transformation of energy, and geometry. In an activity about force, work, and machines, for example, students are asked to decide which is the easiest way to move a heavy box from the floor to the top of a table (lifting straight up, using a pulley, or using an inclined plane). They try out the various options and come up with an answer based on their observations. In addition to directions for activities, Targeting Students' Science Misconceptions includes background information for the teacher, a listing of representative student misconceptions related to each concept, a listing of sources of students' confusion and misconceptions, and teaching notes. Price: $24.95 (ISBN 1-885041-12-8). Publisher/supplier: Idea Factory. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers. 1.109 Thrill Ride! Russell G. Wright. Event-Based Science series. Menlo Park, Calif.: Innovative Learning Publications, 1997. Recommended grade level: 7-8+. In Thrill Ride, an event-based unit on force and motion, students design an exciting but safe amusement park ride that demonstrates Newton's laws of motion. First they watch a videotape and read actual newspaper stories about thrill rides and amusement parks. Then they are told that the major task of the module will be to design and build, in teams, a model of a thrill ride that demonstrates some of the basic laws of physics. Thrill Ride contains 5 science activities to provide students with the background information and skills they need for this task. Among the activities, for example, students use Newton's laws of motion to design a ramp that can transport fragile materials safely. They analyze the energy transformations experienced on a slide, and they investigate the forces exerted on a person riding on a revolving ride. They also study the forces that influence the motion of a pendulum, and apply Newton's second law of motion to falling objects. The module contains short reading sections called "discovery files," explanatory graphics, and profiles of

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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science professionals—a roller coaster engineer, an amusement park manager, and a physicist, for example—involved in developing and running amusement parks. Other information that students need to complete the task must be obtained from encyclopedias, textbooks, films, and other sources that they locate. Students can also engage in several interdisciplinary activities, such as determining the geographic factors that affect the success of theme parks, or writing a description of a trip to an amusement park. The wraparound teacher's guide provides brief overview information on the module's structure and activities. It includes suggestions for guiding specific student activities, a scoring rubric for a performance assessment at the end of the unit, and a list of resources. Prices: Teacher's guide with video, $18.00. Student book, $7.95. Classroom package, $115.00. Publisher/supplier: Addison Wesley/Longman. Materials: Available locally. 1.110 Tops and Yo-Yos. Bernie Zubrowski. Models in Physical Science (MIPS) series. White Plains, N.Y.: Cuisenaire, 1994. Recommended grade level: 6-8. Tops and Yo-Yos contains 8 activities that help students learn about rotational motion while collaboratively building and launching tops and yo-yos. The required materials are inexpensive, familiar objects such as plastic plates and drawer knobs, so students can easily experiment with them and alter their characteristics. Among the activities, students launch and time different tops to determine the characteristics that produce different spin times. They also design their own tops to see which kinds spin longest. They investigate the relationship between weight and spin time, and they assemble different kinds of yo-yos and compare their spin times. Several of the investigations in Tops and Yo-Yos require data collection and representation. The guide includes reproducible pages for students, directions for teachers on the assembly and use of equipment and materials, suggestions for introducing and leading the activities and for follow-up discussions, and embedded assessments. Many of the activities also include ideas for further investigations. Prices: Teacher's guide (ISBN 0-938587-37-4), $12.50. Kit, $225.00. Publisher/supplier: Cuisenaire/Dale Seymour Publications. Materials: Available locally, from commercial suppliers, or in kit. 1.111 Transportation. Robert Gardner. Yesterday's Science, Today's Technology Science Activities series. New York, N.Y.: Twenty-First Century Books, 1994. Recommended grade level: 6-8. In Transportation, 17 activities written for students help them investigate some of the science and technology associated with different types of transportation, such as cars, trains, boats, and airplanes. Topics addressed in the unit include friction, wheels, gears, ball bearings, air pressure, levitating magnets, Archimedes' principle, and aerodynamics. Among the activities, for example, students compare the forces needed to move a wagon on wheels or on rollers. They use a bicycle and a pair of spring scales to see how changing gears changes both speed and the force one has to exert on the pedals. They also compare the forces involved in floating a block of wood and a ball of clay in water, design paper airplanes, and use a water hose to demonstrate the action of a jet engine. Each activity includes a brief historical or science background section on the scientific discoveries of people such as James Watt, Henry Ford, and the Wright Brothers. Colorful illustrations, directions, and questions in the narrative then guide students through the activity. Although students can do most of the activities without supervision, several of them may require the assistance of adults. Some of the activities require materials such as a bike, wagon, or playground seesaw that may not be readily available. Many activities also need to be done outside. Price: $16.98 (ISBN 0-8050-2853-6). Publisher/supplier: Von Holtzbrinck (VHPS). Materials: Available locally. 