English language and science content. A closing chapter presents a model that teachers can use to develop and conduct their own lessons to stress science comprehension and English-language learning.

7.26 Paul S. George, Chris Stevenson, Julia Thomason, and James Beane. The Middle School—and Beyond.

Alexandria, Va.: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1992. 172 pp.

Price: $17.95 (ISBN 0-87120-190-9)

This book describes how middle schools across the nation are focusing on students' needs, accommodating diversity, integrating the curriculum, emphasizing a close-knit school community, and creating the kinds of learning experiences that promote excellence. The Middle School—and Beyond is organized in 7 chapters that address the middle school concept (grades 6-8), the traits of positive student-teacher relationships, the organization of effective middle schools, new visions of the middle school curriculum, leadership in middle schools, and the impact of the middle school movement on some elementary and high schools.

7.27 National Research Council. National Science Education Standards.

Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1996. 272 pp.

Price: $19.95 (ISBN 0-309-05326-9)

In an effort to guide the science education system in the United States, this document offers a vision of what it means to be scientifically literate and describes what students nationwide should know and be able to do in science as a result of their learning experiences. The volume is the result of a 3-year effort that involved thousands of teachers, parents, scientists, and others. The standards address what students should be able to do and understand at different grade levels, exemplary practices of science teaching and teacher training, criteria for assessing and analyzing learning, the nature and design of the school and district science program, and the support and resources needed to provide all students with the opportunity to learn science. The standards suggested in this document reflect the principles that learning science should be an inquiry-based process, that science in schools should reflect the intellectual trends of contemporary science, and that all Americans have a role in science education reform.

7.28 Richard F. Brinckerhoff. One-Minute Readings: Issues in Science, Technology, and Society.

Menlo Park, Calif.: Addison-Wesley, 1992. 142 pp.

Prices: Student book, $10.95 (ISBN 0-201-23157-3); Teacher's guide, $7.95 (ISBN 0-201-23159-X)

One-Minute Readings offers 80 succinct readings—1- or 2-page issue descriptions, interwoven with questions—designed to provoke student thinking about real-world problems related to science, technology, and society. The readings touch upon social and ethical aspects of many topics in chemistry, physics, biology, and social science. They include current questions or dilemmas in medicine, environmental science, bioethics, space science, and computers. Readers, for example, are asked to consider whether parents should be able to learn—or choose—the sex of their unborn child (and what rights such a fetus may have); whether there is a moral difference between an athlete's taking energy-giving glucose pills and taking an anabolic steroid; and whether there is a distinction between an individual who flushes polluting material down a drain and an oil company whose tanker causes an oil spill. Teachers can use the readings for several purposes: to add debate about science topics to any course, to promote the integration of science content and social issues in the classroom, to expose students to the applications of science, and to offer problem-solving practice for decision making as an adult.

7.29 David L. Haury and Peter Rillero. Perspectives of Hands-On Science Teaching.

Columbus, Ohio: ERIC Clearinghouse for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education, 1994. 156 pp.

Price: $14.50 (ERIC Accession No. SE 054 205)

In question-and-answer format, this book addresses frequently asked questions about hands-on approaches to science teaching and learning. The volume was intended to be a ready reference for making the case for an activity-based, inquiry-oriented, hands-on approach to teaching and learning in the science classroom. To present a range of perspectives, the book offers the views of three groups of individuals: teachers, curriculum developers, and science education scholars. Topics discussed include these: what hands-on learning is; how a hands-on science approach fits into a textbook-centered science program; how practicing teachers can gain experience with hands-on methods; how the use of hands-on materials should, or should not, vary with students' ages; where to find resources or materials to develop hands-on activities; and how hands-on



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