CHAPTER 4
EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCE

Earth and Space Science—Core Materials

4.1 Concepts and Challenges in Earth Science.

3rd ed., rev. Leonard Bernstein, Martin Schachter, Alan Winkler, and Stanley Wolfe. Concepts and Challenges in Life, Earth, and Physical Science series. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Globe Fearon, 1998.

Program Overview The series entitled Concepts and Challenges in Life, Earth, and Physical Science consists of 3 textbooks—one in life science, one in earth science, and one in physical science. Each yearlong course contains about 20 units. Teaching materials, ancillary student materials, and some optional components are available for each course.

Student Edition Recommended grade level: 7-8. Reading level: late 6. Concepts and Challenges in Earth Science offers a complete course in earth and space science. This textbook is divided into 18 units, each consisting of 6 to 12 lessons. The following topics are addressed: maps, minerals, rocks, weathering, soil, erosion, landforms, volcanoes, earthquakes, plate tectonics, fossils, oceanography, the atmosphere, weather, climate, air and water pollution, energy resources, astronomy, the solar system, the earth-moon system, stars, and galaxies. Basic science concepts and vocabulary are introduced in short paragraphs. A variety of activities or demonstrations require students to extend their learning, model phenomena, or make observations. For example, students look at hard-boiled eggs to model the earth's layers; classify igneous rocks using crystal size; use a container filled with pebbles, sand, soil, and water to demonstrate the settling of ocean sediments; and make a simple wind vane. In other activities, students are asked to design an experiment to find out, for example, if the skeletons of coral contain calcium carbonate, to show that air is made up of matter, and to demonstrate the law of gravity.

Suggestions for writing exercises and reports are provided. Brief reading features focus on careers in earth science, science connections to everyday life, people in science, technology and society, and looking back in science.

Teacher's Edition The teacher's edition provides unit-by-unit teaching tips and ideas—including suggestions for discussions, class activities, extensions, reinforcements, and bulletin board projects. Answers to in-text questions are provided.

Supplementary Laboratory Manual The laboratory manual contains 48 activities and 8 skills worksheets. Lab activities are directly correlated with lessons in the student textbook. Examples include learning how the difference in arrival time between P and S waves can be used to locate



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