1.112 Using the Learning Cycle to Teach Physical Science: A Hands-on Approach for the Middle Grades. Paul C. Beisenherz and Marylou Dantonio. Portsmouth, N.H.: Heinemann, 1996. Recommended grade level: 6-8. Using the Learning Cycle to Teach Physical Science discusses and gives examples of a science teaching strategy—the learning cycle—that emphasizes science as a process of inquiry rather than as a body of knowledge, and uses questions, activities, and experiences to guide students in constructing science concepts on their own. The first part of the book discusses the rationale for this approach and its use in teaching science. The second part then gives examples of how the cycle can be used to teach 6 basic physical science concepts: (1) Bernoulli's principle, (2) acids and bases, (3) properties of gases, (4) expansion and contraction of gases, (5) circuits, and (6) density. A series of between 9 and 17 short activities is given for each of the 6 basic concepts. For example, for the learning cycle sequence on circuits, students are asked to see how many ways they can make a bulb light using a battery and copper wire

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Resources for Teaching Middle School Science (exploration phase). Following a discussion of student observations, the concept of circuit is introduced (concept introduction). Then they engage in a number of activities that lead to an understanding of the term "series circuit" or "parallel circuit" (application phase). Examples of questioning techniques to encourage thinking and understanding are also given. The last part of the book offers an opportunity for teachers to develop their own learning cycle sequence. Randomly sequenced activities related to the concept of surface tension are presented. Using these activities and others they create, teachers can construct their own learning cycle sequence. Price: $26.50 (ISBN 0-435-08376-7). Publisher/supplier: Heinemann. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers. 1.113 The Wizard's Lab: Exhibit Guide. Reprinted with revisions. Cary Sneider and Alan Gould. Great Explorations in Math and Science (GEMS)/Exhibit Guides. Berkeley, Calif.: Lawrence Hall of Science, 1992. Recommended grade level: K-8. The Wizard's Lab provides 10 interactive exhibits that can be used in a variety of settings—for example, at a science center, at a classroom learning station, in a discovery room, or on family science night. The wide spectrum of stimulating activities in physical science offered in this guide includes the spinning platform, solar cells and light polarizers, resonant pendulums, magnets, lenses, the "human battery," the oscilloscope and sound, and the harmonograph. Most of the exhibits utilize common materials and equipment available from most hardware, electronics, or variety stores and lumberyards. The skills developed include observing, analyzing, and finding patterns. The Wizard's Lab provides background information recorded on cards with cartoon wizard figures that briefly explains the principles behind each exhibit. Detailed and illustrated instructions for constructing each exhibit are included in the teacher's guide. Price: $21 (ISBN 0-912511-71-0). Publisher/supplier: LHS GEMS. Materials: Available locally, or from commercial suppliers. 1.114 World of Science and Electronics Integrated Learning System. 2nd ed. Educational Technology Systems, Peter Michael Kellen, and Leslie Ivor Kacev. Teach Yourself Electronics Series. San Diego, Calif.: PLANETS Educational Technology Systems, 1993. Recommended grade level: 8+. This wire-bound instruction manual—World of Science and Electronics Integrated Learning System—comes with a small box of 50 electronic components and contains directions for 26 electronic building projects. Starting with very basic circuits, students can build electronic sirens, flashing LEDs (light-emitting diodes), an electronic time-delay circuit, a sound synthesizer, and other projects. Students also learn how transistors, capacitors, diodes, resistors, integrated circuits, and silicon-controlled rectifiers work. The projects, designed to be followed in sequence, each include step-by-step assembly directions, a pictorial guide, assembly diagrams, and electronic schematic diagrams. A teacher's guide, student workbook, and add-on modules are available. Prices: Teacher's guide with student workbook, $30.00. Software version of book, $99.95. Power kit (AC power), $99.95. Dura-kit (Battery-powered), $89.95. Publisher/supplier: PLANETS. Materials: Available in kit. 1.115 Young America Hands-on Activities. PACT 95. Glenview, Ill.: Scott Foresman, 1996. Recommended grade level: 5-8+. Young America Hands-on Activities is a teacher's resource guide that offers an 11-week series of interdisciplinary activities related to boats and sailing. (The activities were originally part of an educational program based on the America's Cup Race in 1995. Students were to complete the activities as the America's Cup trials unfolded.) The activities, which are categorized by grade level, help students learn the science involved in how a boat floats and stays upright, what makes a sailboat move, how a fast boat can be designed and built, and what navigational skills a sailor needs. The importance of teamwork in building and sailing a boat is also emphasized. Among the activities, for example, students make an anemometer and use it to measure wind speeds, locate the center of mass and the center of buoyancy of a wooden hull, determine the best rudder design for a model boat, learn how to build a miniature plug (the male mold of a boat's hull) from a lines plan (a drawing of the shape of a boat's hull), find out how to use a navigation chart, and learn how to organize effective cooperative teams. One activity per week is provided for each of 3 grade levels (grades K-4, 5-8, and 9-12). For each activity, directions, extensions, cross-curricular connections, and information on careers and people related to the world of boats and sailing are provided. Prices: $15.95 (ISBN 0-673-40240-1). Publisher/supplier: Scott Foresman/Addison-Wesley.